# Fight Finance

#### CoursesTagsRandomAllRecentScores

Jan asks you for a loan. He wants $100 now and offers to pay you back$120 in 1 year. You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Ignore credit risk. Remember:

$$V_0 = \frac{V_t}{(1+r_\text{eff})^t}$$

Will you or Jan's deal?

Katya offers to pay you $10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years (t=1,2,3,4,5) if you pay her$50 now (t=0). You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Ignore credit risk.

Will you or Katya's deal?

The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: $$P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g }$$

What is $g$? The value $g$ is the long term expected:

For a price of $13, Carla will sell you a share which will pay a dividend of$1 in one year and every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

Would you like to Carla's share or politely ?

For a price of $6, Carlos will sell you a share which will pay a dividend of$1 in one year and every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

Would you like to his share or politely ?

For a price of $102, Andrea will sell you a share which just paid a dividend of$10 yesterday, and is expected to pay dividends every year forever, growing at a rate of 5% pa.

So the next dividend will be $10(1+0.05)^1=10.50$ in one year from now, and the year after it will be $10(1+0.05)^2=11.025$ and so on.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

Would you like to the share or politely ?

For a price of $1040, Camille will sell you a share which just paid a dividend of$100, and is expected to pay dividends every year forever, growing at a rate of 5% pa.

So the next dividend will be $100(1+0.05)^1=105.00$, and the year after it will be $100(1+0.05)^2=110.25$ and so on.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

Would you like to the share or politely ?

For a price of $10.20 each, Renee will sell you 100 shares. Each share is expected to pay dividends in perpetuity, growing at a rate of 5% pa. The next dividend is one year away (t=1) and is expected to be$1 per share.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

Would you like to the shares or politely ?

For a price of $129, Joanne will sell you a share which is expected to pay a$30 dividend in one year, and a $10 dividend every year after that forever. So the stock's dividends will be$30 at t=1, $10 at t=2,$10 at t=3, and $10 forever onwards. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Would you like to the share or politely ? For a price of$95, Sherylanne will sell you a share which is expected to pay its first dividend of $10 in 7 years (t=7), and will continue to pay the same$10 dividend every year after that forever.

The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

Would you like to the share or politely ?

For a price of $100, Carol will sell you a 5 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 16% pa. The face value of the bond is$100. Other bonds with similar risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 12% pa.

Would you like to her bond or politely ?

For a price of $100, Rad will sell you a 5 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 16% pa. The face value of the bond is$100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 6% pa.

Would you like to the bond or politely ?

For a price of $100, Andrea will sell you a 2 year bond paying annual coupons of 10% pa. The face value of the bond is$100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 6% pa.

Would you like to the bond or politely ?

For a price of $95, Nicole will sell you a 10 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 8% pa. The face value of the bond is$100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 8% pa.

Would you like to the bond or politely ?

A credit card offers an interest rate of 18% pa, compounding monthly.

Find the effective monthly rate, effective annual rate and the effective daily rate. Assume that there are 365 days in a year.

All answers are given in the same order:

$$r_\text{eff monthly} , r_\text{eff yearly} , r_\text{eff daily}$$

A three year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 10% and a fixed coupon rate of 5%, paid semi-annually. What is its price? The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation. $$p_{0} = \frac{c_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}}$$ What is the discount rate '$r_\text{eff}$' in this equation? You want to buy an apartment priced at$300,000. You have saved a deposit of $30,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the$270,000 as a fully amortising loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 12% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments? Remember that mortgage loan payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

A fixed coupon bond was bought for $90 and paid its annual coupon of$3 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was $92 (at t=1 year). What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates. The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total},r_\text{capital},r_\text{income}$. Bonds X and Y are issued by the same US company. Both bonds yield 10% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond X and Y's coupon rates are 8 and 12% pa respectively. Which of the following statements is true?

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

$$P_{0} = \frac{C_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}}$$

What would you call the expression $C_1/P_0$?

A European company just issued two bonds, a

• 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a
• 3 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the company's forward rate over the third year (from t=2 to t=3)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

A European bond paying annual coupons of 6% offers a yield of 10% pa.

Convert the yield into an effective monthly rate, an effective annual rate and an effective daily rate. Assume that there are 365 days in a year.

All answers are given in the same order:

$$r_\text{eff, monthly} , r_\text{eff, yearly} , r_\text{eff, daily}$$

A 180-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now? You want to buy an apartment priced at$300,000. You have saved a deposit of $30,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the$270,000 as an interest only loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 12% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments? Remember that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

A share was bought for $20 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of$3 one year later (at t=1). Just after the dividend was paid, the share price was $16 (at t=1). What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates. The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total},r_\text{capital},r_\text{income}$. You really want to go on a back packing trip to Europe when you finish university. Currently you have$1,500 in the bank. Bank interest rates are 8% pa, given as an APR compounding per month. If the holiday will cost $2,000, how long will it take for your bank account to reach that amount? Bonds A and B are issued by the same company. They have the same face value, maturity, seniority and coupon payment frequency. The only difference is that bond A has a 5% coupon rate, while bond B has a 10% coupon rate. The yield curve is flat, which means that yields are expected to stay the same. Which bond would have the higher current price? A wholesale glass importer offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 30 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay within 5 days they will get a 1% discount. What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay on either the 5th day or the 30th day. All rates given below are effective annual rates. A European company just issued two bonds, a • 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a • 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa. What is the company's forward rate over the second year (from t=1 to t=2)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. A two year Government bond has a face value of$100, a yield of 0.5% and a fixed coupon rate of 0.5%, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0.00 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 ... After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa, so; • the dividend at t=5 will be$1.15(1+0.05),
• the dividend at t=6 will be $1.15(1+0.05)^2, and so on. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What will be the price of the stock in three and a half years (t = 3.5)? You just signed up for a 30 year interest-only mortgage with monthly payments of$3,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 15 years, just after the 180th payment at that time, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change. Remember that the mortgage is interest-only and that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

A project to build a toll road will take 3 years to complete, costing three payments of $50 million, paid at the start of each year (at times 0, 1, and 2). After completion, the toll road will yield a constant$10 million at the end of each year forever with no costs. So the first payment will be at t=4.

The required return of the project is 10% pa given as an effective nominal rate. All cash flows are nominal.

What is the payback period?

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 0 2 121 A wholesale horticulture nursery offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 60 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay immediately they will get a 3% discount. What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay either immediately or on the 60th day. All rates given below are effective annual rates. In Australia, nominal yields on semi-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently 2.83% pa. The inflation rate is currently 2.2% pa, given as an APR compounding per quarter. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years. What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months? A stock pays semi-annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of$10. The growth rate in the dividend is 1% every 6 months, given as an effective 6 month rate. You estimate that the stock's required return is 21% pa, as an effective annual rate.

Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?

A three year project's NPV is negative. The cash flows of the project include a negative cash flow at the very start and positive cash flows over its short life. The required return of the project is 10% pa. Select the most correct statement.

A two year Government bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 2.5% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 0.5% pa, paid semi-annually. What is its price? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0.00 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 ...

After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at -5% pa. Note that this is a negative growth rate, so the dividend will actually shrink. So,

• the dividend at t=5 will be $1(1-0.05) = 0.95$,
• the dividend at t=6 will be $1(1-0.05)^2 = 0.9025$, and so on.

The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0.00 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 ... After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at -5% pa. Note that this is a negative growth rate, so the dividend will actually shrink. So, • the dividend at t=5 will be $1(1-0.05) = 0.95$, • the dividend at t=6 will be $1(1-0.05)^2 = 0.9025$, and so on. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What will be the price of the stock in four and a half years (t = 4.5)? The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 11 2 121

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the payback period of the project in years?

Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are received smoothly over the year. So the $121 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2.  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 11 2 121

A wholesale building supplies business offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 60 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay within 7 days they will get a 2% discount.

What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered?

Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay on either the 7th day or the 60th day. All rates given below are effective annual rates.

In Germany, nominal yields on semi-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently 0.04% pa.

The inflation rate is currently 1.4% pa, given as an APR compounding per quarter. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years.

What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months?

Government bonds currently have a return of 5% pa. A stock has an expected return of 6% pa and the market return is 7% pa. What is the beta of the stock?

Here are the Net Income (NI) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) equations:

$$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)$$

$$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp$$

What is the formula for calculating annual interest expense (IntExp) which is used in the equations above?

Select one of the following answers. Note that D is the value of debt which is constant through time, and $r_D$ is the cost of debt.

A manufacturing company is considering a new project in the more risky services industry. The cash flows from assets (CFFA) are estimated for the new project, with interest expense excluded from the calculations. To get the levered value of the project, what should these unlevered cash flows be discounted by?

Assume that the manufacturing firm has a target debt-to-assets ratio that it sticks to.

Due to floods overseas, there is a cut in the supply of the mineral iron ore and its price increases dramatically. An Australian iron ore mining company therefore expects a large but temporary increase in its profit and cash flows. The mining company does not have any positive NPV projects to begin, so what should it do? Select the most correct answer.

 Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Correlation Beta Dollars invested A 0.2 0.4 0.12 0.5 40 B 0.3 0.8 1.5 80

What is the beta of the above portfolio?

 Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Covariance $(\sigma_{A,B})$ Beta Dollars invested A 0.2 0.4 0.12 0.5 40 B 0.3 0.8 1.5 80

What is the standard deviation (not variance) of the above portfolio? Note that the stocks' covariance is given, not correlation.

A firm's weighted average cost of capital before tax ($r_\text{WACC before tax}$) would increase due to:

Government bonds currently have a return of 5%. A stock has a beta of 2 and the market return is 7%. What is the expected return of the stock?

A company issues a large amount of bonds to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. The net present value (NPV) of the new projects is positive but small. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is NOT correct?

Which statement is the most correct?

Diversification is achieved by investing in a large amount of stocks. What type of risk is reduced by diversification?

Stock A and B's returns have a correlation of 0.3. Which statement is NOT correct?

 Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Correlation $(\rho_{A,B})$ Dollars invested A 0.1 0.4 0.5 60 B 0.2 0.6 140

What is the standard deviation (not variance) of the above portfolio?

A firm is considering a new project of similar risk to the current risk of the firm. This project will expand its existing business. The cash flows of the project have been calculated assuming that there is no interest expense. In other words, the cash flows assume that the project is all-equity financed.

In fact the firm has a target debt-to-equity ratio of 1, so the project will be financed with 50% debt and 50% equity. To find the levered value of the firm's assets, what discount rate should be applied to the project's unlevered cash flows? Assume a classical tax system.

Treasury bonds currently have a return of 5% pa. A stock has a beta of 0.5 and the market return is 10% pa. What is the expected return of the stock?

You want to buy an apartment worth $500,000. You have saved a deposit of$50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $450,000 as a fully amortising mortgage loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? A retail furniture company buys furniture wholesale and distributes it through its retail stores. The owner believes that she has some good ideas for making stylish new furniture. She is considering a project to buy a factory and employ workers to manufacture the new furniture she's designed. Furniture manufacturing has more systematic risk than furniture retailing. Her furniture retailing firm's after-tax WACC is 20%. Furniture manufacturing firms have an after-tax WACC of 30%. Both firms are optimally geared. Assume a classical tax system. Which method(s) will give the correct valuation of the new furniture-making project? Select the most correct answer. According to the theory of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), total variance can be broken into two components, systematic variance and idiosyncratic variance. Which of the following events would be considered the most diversifiable according to the theory of the CAPM? A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of equity to raise money for new projects of similar systematic risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct? A company selling charting and technical analysis software claims that independent academic studies have shown that its software makes significantly positive abnormal returns. Assuming the claim is true, which statement(s) are correct? (I) Weak form market efficiency is broken. (II) Semi-strong form market efficiency is broken. (III) Strong form market efficiency is broken. (IV) The asset pricing model used to measure the abnormal returns (such as the CAPM) had mis-specification error so the returns may not be abnormal but rather fair for the level of risk. Select the most correct response: Question 99 capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged. Assume that: • The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates. • The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium. • There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs. • Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered. According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct? A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields. According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct? The equations for Net Income (NI, also known as Earnings or Net Profit After Tax) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA, also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm) per year are: $$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp$$ For a firm with debt, what is the formula for the present value of interest tax shields if the tax shields occur in perpetuity? You may assume: • the value of debt (D) is constant through time, • The cost of debt and the yield on debt are equal and given by $r_D$. • the appropriate rate to discount interest tax shields is $r_D$. • $\text{IntExp}=D.r_D$ An Australian company just issued two bonds: • A 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and • A 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa. What is the forward rate on the company's debt from years 1 to 2? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. Assume that there exists a perfect world with no transaction costs, no asymmetric information, no taxes, no agency costs, equal borrowing rates for corporations and individual investors, the ability to short the risk free asset, semi-strong form efficient markets, the CAPM holds, investors are rational and risk-averse and there are no other market frictions. For a firm operating in this perfect world, which statement(s) are correct? (i) When a firm changes its capital structure and/or payout policy, share holders' wealth is unaffected. (ii) When the idiosyncratic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns. (iii) When the systematic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns. Select the most correct response: A person is thinking about borrowing$100 from the bank at 7% pa and investing it in shares with an expected return of 10% pa. One year later the person will sell the shares and pay back the loan in full. Both the loan and the shares are fairly priced.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of this one year investment? Note that you are asked to find the present value ($V_0$), not the value in one year ($V_1$).

A fairly priced stock has an expected return of 15% pa. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. What is the beta of the stock?

You want to buy an apartment worth $300,000. You have saved a deposit of$60,000.

The bank has agreed to lend you $240,000 as an interest only mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? An Australian company just issued two bonds: • A 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa, and • A 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa. What is the forward rate on the company's debt from years 1 to 2? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. Question 109 credit rating, credit risk Bonds with lower (worse) credit ratings tend to have: The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return. Investment projects that plot above the SML would have: According to the theory of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), total risk can be broken into two components, systematic risk and idiosyncratic risk. Which of the following events would be considered a systematic, undiversifiable event according to the theory of the CAPM? A firm's WACC before tax would decrease due to: A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of debt to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct? Your friend claims that by reading 'The Economist' magazine's economic news articles, she can identify shares that will have positive abnormal expected returns over the next 2 years. Assuming that her claim is true, which statement(s) are correct? (i) Weak form market efficiency is broken. (ii) Semi-strong form market efficiency is broken. (iii) Strong form market efficiency is broken. (iv) The asset pricing model used to measure the abnormal returns (such as the CAPM) is either wrong (mis-specification error) or is measured using the wrong inputs (data errors) so the returns may not be abnormal but rather fair for the level of risk. Select the most correct response: A newly floated farming company is financed with senior bonds, junior bonds, cumulative non-voting preferred stock and common stock. The new company has no retained profits and due to floods it was unable to record any revenues this year, leading to a loss. The firm is not bankrupt yet since it still has substantial contributed equity (same as paid-up capital). On which securities must it pay interest or dividend payments in this terrible financial year? Question 121 capital structure, leverage, costs of financial distress, interest tax shield Fill in the missing words in the following sentence: All things remaining equal, as a firm's amount of debt funding falls, benefits of interest tax shields __________ and the costs of financial distress __________. A zero coupon bond that matures in 6 months has a face value of$1,000.

The firm that issued this bond is trying to forecast its income statement for the year. It needs to calculate the interest expense of the bond this year.

The bond is highly illiquid and hasn't traded on the market. But the finance department have assessed the bond's fair value to be $950 and this is its book value right now at the start of the year. Assume that: • the firm uses the 'effective interest method' to calculate interest expense. • the market value of the bond is the same as the book value. • the firm is only interested in this bond's interest expense. Do not include the interest expense for a new bond issued to refinance the current one, as would normally happen. What will be the interest expense of the bond this year for the purpose of forecasting the income statement? An 'interest payment' is the same thing as a 'coupon payment'. or ? An 'interest rate' is the same thing as a 'coupon rate'. or ? An 'interest rate' is the same thing as a 'yield'. or ? A 90-day Bank Accepted Bill (BAB) has a face value of$1,000,000. The simple interest rate is 10% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

Calculate the effective annual rates of the following three APR's:

• A credit card offering an interest rate of 18% pa, compounding monthly.
• A bond offering a yield of 6% pa, compounding semi-annually.
• An annual dividend-paying stock offering a return of 10% pa compounding annually.

All answers are given in the same order:

$r_\text{credit card, eff yrly}$, $r_\text{bond, eff yrly}$, $r_\text{stock, eff yrly}$

A bond maturing in 10 years has a coupon rate of 4% pa, paid semi-annually. The bond's yield is currently 6% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. What is its price? You want to buy an apartment worth$400,000. You have saved a deposit of $80,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the$320,000 as a fully amortising mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments?

A stock was bought for $8 and paid a dividend of$0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the stock price was $7 (at t=1 year). What were the total, capital and dividend returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total}$, $r_\text{capital}$, $r_\text{dividend}$. Bonds A and B are issued by the same Australian company. Both bonds yield 7% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond A pays coupons of 10% pa and bond B pays coupons of 5% pa. Which of the following statements is true about the bonds' prices?

A project has an internal rate of return (IRR) which is greater than its required return. Select the most correct statement.

A wholesale shop offers credit to its customers. The customers are given 21 days to pay for their goods. But if they pay straight away (now) they get a 1% discount.

What is the effective interest rate given to customers who pay in 21 days? All rates given below are effective annual rates. Assume 365 days in a year.

When using the dividend discount model to price a stock:

$$p_{0} = \frac{d_1}{r - g}$$

The growth rate of dividends (g):

An Australian company just issued two bonds:

• A 6-month zero coupon bond at a yield of 6% pa, and
• A 12 month zero coupon bond at a yield of 7% pa.

What is the company's forward rate from 6 to 12 months? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

A 30-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now? A three year corporate bond yields 12% pa with a coupon rate of 10% pa, paid semi-annually. Find the effective six month yield, effective annual yield and the effective daily yield. Assume that each month has 30 days and that there are 360 days in a year. All answers are given in the same order: $r_\text{eff semi-annual}$, $r_\text{eff yearly}$, $r_\text{eff daily}$. You want to buy an apartment priced at$500,000. You have saved a deposit of $50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the$450,000 as a fully amortising loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments?

A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of $10. The dividend is expected to grow at 2% every 6 months forever. This 2% growth rate is an effective 6 month rate. Therefore the next dividend will be$10.20 in six months. The required return of the stock is 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the price of the share now?

A share was bought for $30 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of$6 one year later (at t=1).

Just after the dividend was paid, the share price fell to $27 (at t=1). What were the total, capital and income returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total}$ , $r_\text{capital}$ , $r_\text{dividend}$. The following cash flows are expected: • 10 yearly payments of$80, with the first payment in 3 years from now (first payment at t=3).
• 1 payment of $600 in 5 years and 6 months (t=5.5) from now. What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate? Bonds X and Y are issued by different companies, but they both pay a semi-annual coupon of 10% pa and they have the same face value ($100) and maturity (3 years).

The only difference is that bond X and Y's yields are 8 and 12% pa respectively. Which of the following statements is true?

A wholesale vitamin supplements store offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 30 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay within 5 days they will get a 1% discount.

What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay on either the 5th day or the 30th day. All of the below answer choices are given as effective annual interest rates.

A 90-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 6% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price? A three year bond has a fixed coupon rate of 12% pa, paid semi-annually. The bond's yield is currently 6% pa. The face value is$100. What is its price?

You want to buy an apartment priced at $500,000. You have saved a deposit of$50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $450,000 as an interest only loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of$10. The dividend is expected to grow at 2% every 6 months forever. This 2% growth rate is an effective 6 month rate. Therefore the next dividend will be $10.20 in six months. The required return of the stock 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. What is the price of the share now? Bonds X and Y are issued by different companies, but they both pay a semi-annual coupon of 10% pa and they have the same face value ($100), maturity (3 years) and yield (10%) as each other.

Which of the following statements is true?

A wholesale store offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 60 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay immediately they will get a 1.5% discount.

What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay either immediately or the 60th day. All of the below answer choices are given as effective annual interest rates.

For certain shares, the forward-looking Price-Earnings Ratio ($P_0/EPS_1$) is equal to the inverse of the share's total expected return ($1/r_\text{total}$).

For what shares is this true?

Assume:

• The general accounting definition of 'payout ratio' which is dividends per share (DPS) divided by earnings per share (EPS).
• All cash flows, earnings and rates are real.

A project's net present value (NPV) is negative. Select the most correct statement.

A four year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 6% and a fixed coupon rate of 12%, paid semi-annually. What is its price? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 8 8 8 20 8 ...

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks:

$$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

Which of the following statements about the Dividend Discount Model is NOT correct?

You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage loan with monthly payments of $2,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change. How much did you borrow? After 5 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change. A project has the following cash flows:  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 200 2 250

What is the Profitability Index (PI) of the project? Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. The required return is 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

A project has the following cash flows. Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the $250 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2:  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 200 2 250

What is the payback period of the project in years?

A furniture distributor offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 25 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay immediately they will get a 1% discount.

What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay either immediately or on the 25th day. All rates given below are effective annual rates.

Which one of the following bonds is trading at a discount?

A firm wishes to raise $20 million now. They will issue 8% pa semi-annual coupon bonds that will mature in 5 years and have a face value of$100 each. Bond yields are 6% pa, given as an APR compounding every 6 months, and the yield curve is flat.

How many bonds should the firm issue?

A stock pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $5. The growth rate in the dividend is 1% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 8% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price? A project's NPV is positive. Select the most correct statement: A five year bond has a face value of$100, a yield of 12% and a fixed coupon rate of 6%, paid semi-annually.

What is the bond's price?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 2 2 2 10 3 ... After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What is the current price of the stock? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 2 2 2 10 3 ...

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in 5 years (t = 5), just after the dividend at that time has been paid?

The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks:

$$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

All rates are effective annual rates and the cash flows ($d_1$) are received every year. Note that the r and g terms in the above DDM could also be labelled as below: $$r = r_{\text{total, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ $$g = r_{\text{capital, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage with monthly payments of $1,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change. How much did you borrow? After 20 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change. Find Trademark Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.  Trademark Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013$m Sales 100 COGS 25 Operating expense 5 Depreciation 20 Interest expense 20 Income before tax 30 Tax at 30% 9 Net income 21
 Trademark Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012 $m$m Assets Current assets 120 80 PPE Cost 150 140 Accumul. depr. 60 40 Carrying amount 90 100 Total assets 210 180 Liabilities Current liabilities 75 65 Non-current liabilities 75 55 Owners' equity Retained earnings 10 10 Contributed equity 50 50 Total L and OE 210 180

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m). A project has the following cash flows:  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 0 2 500

The required return on the project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of this project? The following choices are effective annual rates. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

A project has the following cash flows:

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 0 2 500 What is the payback period of the project in years? Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the$500 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2.

A project's Profitability Index (PI) is less than 1. Select the most correct statement:

Which one of the following bonds is trading at par?

A firm wishes to raise $8 million now. They will issue 7% pa semi-annual coupon bonds that will mature in 10 years and have a face value of$100 each. Bond yields are 10% pa, given as an APR compounding every 6 months, and the yield curve is flat.

How many bonds should the firm issue?

A share pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $2. The growth rate in the dividend is 3% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 8% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what is the share price? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0 6 12 18 20 ...

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0 6 12 18 20 ... After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What will be the price of the stock in 7 years (t = 7), just after the dividend at that time has been paid? The following is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) used to price stocks: $$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ If the assumptions of the DDM hold, which one of the following statements is NOT correct? The long term expected: Currently, a mining company has a share price of$6 and pays constant annual dividends of $0.50. The next dividend will be paid in 1 year. Suddenly and unexpectedly the mining company announces that due to higher than expected profits, all of these windfall profits will be paid as a special dividend of$0.30 in 1 year.

If investors believe that the windfall profits and dividend is a one-off event, what will be the new share price? If investors believe that the additional dividend is actually permanent and will continue to be paid, what will be the new share price? Assume that the required return on equity is unchanged. Choose from the following, where the first share price includes the one-off increase in earnings and dividends for the first year only $(P_\text{0 one-off})$ , and the second assumes that the increase is permanent $(P_\text{0 permanent})$:

Note: When a firm makes excess profits they sometimes pay them out as special dividends. Special dividends are just like ordinary dividends but they are one-off and investors do not expect them to continue, unlike ordinary dividends which are expected to persist.

You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage loan with monthly payments of $1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change. How much did you borrow? After 10 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change. You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage loan with monthly payments of$1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

To your surprise, you can actually afford to pay $2,000 per month and your mortgage allows early repayments without fees. If you maintain these higher monthly payments, how long will it take to pay off your mortgage? Find UniBar Corp's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.  UniBar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013$m Sales 80 COGS 40 Operating expense 15 Depreciation 10 Interest expense 5 Income before tax 10 Tax at 30% 3 Net income 7
 UniBar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012 $m$m Assets Current assets 120 90 PPE Cost 360 320 Accumul. depr. 40 30 Carrying amount 320 290 Total assets 440 380 Liabilities Current liabilities 110 60 Non-current liabilities 190 180 Owners' equity Retained earnings 95 95 Contributed equity 45 45 Total L and OE 440 380

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m). Find Piano Bar's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.  Piano Bar Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013$m Sales 310 COGS 185 Operating expense 20 Depreciation 15 Interest expense 10 Income before tax 80 Tax at 30% 24 Net income 56
 Piano Bar Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012 $m$m Assets Current assets 240 230 PPE Cost 420 400 Accumul. depr. 50 35 Carrying amount 370 365 Total assets 610 595 Liabilities Current liabilities 180 190 Non-current liabilities 290 265 Owners' equity Retained earnings 90 90 Contributed equity 50 50 Total L and OE 610 595

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m). In mid 2009 the listed mining company Rio Tinto announced a 21-for-40 renounceable rights issue. Below is the chronology of events: • 04/06/2009. Share price opens at$69.00 and closes at $66.90. • 05/06/2009. 21-for-40 rights issue announced at a subscription price of$28.29.

• 16/06/2009. Last day that shares trade cum-rights. Share price opens at $76.40 and closes at$75.50.

All things remaining equal, what would you expect Rio Tinto's stock price to open at on the first day that it trades ex-rights (17/6/2009)? Ignore the time value of money since time is negligibly short. Also ignore taxes.

In late 2003 the listed bank ANZ announced a 2-for-11 rights issue to fund the takeover of New Zealand bank NBNZ. Below is the chronology of events:

• 23/10/2003. Share price closes at $18.30. • 24/10/2003. 2-for-11 rights issue announced at a subscription price of$13. The proceeds of the rights issue will be used to acquire New Zealand bank NBNZ. Trading halt announced in morning before market opens.

• 28/10/2003. Trading halt lifted. Last (and only) day that shares trade cum-rights. Share price opens at $18.00 and closes at$18.14.

All things remaining equal, what would you expect ANZ's stock price to open at on the first day that it trades ex-rights (29/10/2003)? Ignore the time value of money since time is negligibly short. Also ignore taxes.

A project has the following cash flows:

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -90 1 30 2 105 The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. What is the Profitability Index (PI) of the project? A project has the following cash flows. Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the$105 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2:

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -90 1 30 2 105 What is the payback period of the project in years? You're considering making an investment in a particular company. They have preference shares, ordinary shares, senior debt and junior debt. Which is the safest investment? Which will give the highest returns? You just agreed to a 30 year fully amortising mortgage loan with monthly payments of$2,500. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 10 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change. The below choices are given in the same order.

Which one of the following will increase the Cash Flow From Assets in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

A firm has forecast its Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) for this year and management is worried that it is too low. Which one of the following actions will lead to a higher CFFA for this year (t=0 to 1)? Only consider cash flows this year. Do not consider cash flows after one year, or the change in the NPV of the firm. Consider each action in isolation.

Find World Bar's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 World Bar Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 300 COGS 150 Operating expense 50 Depreciation 40 Interest expense 10 Taxable income 50 Tax at 30% 15 Net income 35  World Bar Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Assets Current assets 200 230 PPE Cost 400 400 Accumul. depr. 75 35 Carrying amount 325 365 Total assets 525 595 Liabilities Current liabilities 150 205 Non-current liabilities 235 250 Owners' equity Retained earnings 100 100 Contributed equity 40 40 Total L and OE 525 595 Note: all figures above and below are given in millions of dollars ($m).

A firm wishes to raise $10 million now. They will issue 6% pa semi-annual coupon bonds that will mature in 8 years and have a face value of$1,000 each. Bond yields are 10% pa, given as an APR compounding every 6 months, and the yield curve is flat.

How many bonds should the firm issue?

A four year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 9% and a fixed coupon rate of 6%, paid semi-annually. What is its price? The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return. Investment projects that plot on the SML would have: Diversification in a portfolio of two assets works best when the correlation between their returns is: A company increases the proportion of debt funding it uses to finance its assets by issuing bonds and using the cash to repurchase stock, leaving assets unchanged. Ignoring the costs of financial distress, which of the following statements is NOT correct: Select the most correct statement from the following. 'Chartists', also known as 'technical traders', believe that: A fairly priced stock has a beta that is the same as the market portfolio's beta. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. What is the expected return of the stock? Fundamentalists who analyse company financial reports and news announcements (but who don't have inside information) will make positive abnormal returns if: Examine the following graph which shows stocks' betas $(\beta)$ and expected returns $(\mu)$: Assume that the CAPM holds and that future expectations of stocks' returns and betas are correctly measured. Which statement is NOT correct? Suppose the Australian cash rate is expected to be 8.15% pa and the US federal funds rate is expected to be 3.00% pa over the next 2 years, both given as nominal effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is at parity, so 1 USD = 1 AUD. What is the implied 2 year forward foreign exchange rate? In the so called 'Swiss Loans Affair' of the 1980's, Australian banks offered loans denominated in Swiss Francs to Australian farmers at interest rates as low as 4% pa. This was far lower than interest rates on Australian Dollar loans which were above 10% due to very high inflation in Australia at the time. In the late-1980's there was a large depreciation in the Australian Dollar. The Australian Dollar nearly halved in value against the Swiss Franc. Many Australian farmers went bankrupt since they couldn't afford the interest payments on the Swiss Franc loans because the Australian Dollar value of those payments nearly doubled. The farmers accused the banks of promoting Swiss Franc loans without making them aware of the risks. What fundamental principal of finance did the Australian farmers (and the bankers) fail to understand? The total return of any asset can be broken down in different ways. One possible way is to use the dividend discount model (or Gordon growth model): $$p_0 = \frac{c_1}{r_\text{total}-r_\text{capital}}$$ Which, since $c_1/p_0$ is the income return ($r_\text{income}$), can be expressed as: $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}$$ So the total return of an asset is the income component plus the capital or price growth component. Another way to break up total return is to use the Capital Asset Pricing Model: $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{f}+β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})$$ $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}$$ So the risk free rate is the time value of money and the term $β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})$ is the compensation for taking on systematic risk. Using the above theory and your general knowledge, which of the below equations, if any, are correct? (I) $r_\text{income}=r_\text{time value}$ (II) $r_\text{income}=r_\text{risk premium}$ (III) $r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}$ (IV) $r_\text{capital}=r_\text{risk premium}$ (V) $r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}$ Which of the equations are correct? You have$100,000 in the bank. The bank pays interest at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume an equal amount now (t=0), in one year (t=1) and in two years (t=2), and still have $50,000 in the bank after that (t=2). How much can you consume at each time? You just started work at your new job which pays$48,000 per year.

The human resources department have given you the option of being paid at the end of every week or every month.

Assume that there are 4 weeks per month, 12 months per year and 48 weeks per year.

Bank interest rates are 12% pa given as an APR compounding per month.

What is the dollar gain over one year, as a net present value, of being paid every week rather than every month?

A 2 year corporate bond yields 3% pa with a coupon rate of 5% pa, paid semi-annually.

Find the effective monthly rate, effective six month rate, and effective annual rate.

$r_\text{eff monthly}$, $r_\text{eff 6 month}$, $r_\text{eff annual}$.

A 10 year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 6% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 8% pa, paid semi-annually. What is its price? A 60-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of$1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

You want to buy a house priced at $400,000. You have saved a deposit of$40,000. The bank has agreed to lend you $360,000 as a fully amortising loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 8% pa payable monthly and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of$5. The dividend is expected to grow at 1% every 6 months forever. This 1% growth rate is an effective 6 month rate.

Therefore the next dividend will be $5.05 in six months. The required return of the stock 8% pa, given as an effective annual rate. What is the price of the share now? A share was bought for$4 and paid an dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the share price fell to$3.50 (at t=1 year). What were the total return, capital return and income returns given as effective annual rates? The answer choices are given in the same order:

$r_\text{total}$, $r_\text{capital}$, $r_\text{income}$

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

$$P_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

A stock pays dividends annually. It just paid a dividend, but the next dividend ($d_1$) will be paid in one year.

According to the DDM, what is the correct formula for the expected price of the stock in 2.5 years?

Bonds X and Y are issued by the same company. Both bonds yield 10% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency. The only difference is that bond X pays coupons of 6% pa and bond Y pays coupons of 8% pa. Which of the following statements is true? A European company just issued two bonds, a • 3 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 6% pa, and a • 4 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 6.5% pa. What is the company's forward rate over the fourth year (from t=3 to t=4)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. Suppose you had$100 in a savings account and the interest rate was 2% per year.

After 5 years, how much do you think you would have in the account if you left the money to grow?

than $102,$102 or than $102? Imagine that the interest rate on your savings account was 1% per year and inflation was 2% per year. After one year, would you be able to buy , exactly the as or than today with the money in this account? Do you think that the following statement is or ? “Buying a single company stock usually provides a safer return than a stock mutual fund.” Three important classes of investable risky assets are: • Corporate debt which has low total risk, • Real estate which has medium total risk, • Equity which has high total risk. Assume that the correlation between total returns on: • Corporate debt and real estate is 0.1, • Corporate debt and equity is 0.1, • Real estate and equity is 0.5. You are considering investing all of your wealth in one or more of these asset classes. Which portfolio will give the lowest total risk? You are restricted from shorting any of these assets. Disregard returns and the risk-return trade-off, pretend that you are only concerned with minimising risk. In the dividend discount model: $$P_0 = \dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ The return $r$ is supposed to be the: Which of the below statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct? Two risky stocks A and B comprise an equal-weighted portfolio. The correlation between the stocks' returns is 70%. If the variance of stock A increases but the: • Prices and expected returns of each stock stays the same, • Variance of stock B's returns stays the same, • Correlation of returns between the stocks stays the same. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? A 30-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of$1,000,000. The interest rate is 2.5% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

The following table shows a sample of historical total returns of shares in two different companies A and B.

 Stock Returns Total effective annual returns Year $r_A$ $r_B$ 2007 0.2 0.4 2008 0.04 -0.2 2009 -0.1 -0.3 2010 0.18 0.5

What is the historical sample covariance ($\hat{\sigma}_{A,B}$) and correlation ($\rho_{A,B}$) of stock A and B's total effective annual returns?

Find Scubar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Scubar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 200 COGS 60 Depreciation 20 Rent expense 11 Interest expense 19 Taxable Income 90 Taxes at 30% 27 Net income 63  Scubar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Inventory 60 50 Trade debtors 19 6 Rent paid in advance 3 2 PPE 420 400 Total assets 502 458 Trade creditors 10 8 Bond liabilities 200 190 Contributed equity 130 130 Retained profits 162 130 Total L and OE 502 458 Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

Which of the following statements about short-selling is NOT true?

Which one of the following will decrease net income (NI) but increase cash flow from assets (CFFA) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

Remember:

$$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - ΔNWC+IntExp$$

Which one of the following is NOT usually considered an 'investable' asset for long-term wealth creation?

There are many different ways to value a firm's assets. Which of the following will NOT give the correct market value of a levered firm's assets $(V_L)$? Assume that:

• The firm is financed by listed common stock and vanilla annual fixed coupon bonds, which are both traded in a liquid market.
• The bonds' yield is equal to the coupon rate, so the bonds are issued at par. The yield curve is flat and yields are not expected to change. When bonds mature they will be rolled over by issuing the same number of new bonds with the same expected yield and coupon rate, and so on forever.
• Tax rates on the dividends and capital gains received by investors are equal, and capital gains tax is paid every year, even on unrealised gains regardless of when the asset is sold.
• There is no re-investment of the firm's cash back into the business. All of the firm's excess cash flow is paid out as dividends so real growth is zero.
• The firm operates in a mature industry with zero real growth.
• All cash flows and rates in the below equations are real (not nominal) and are expected to be stable forever. Therefore the perpetuity equation with no growth is suitable for valuation.

Where:

$$r_\text{WACC before tax} = r_D.\frac{D}{V_L} + r_{EL}.\frac{E_L}{V_L} = \text{Weighted average cost of capital before tax}$$ $$r_\text{WACC after tax} = r_D.(1-t_c).\frac{D}{V_L} + r_{EL}.\frac{E_L}{V_L} = \text{Weighted average cost of capital after tax}$$ $$NI_L=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-\mathbf{IntExp}).(1-t_c) = \text{Net Income Levered}$$ $$CFFA_L=NI_L+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+\mathbf{IntExp} = \text{Cash Flow From Assets Levered}$$ $$NI_U=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr).(1-t_c) = \text{Net Income Unlevered}$$ $$CFFA_U=NI_U+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC= \text{Cash Flow From Assets Unlevered}$$

Which of the following statements about the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is NOT correct?

A prospective home buyer can afford to pay $2,000 per month in mortgage loan repayments. The central bank recently lowered its policy rate by 0.25%, and residential home lenders cut their mortgage loan rates from 4.74% to 4.49%. How much more can the prospective home buyer borrow now that interest rates are 4.49% rather than 4.74%? Give your answer as a proportional increase over the original amount he could borrow ($V_\text{before}$), so: $$\text{Proportional increase} = \frac{V_\text{after}-V_\text{before}}{V_\text{before}}$$ Assume that: • Interest rates are expected to be constant over the life of the loan. • Loans are interest-only and have a life of 30 years. • Mortgage loan payments are made every month in arrears and all interest rates are given as annualised percentage rates compounding per month. Your friend just bought a house for$1,000,000. He financed it using a $900,000 mortgage loan and a deposit of$100,000.

In the context of residential housing and mortgages, the 'equity' or 'net wealth' tied up in a house is the value of the house less the value of the mortgage loan. Assuming that your friend's only asset is his house, his net wealth is $100,000. If house prices suddenly fall by 15%, what would be your friend's percentage change in net wealth? Assume that: • No income (rent) was received from the house during the short time over which house prices fell. • Your friend will not declare bankruptcy, he will always pay off his debts. Let the variance of returns for a share per month be $\sigma_\text{monthly}^2$. What is the formula for the variance of the share's returns per year $(\sigma_\text{yearly}^2)$? Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) so they have zero auto correlation, meaning that if the return was higher than average today, it does not indicate that the return tomorrow will be higher or lower than average. A company announces that it will pay a dividend, as the market expected. The company's shares trade on the stock exchange which is open from 10am in the morning to 4pm in the afternoon each weekday. When would the share price be expected to fall by the amount of the dividend? Ignore taxes. The share price is expected to fall during the: Is it possible for all countries' exchange rates to appreciate by 5% in the same year? or ? When someone says that they're "buying American dollars" (USD), what type of asset are they probably buying? They're probably buying: If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the American terms quote of the AUD against the USD? If the USD appreciates against the AUD, the American terms quote of the AUD will or ? If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the European terms quote of the AUD against the USD? If the AUD appreciates against the USD, the European terms quote of the AUD will or ? If the USD appreciates against the AUD, the European terms quote of the AUD will or ? Investors expect the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to keep the policy rate steady at their next meeting. Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will increase the policy rate by 25 basis points due to fears that the economy is growing too fast and that inflation will be above their target rate of 2 to 3 per cent. What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar is likely to: The market expects the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to increase the policy rate by 25 basis points at their next meeting. Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will increase the policy rate by 50 basis points due to high future GDP and inflation forecasts. What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar will: The market expects the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to increase the policy rate by 25 basis points at their next meeting. As expected, the RBA increases the policy rate by 25 basis points. What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar will: A fairly priced stock has an expected return equal to the market's. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. What is the stock's beta? On 27/09/13, three month Swiss government bills traded at a yield of -0.2%, given as a simple annual yield. That is, interest rates were negative. If the face value of one of these 90 day bills is CHF1,000,000 (CHF represents Swiss Francs, the Swiss currency), what is the price of one of these bills? In the dividend discount model: $$P_0= \frac{d_1}{r-g}$$ The pronumeral $g$ is supposed to be the: A 10 year Australian government bond was just issued at par with a yield of 3.9% pa. The fixed coupon payments are semi-annual. The bond has a face value of$1,000.

Six months later, just after the first coupon is paid, the yield of the bond decreases to 3.65% pa. What is the bond's new price?

Which of the following statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct?

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

$$p_0= \frac{c_1}{r-g}$$

Which expression is equal to the expected dividend return?

Bonds X and Y are issued by the same US company. Both bonds yield 6% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency. The only difference is that bond X pays coupons of 8% pa and bond Y pays coupons of 12% pa. Which of the following statements is true? Investors expect Australia's central bank, the RBA, to reduce the policy rate at their next meeting due to fears that the economy is slowing. Then unexpectedly, the policy rate is actually kept unchanged. What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate? The Australian cash rate is expected to be 6% pa while the US federal funds rate is expected to be 4% pa over the next 3 years, both given as effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is 0.80 AUD per USD. What is the implied 3 year forward foreign exchange rate? Economic statistics released this morning were a surprise: they show a strong chance of consumer price inflation (CPI) reaching 5% pa over the next 2 years. This is much higher than the previous forecast of 3% pa. A vanilla fixed-coupon 2-year risk-free government bond was issued at par this morning, just before the economic news was released. What is the expected change in bond price after the economic news this morning, and in the next 2 years? Assume that: • Inflation remains at 5% over the next 2 years. • Investors demand a constant real bond yield. • The bond price falls by the (after-tax) value of the coupon the night before the ex-coupon date, as in real life. A new company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below. To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula: $$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$ Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value? An old company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below. To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula: $$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$ Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value? A new company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below. To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula: $$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$ Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value? Estimate the US bank JP Morgan's share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only: • The major US banks JP Morgan Chase (JPM), Citi Group (C) and Wells Fargo (WFC) are comparable companies; • JP Morgan Chase's historical earnings per share (EPS) is$4.37;
• Citi Group's share price is $50.05 and historical EPS is$4.26;
• Wells Fargo's share price is $48.98 and historical EPS is$3.89.

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 24 March 2014.

Find Sidebar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Sidebar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 405 COGS 100 Depreciation 34 Rent expense 22 Interest expense 39 Taxable Income 210 Taxes at 30% 63 Net income 147  Sidebar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Inventory 70 50 Trade debtors 11 16 Rent paid in advance 4 3 PPE 700 680 Total assets 785 749 Trade creditors 11 19 Bond liabilities 400 390 Contributed equity 220 220 Retained profits 154 120 Total L and OE 785 749 Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

Over the next year, the management of an unlevered company plans to:

• Achieve firm free cash flow (FFCF or CFFA) of $1m. • Pay dividends of$1.8m
• Complete a $1.3m share buy-back. • Spend$0.8m on new buildings without buying or selling any other fixed assets. This capital expenditure is included in the CFFA figure quoted above.

Assume that:

• All amounts are received and paid at the end of the year so you can ignore the time value of money.
• The firm has sufficient retained profits to pay the dividend and complete the buy back.
• The firm plans to run a very tight ship, with no excess cash above operating requirements currently or over the next year.

How much new equity financing will the company need? In other words, what is the value of new shares that will need to be issued?

A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of 6% pa and nominal capital return of 3% pa.

Inflation is expected to be 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.

What are the property's expected real total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order.

Estimate the Chinese bank ICBC's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that the renminbi (RMB) is the Chinese currency, also known as the yuan (CNY).

• The 4 major Chinese banks ICBC, China Construction Bank (CCB), Bank of China (BOC) and Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) are comparable companies;
• ICBC 's historical earnings per share (EPS) is RMB 0.74;
• CCB's backward-looking PE ratio is 4.59;
• BOC 's backward-looking PE ratio is 4.78;
• ABC's backward-looking PE ratio is also 4.78;

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 25 March 2014. Share prices are from the Shanghai stock exchange.

Which one of the following will have no effect on net income (NI) but decrease cash flow from assets (CFFA or FFCF) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

Remember:

$$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - ΔNWC+IntExp$$

Find Ching-A-Lings Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Ching-A-Lings Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 100 COGS 20 Depreciation 20 Rent expense 11 Interest expense 19 Taxable Income 30 Taxes at 30% 9 Net income 21  Ching-A-Lings Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Inventory 49 38 Trade debtors 14 2 Rent paid in advance 5 5 PPE 400 400 Total assets 468 445 Trade creditors 4 10 Bond liabilities 200 190 Contributed equity 145 145 Retained profits 119 100 Total L and OE 468 445 Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

Three years ago Frederika bought a house for $400,000. Now it's worth$600,000, based on recent similar sales in the area.

Frederika's residential property has an expected total return of 7% pa.

She rents her house out for $2,500 per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months she plans to increase the rental payments. The present value of 12 months of rental payments is$29,089.48.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year ahead is 31,125.74. What is the expected annual capital yield of the property? A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of 8% pa and nominal capital return of 3% pa. Inflation is expected to be 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates. What are the property's expected real total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order. There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA). Some include the annual interest tax shield in the cash flow and some do not. Which of the below FFCF formulas include the interest tax shield in the cash flow? $$(1) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp$$ $$(2) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp.(1-t_c)$$ $$(3) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c )+ Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c$$ $$(4) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c) + Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(5) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c$$ $$(6) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(7) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(8) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c$$ $$(9) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(10) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c$$ The formulas for net income (NI also called earnings), EBIT and EBITDA are given below. Assume that depreciation and amortisation are both represented by 'Depr' and that 'FC' represents fixed costs such as rent. $$NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$EBIT=Rev - COGS - FC-Depr$$ $$EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC$$ $$Tax =(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).t_c= \dfrac{NI.t_c}{1-t_c}$$ A method commonly seen in textbooks for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is the following: \begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + \\ &\space\space\space+ Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp(1-t_c) \\ \end{aligned} Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield? One formula for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to use earnings before interest and tax (EBIT). \begin{aligned} FFCF &= (EBIT)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp.t_c \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp.t_c \\ \end{aligned} \\ Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield? One method for calculating a firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to ignore interest expense. That is, pretend that interest expense $(IntExp)$ is zero: \begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - 0)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC - 0\\ \end{aligned} Does this annual FFCF with zero interest expense or the annual interest tax shield? Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Lenders: Which of the following statements is NOT equivalent to the yield on debt? Assume that the debt being referred to is fairly priced, but do not assume that it's priced at par. One formula for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to use net operating profit after tax (NOPAT). \begin{aligned} FFCF &= NOPAT + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ \end{aligned} \\ Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield? Interest expense on debt is tax-deductible, but dividend payments on equity are not. or ? Issuing debt doesn't give away control of the firm because debt holders can't cast votes to determine the company's affairs, such as at the annual general meeting (AGM), and can't appoint directors to the board. or ? Companies must pay interest and principal payments to debt-holders. They're compulsory. But companies are not forced to pay dividends to share holders. or ? The "interest expense" on a company's annual income statement is equal to the cash interest payments (but not principal payments) made to debt holders during the year. or ? Which of the following investable assets is the LEAST suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques? A pharmaceutical firm has just discovered a valuable new drug. So far the news has been kept a secret. The net present value of making and commercialising the drug is200 million, but $600 million of bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment. The firm will release the news of the discovery and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The bonds will be issued shortly after. Once the announcement is made and the bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets (ΔV), market capitalisation of debt (ΔD) and market cap of equity (ΔE)? The triangle symbol is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics. Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt. Remember: $ΔV = ΔD+ΔE$ The CAPM can be used to find a business's expected opportunity cost of capital: $$r_i=r_f+β_i (r_m-r_f)$$ What should be used as the risk free rate $r_f$? A fairly valued share's current price is$4 and it has a total required return of 30%. Dividends are paid annually and next year's dividend is expected to be $1. After that, dividends are expected to grow by 5% pa in perpetuity. All rates are effective annual returns. What is the expected dividend income paid at the end of the second year (t=2) and what is the expected capital gain from just after the first dividend (t=1) to just after the second dividend (t=2)? The answers are given in the same order, the dividend and then the capital gain. Business people make lots of important decisions. Which of the following is the most important long term decision? The investment decision primarily affects which part of a business? The financing decision primarily affects which part of a business? The working capital decision primarily affects which part of a business? Payout policy is most closely related to which part of a business? A small private company has a single shareholder. This year the firm earned a$100 profit before tax. All of the firm's after tax profits will be paid out as dividends to the owner.

The corporate tax rate is 30% and the sole shareholder's personal marginal tax rate is 45%.

The Australian imputation tax system applies because the company generates all of its income in Australia and pays corporate tax to the Australian Tax Office. Therefore all of the company's dividends are fully franked. The sole shareholder is an Australian for tax purposes and can therefore use the franking credits to offset his personal income tax liability.

What will be the personal tax payable by the shareholder and the corporate tax payable by the company?

Question 449  personal tax on dividends, classical tax system

A small private company has a single shareholder. This year the firm earned a $100 profit before tax. All of the firm's after tax profits will be paid out as dividends to the owner. The corporate tax rate is 30% and the sole shareholder's personal marginal tax rate is 45%. The United States' classical tax system applies because the company generates all of its income in the US and pays corporate tax to the Internal Revenue Service. The shareholder is also an American for tax purposes. What will be the personal tax payable by the shareholder and the corporate tax payable by the company? The first payment of a constant perpetual annual cash flow is received at time 5. Let this cash flow be $C_5$ and the required return be $r$. So there will be equal annual cash flows at time 5, 6, 7 and so on forever, and all of the cash flows will be equal so $C_5 = C_6 = C_7 = ...$ When the perpetuity formula is used to value this stream of cash flows, it will give a value (V) at time: What is the lowest and highest expected share price and expected return from owning shares in a company over a finite period of time? Let the current share price be $p_0$, the expected future share price be $p_1$, the expected future dividend be $d_1$ and the expected return be $r$. Define the expected return as: $r=\dfrac{p_1-p_0+d_1}{p_0}$ The answer choices are stated using inequalities. As an example, the first answer choice "(a) $0≤p<∞$ and $0≤r< 1$", states that the share price must be larger than or equal to zero and less than positive infinity, and that the return must be larger than or equal to zero and less than one. A mining firm has just discovered a new mine. So far the news has been kept a secret. The net present value of digging the mine and selling the minerals is$250 million, but $500 million of new equity and$300 million of new bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment.

The firm will release the news of the discovery and equity and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The shares and bonds will be issued shortly after.

Once the announcement is made and the new shares and bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets $(\Delta V)$, market capitalisation of debt $(\Delta D)$ and market cap of equity $(\Delta E)$? Assume that markets are semi-strong form efficient.

The triangle symbol $\Delta$ is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics.

Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt.

Remember: $\Delta V = \Delta D+ \Delta E$

Which firms tend to have low forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Only consider firms with positive PE ratios.

Below are some statements about loans and bonds. The first descriptive sentence is correct. But one of the second sentences about the loans' or bonds' prices is not correct. Which statement is NOT correct? Assume that interest rates are positive.

Note that coupons or interest payments are the periodic payments made throughout a bond or loan's life. The face or par value of a bond or loan is the amount paid at the end when the debt matures.

In Australia in the 1980's, inflation was around 8% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 14%.

In 2013, inflation was around 2.5% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 4.5%.

If a person can afford constant mortgage loan payments of $2,000 per month, how much more can they borrow when interest rates are 4.5% pa compared with 14.0% pa? Give your answer as a proportional increase over the amount you could borrow when interest rates were high $(V_\text{high rates})$, so: $$\text{Proportional increase} = \dfrac{V_\text{low rates}-V_\text{high rates}}{V_\text{high rates}}$$ Assume that: • Interest rates are expected to be constant over the life of the loan. • Loans are interest-only and have a life of 30 years. • Mortgage loan payments are made every month in arrears and all interest rates are given as annualised percentage rates (APR's) compounding per month. Which business structure or structures have the advantage of limited liability for equity investors? Which of the following statements about book and market equity is NOT correct? A firm pays a fully franked cash dividend of$70 to one of its Australian shareholders who has a personal marginal tax rate of 45%. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What will be the shareholder's personal tax payable due to the dividend payment?

The below screenshot of Commonwealth Bank of Australia's (CBA) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 7 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was CBA's market capitalisation of equity?

The below screenshot of Commonwealth Bank of Australia's (CBA) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 7 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was CBA's backwards-looking price-earnings ratio?

The saying "buy low, sell high" suggests that investors should make a:

An asset's total expected return over the next year is given by:

$$r_\text{total} = \dfrac{c_1+p_1-p_0}{p_0}$$

Where $p_0$ is the current price, $c_1$ is the expected income in one year and $p_1$ is the expected price in one year. The total return can be split into the income return and the capital return.

Which of the following is the expected capital return?

What type of present value equation is best suited to value a residential house investment property that is expected to pay constant rental payments forever? Note that 'constant' has the same meaning as 'level' in this context.

This annuity formula $\dfrac{C_1}{r}\left(1-\dfrac{1}{(1+r)^3} \right)$ is equivalent to which of the following formulas? Note the 3.

In the below formulas, $C_t$ is a cash flow at time t. All of the cash flows are equal, but paid at different times.

The below screenshot of Microsoft's (MSFT) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 28 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was MSFT's market capitalisation of equity?

The below screenshot of Microsoft's (MSFT) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 28 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was MSFT's backwards-looking price-earnings ratio?

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university or not.

The young lady's parents say that she must attend university because otherwise all of her hard work studying and attending school during her childhood was a waste.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to decide whether to attend university?

The hard work studying at school in her childhood should be classified as:

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university. Her friends say that she should go to university because she is more likely to meet a clever young man than if she begins full time work straight away.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to find the Net Present Value of going to university rather than working?

The opportunity to meet a desirable future spouse should be classified as:

A man is thinking about taking a day off from his casual painting job to relax.

He just woke up early in the morning and he's about to call his boss to say that he won't be coming in to work.

But he's thinking about the hours that he could work today (in the future) which are:

A man has taken a day off from his casual painting job to relax.

It's the end of the day and he's thinking about the hours that he could have spent working (in the past) which are now:

A firm has 2m shares and a market capitalisation of equity of $30m. The firm just announced earnings of$5m and paid an annual dividend of $0.75 per share. What is the firm's (backward looking) price/earnings (PE) ratio? A firm pays a fully franked cash dividend of$100 to one of its Australian shareholders who has a personal marginal tax rate of 15%. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What will be the shareholder's personal tax payable due to the dividend payment?

Some countries' interest rates are so low that they're zero.

If interest rates are 0% pa and are expected to stay at that level for the foreseeable future, what is the most that you would be prepared to pay a bank now if it offered to pay you $10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years? In other words, what is the present value of five$10 payments at time 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 if interest rates are 0% pa?

The below graph shows a project's net present value (NPV) against its annual discount rate.

For what discount rate or range of discount rates would you accept and commence the project?

All answer choices are given as approximations from reading off the graph.

An investor owns an empty block of land that has local government approval to be developed into a petrol station, car wash or car park. The council will only allow a single development so the projects are mutually exclusive.

All of the development projects have the same risk and the required return of each is 10% pa. Each project has an immediate cost and once construction is finished in one year the land and development will be sold. The table below shows the estimated costs payable now, expected sale prices in one year and the internal rates of returns (IRR's).

 Mutually Exclusive Projects Project Costnow ($) Sale price inone year ($) IRR(% pa) Petrol station 9,000,000 11,000,000 22.22 Car wash 800,000 1,100,000 37.50 Car park 70,000 110,000 57.14

Which project should the investor accept?

Read the following financial statements and calculate the firm's free cash flow over the 2014 financial year.

 UBar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2014 $m Sales 293 COGS 200 Rent expense 15 Gas expense 8 Depreciation 10 EBIT 60 Interest expense 0 Taxable income 60 Taxes 18 Net income 42  UBar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2014 2013$m $m Assets Cash 30 29 Accounts receivable 5 7 Pre-paid rent expense 1 0 Inventory 50 46 PPE 290 300 Total assets 376 382 Liabilities Trade payables 20 18 Accrued gas expense 3 2 Non-current liabilities 0 0 Contributed equity 212 212 Retained profits 136 150 Asset revaluation reserve 5 0 Total L and OE 376 382 Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The firm's free cash flow over the 2014 financial year was:

A low-quality second-hand car can be bought now for $1,000 and will last for 1 year before it will be scrapped for nothing. A high-quality second-hand car can be bought now for$4,900 and it will last for 5 years before it will be scrapped for nothing.

What is the equivalent annual cost of each car? Assume a discount rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

The answer choices are given as the equivalent annual cost of the low-quality car and then the high quality car.

A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 25%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio?

A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 60%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio?

Calculate the price of a newly issued ten year bond with a face value of $100, a yield of 8% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 6% pa, paid annually. So there's only one coupon per year, paid in arrears every year. Calculate the price of a newly issued ten year bond with a face value of$100, a yield of 8% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 6% pa, paid semi-annually. So there are two coupons per year, paid in arrears every six months.

Question 513  stock split, reverse stock split, stock dividend, bonus issue, rights issue

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

The expression 'cash is king' emphasizes the importance of having enough cash to pay your short term debts to avoid bankruptcy. Which business decision is this expression most closely related to?

The expression 'you have to spend money to make money' relates to which business decision?

Which of the following decisions relates to the current assets and current liabilities of the firm?

A stock is expected to pay its next dividend of $1 in one year. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. So the first dividend of$1 will be in one year, the year after that $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1), and a year later$1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

A stock just paid a dividend of $1. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. The next dividend of$1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1) will be in one year, and the year after that the dividend will be $1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2), and so on forever. Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates. Calculate the current stock price. The following cash flows are expected: • 10 yearly payments of$80, with the first payment in 6.5 years from now (first payment at t=6.5).
• A single payment of $500 in 4 years and 3 months (t=4.25) from now. What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate? A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of 6% pa and nominal capital return of 2.5% pa. Inflation is expected to be 2.5% pa. All of the above are effective nominal rates and investors believe that they will stay the same in perpetuity. What are the property's expected real total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order. A low-growth mature stock has an expected nominal total return of 6% pa and nominal capital return of 2% pa. Inflation is expected to be 3% pa. All of the above are effective nominal rates and investors believe that they will stay the same in perpetuity. What are the stock's expected real total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order. Total cash flows can be broken into income and capital cash flows. What is the name given to the cash flow generated from selling shares at a higher price than they were bought? The perpetuity with growth formula, also known as the dividend discount model (DDM) or Gordon growth model, is appropriate for valuing a company's shares. $P_0$ is the current share price, $C_1$ is next year's expected dividend, $r$ is the total required return and $g$ is the expected growth rate of the dividend. $$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ The below graph shows the expected future price path of the company's shares. Which of the following statements about the graph is NOT correct? You have$100,000 in the bank. The bank pays interest at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume half as much now (t=0) as in one year (t=1) and have nothing left in the bank at the end.

How much can you consume at time zero and one? The answer choices are given in the same order.

The expression 'my word is my bond' is often used in everyday language to make a serious promise.

Why do you think this expression uses the metaphor of a bond rather than a share?

Estimate the French bank Societe Generale's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that EUR is the euro, the European monetary union's currency.

• The 4 major European banks Credit Agricole (ACA), Deutsche Bank AG (DBK), UniCredit (UCG) and Banco Santander (SAN) are comparable companies to Societe Generale (GLE);
• Societe Generale's (GLE's) historical earnings per share (EPS) is EUR 2.92;
• ACA's backward-looking PE ratio is 16.29 and historical EPS is EUR 0.84;
• DBK's backward-looking PE ratio is 25.01 and historical EPS is EUR 1.26;
• SAN's backward-looking PE ratio is 14.71 and historical EPS is EUR 0.47;
• UCG's backward-looking PE ratio is 15.78 and historical EPS is EUR 0.40;

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 27 March 2015.

Risk-free government bonds that have coupon rates greater than their yields:

Which one of the below statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Bond investors:

Which of the following statements about the capital and income returns of an interest-only loan is correct?

Assume that the yield curve (which shows total returns over different maturities) is flat and is not expected to change.

An interest-only loan's expected:

Many Australian home loans that are interest-only actually require payments to be made on a fully amortising basis after a number of years.

You decide to borrow $600,000 from the bank at an interest rate of 4.25% pa for 25 years. The payments will be interest-only for the first 10 years (t=0 to 10 years), then they will have to be paid on a fully amortising basis for the last 15 years (t=10 to 25 years). Assuming that interest rates will remain constant, what will be your monthly payments for the next 10 years from now, and then the next 15 years after that? The answer options are given in the same order. You just entered into a fully amortising home loan with a principal of$600,000, a variable interest rate of 4.25% pa and a term of 25 years.

Immediately after settling the loan, the variable interest rate suddenly falls to 4% pa! You can't believe your luck. Despite this, you plan to continue paying the same home loan payments as you did before. How long will it now take to pay off your home loan?

Assume that the lower interest rate was granted immediately and that rates were and are now again expected to remain constant. Round your answer up to the nearest whole month.

An investor wants to make a portfolio of two stocks A and B with a target expected portfolio return of 6% pa.

• Stock A has an expected return of 5% pa.
• Stock B has an expected return of 10% pa.

What portfolio weights should the investor have in stocks A and B respectively?

An investor wants to make a portfolio of two stocks A and B with a target expected portfolio return of 16% pa.

• Stock A has an expected return of 8% pa.
• Stock B has an expected return of 12% pa.

What portfolio weights should the investor have in stocks A and B respectively?

The standard deviation and variance of a stock's annual returns are calculated over a number of years. The units of the returns are percent per annum $(\% pa)$.

What are the units of the standard deviation $(\sigma)$ and variance $(\sigma^2)$ of returns respectively?

Hint: Visit Wikipedia to understand the difference between percentage points $(\text{pp})$ and percent $(\%)$.

The covariance and correlation of two stocks X and Y's annual returns are calculated over a number of years. The units of the returns are in percent per annum $(\% pa)$.

What are the units of the covariance $(\sigma_{X,Y})$ and correlation $(\rho_{X,Y})$ of returns respectively?

Hint: Visit Wikipedia to understand the difference between percentage points $(\text{pp})$ and percent $(\%)$.

The average weekly earnings of an Australian adult worker before tax was $1,542.40 per week in November 2014 according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Therefore average annual earnings before tax were$80,204.80 assuming 52 weeks per year. Personal income tax rates published by the Australian Tax Office are reproduced for the 2014-2015 financial year in the table below:

Taxable income Tax on this income
0 – $18,200 Nil$18,201 – $37,000 19c for each$1 over $18,200$37,001 – $80,000$3,572 plus 32.5c for each $1 over$37,000
$80,001 –$180,000 $17,547 plus 37c for each$1 over $80,000$180,001 and over $54,547 plus 45c for each$1 over $180,000 The above rates do not include the Medicare levy of 2%. Exclude the Medicare levy from your calculations How much personal income tax would you have to pay per year if you earned$80,204.80 per annum before-tax?

An American wishes to convert USD 1 million to Australian dollars (AUD). The exchange rate is 0.8 USD per AUD. How much is the USD 1 million worth in AUD?

In the below term structure of interest rates equation, all rates are effective annual yields and the numbers in subscript represent the years that the yields are measured over:

$$(1+r_{0-3})^3 = (1+r_{0-1})(1+r_{1-2})(1+r_{2-3})$$

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

In the below term structure of interest rates equation, all rates are effective annual yields and the numbers in subscript represent the years that the yields are measured over:

$$(1+r_{0-3})^3 = (1+r_{0-1})(1+r_{1-2})(1+r_{2-3})$$

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

 Project Data Project life 2 years Initial investment in equipment $8m Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes$3m Unit sales per year 10m Sale price per unit $9 Variable cost per unit$4 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $2m Tax rate 30% Note 1: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase$40m of inventory initially (at t=0). Half of this inventory will be sold at t=1 and the other half at t=2.

Note 2: The equipment will have a book value of $2m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch$1m when it is sold. Assume that the full capital loss is tax-deductible and taxed at the full corporate tax rate.

Note 3: The project will be fully funded by equity which investors will expect to pay dividends totaling $10m at the end of each year. Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m).

A company conducts a 4 for 3 stock split. What is the percentage change in the stock price and the number of shares outstanding? The answers are given in the same order.

Value the following business project to manufacture a new product.

 Project Data Project life 2 yrs Initial investment in equipment $6m Depreciation of equipment per year$3m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project $0.6m Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit$8 Variable cost per unit $5 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$1m Interest expense per year 0 Tax rate 30% Weighted average cost of capital after tax per annum 10%

Notes

1. The firm's current assets and current liabilities are $3m and$2m respectively right now. This net working capital will not be used in this project, it will be used in other unrelated projects.
Due to the project, current assets (mostly inventory) will grow by $2m initially (at t = 0), and then by$0.2m at the end of the first year (t=1).
Current liabilities (mostly trade creditors) will increase by $0.1m at the end of the first year (t=1). At the end of the project, the net working capital accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that it was bought. 2. The project cost$0.5m to research which was incurred one year ago.

Assumptions

• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa.
• All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The business considering the project is run as a 'sole tradership' (run by an individual without a company) and is therefore eligible for a 50% capital gains tax discount when the equipment is sold, as permitted by the Australian Tax Office.

What is the expected net present value (NPV) of the project?

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

 One Year Mining Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in building mine and equipment $9m Depreciation of mine and equipment over the year$8m Kilograms of gold mined at end of year 1,000 Sale price per kilogram $0.05m Variable cost per kilogram$0.03m Before-tax cost of closing mine at end of year $4m Tax rate 30% Note 1: Due to the project, the firm also anticipates finding some rare diamonds which will give before-tax revenues of$1m at the end of the year.

Note 2: The land that will be mined actually has thermal springs and a family of koalas that could be sold to an eco-tourist resort for an after-tax amount of $3m right now. However, if the mine goes ahead then this natural beauty will be destroyed. Note 3: The mining equipment will have a book value of$1m at the end of the year for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $2.5m when it is sold. Find the project's CFFA at time zero and one. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m), with the first cash flow at time zero, and the second at time one.

 Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in equipment $8m Depreciation of equipment per year$8m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project 0 Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit $10 Variable cost per unit$5 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $2m Interest expense in first year (at t=1)$0.562m Corporate tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 9% Market portfolio return 10% Covariance of levered equity returns with market 0.32 Variance of market portfolio returns 0.16 Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio 50%

Notes

1. Due to the project, current assets will increase by $6m now (t=0) and fall by$6m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected.

Assumptions

• The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio.
• Millions are represented by 'm'.
• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

A firm can issue 5 year annual coupon bonds at a yield of 8% pa and a coupon rate of 12% pa.

The beta of its levered equity is 1. Five year government bonds yield 5% pa with a coupon rate of 6% pa. The market's expected dividend return is 4% pa and its expected capital return is 6% pa.

The firm's debt-to-equity ratio is 2:1. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What is the firm's after-tax WACC? Assume a classical tax system.

A company has:

• 140 million shares outstanding.
• The market price of one share is currently $2. • The company's debentures are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 93% of the face value. • The debentures have a total face value of$50,000,000 and the current yield to maturity of corporate debentures is 12% per annum.
• The risk-free rate is 8.50% and the market return is 13.7%.
• Market analysts estimated that the company's stock has a beta of 0.90.
• The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What is the company's after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC) in a classical tax system?

A company has:

• 100 million ordinary shares outstanding which are trading at a price of $5 each. Market analysts estimated that the company's ordinary stock has a beta of 1.5. The risk-free rate is 5% and the market return is 10%. • 1 million preferred shares which have a face (or par) value of$100 and pay a constant annual dividend of 9% of par. The next dividend will be paid in one year. Assume that all preference dividends will be paid when promised. They currently trade at a price of $90 each. • Debentures that have a total face value of$200 million and a yield to maturity of 6% per annum. They are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 110% of their face value.

The corporate tax rate is 30%. All returns and yields are given as effective annual rates.

What is the company's after-tax Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)? Assume a classical tax system.

An investor bought a 20 year 5% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at par. The face value is $100. Coupons are paid semi-annually and the next one is in 6 months. Six months later, just after the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly rose to 5.5% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually. What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate? A firm can issue 3 year annual coupon bonds at a yield of 10% pa and a coupon rate of 8% pa. The beta of its levered equity is 2. The market's expected return is 10% pa and 3 year government bonds yield 6% pa with a coupon rate of 4% pa. The market value of equity is$1 million and the market value of debt is $1 million. The corporate tax rate is 30%. What is the firm's after-tax WACC? Assume a classical tax system.  Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in equipment$6m Depreciation of equipment per year $6m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project 0 Unit sales per year 9m Sale price per unit$8 Variable cost per unit $6 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$1m Interest expense in first year (at t=1) $0.53m Tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 6% Market portfolio return 10% Covariance of levered equity returns with market 0.08 Variance of market portfolio returns 0.16 Firm's and project's debt-to-assets ratio 50% Notes 1. Due to the project, current assets will increase by$5m now (t=0) and fall by $5m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected. Assumptions • The debt-to-assets ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. • Millions are represented by 'm'. • All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year. • All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa. • All rates are given as effective annual rates. • The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual. What is the net present value (NPV) of the project? Discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation prices assets by finding the present value of the asset's future cash flows. The single cash flow, annuity, and perpetuity equations are very useful for this. Which of the following equations is the 'perpetuity with growth' equation? You're advising your superstar client 40-cent who is weighing up buying a private jet or a luxury yacht. 40-cent is just as happy with either, but he wants to go with the more cost-effective option. These are the cash flows of the two options: • The private jet can be bought for$6m now, which will cost $12,000 per month in fuel, piloting and airport costs, payable at the end of each month. The jet will last for 12 years. • Or the luxury yacht can be bought for$4m now, which will cost $20,000 per month in fuel, crew and berthing costs, payable at the end of each month. The yacht will last for 20 years. What's unusual about 40-cent is that he is so famous that he will actually be able to sell his jet or yacht for the same price as it was bought since the next generation of superstar musicians will buy it from him as a status symbol. Bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. You can assume that 40-cent will live for another 60 years and that when the jet or yacht's life is at an end, he will buy a new one with the same details as above. Would you advise 40-cent to buy the or the ? Note that the effective monthly rate is $r_\text{eff monthly}=(1+0.1)^{1/12}-1=0.00797414$ An Apple iPhone 6 smart phone can be bought now for$999. An Android Kogan Agora 4G+ smart phone can be bought now for $240. If the Kogan phone lasts for one year, approximately how long must the Apple phone last for to have the same equivalent annual cost? Assume that both phones have equivalent features besides their lifetimes, that both are worthless once they've outlasted their life, the discount rate is 10% pa given as an effective annual rate, and there are no extra costs or benefits from either phone. Question 549 An Apple iPhone 6 smart phone can be bought now for$999. An Android Samsung Galaxy 5 smart phone can be bought now for \$599.

If the Samsung phone lasts for four years, approximately how long must the Apple phone last for to have the same equivalent annual cost?

Assume that both phones have equivalent features besides their lifetimes, that both are worthless once they've outlasted their life, the discount rate is 10% pa given as an effective annual rate, and there are no extra costs or benefits from either phone.