You want to buy an apartment priced at $500,000. You have saved a deposit of $50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $450,000 as an **interest only** loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments?

You want to buy an apartment priced at $500,000. You have saved a deposit of $50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $450,000 as a **fully amortising** loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments?

**Question 56** income and capital returns, bond pricing, premium par and discount bonds

Which of the following statements about risk free government bonds is **NOT** correct?

**Hint:** Total return can be broken into income and capital returns as follows:

###\begin{aligned} r_\text{total} &= \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0} \\ &= r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital} \end{aligned} ###

The capital return is the growth rate of the price.

The income return is the periodic cash flow. For a bond this is the coupon payment.

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 years | |

Initial investment in equipment | $8m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes | $3m | |

Unit sales per year | 10m | |

Sale price per unit | $9 | |

Variable cost per unit | $4 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $2m | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Note 1: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase $40m of inventory initially (at t=0). Half of this inventory will be sold at t=1 and the other half at t=2.

Note 2: The equipment will have a book value of $2m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $1m when it is sold. Assume that the full capital loss is tax-deductible and taxed at the full corporate tax rate.

Note 3: The project will be fully funded by equity which investors will expect to pay dividends totaling $10m at the end of each year.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m).

A man is thinking about taking a day off from his casual painting job to relax.

He just woke up early in the morning and he's about to call his boss to say that he won't be coming in to work.

But he's thinking about the hours that he could work today (in the future) which are:

A man has taken a day off from his casual painting job to relax.

It's the end of the day and he's thinking about the hours that he could have spent working (in the past) which are now:

A firm has forecast its Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) for this year and management is worried that it is too low. Which one of the following actions will lead to a higher CFFA for this year (t=0 to 1)? Only consider cash flows this year. Do not consider cash flows after one year, or the change in the NPV of the firm. Consider each action in isolation.

To value a business's assets, the free cash flow of the firm (FCFF, also called CFFA) needs to be calculated. This requires figures from the firm's income statement and balance sheet. For what figures is the balance sheet needed? Note that the balance sheet is sometimes also called the statement of financial position.

Which one of the following will decrease net income (NI) but increase cash flow from assets (CFFA) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

Remember:

###NI = (Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )### ###CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \Delta NWC+IntExp###Which one of the following will have no effect on net income (NI) but decrease cash flow from assets (CFFA or FFCF) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

Remember:

###NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )### ###CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - ΔNWC+IntExp###Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

One Year Mining Project Data | ||

Project life | 1 year | |

Initial investment in building mine and equipment | $9m | |

Depreciation of mine and equipment over the year | $8m | |

Kilograms of gold mined at end of year | 1,000 | |

Sale price per kilogram | $0.05m | |

Variable cost per kilogram | $0.03m | |

Before-tax cost of closing mine at end of year | $4m | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Note 1: Due to the project, the firm also anticipates finding some rare diamonds which will give before-tax revenues of $1m at the end of the year.

Note 2: The land that will be mined actually has thermal springs and a family of koalas that could be sold to an eco-tourist resort for an after-tax amount of $3m right now. However, if the mine goes ahead then this natural beauty will be destroyed.

Note 3: The mining equipment will have a book value of $1m at the end of the year for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $2.5m when it is sold.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero and one. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m), with the first cash flow at time zero, and the second at time one.

Your friend just bought a house for $**1,000,000**. He financed it using a $**900,000** mortgage loan and a deposit of $**100,000**.

In the context of residential housing and mortgages, the 'equity' or 'net wealth' tied up in a house is the value of the house less the value of the mortgage loan. Assuming that your friend's only asset is his house, his net wealth is $100,000.

If house prices suddenly fall by **15%**, what would be your friend's percentage change in net wealth?

Assume that:

- No income (rent) was received from the house during the short time over which house prices fell.
- Your friend will not declare bankruptcy, he will always pay off his debts.

Here are the Net Income (NI) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) equations:

###NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)###

###CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp###

What is the formula for calculating annual interest expense (IntExp) which is used in the equations above?

Select one of the following answers. Note that D is the value of debt which is constant through time, and ##r_D## is the cost of debt.

Which one of the following will **decrease** net income (NI) but **increase** cash flow from assets (CFFA) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

Remember:

###NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )### ###CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - ΔNWC+IntExp###A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 60%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio?

A retail furniture company buys furniture wholesale and distributes it through its retail stores. The owner believes that she has some good ideas for making stylish new furniture. She is considering a project to buy a factory and employ workers to manufacture the new furniture she's designed. Furniture manufacturing has more systematic risk than furniture retailing.

Her furniture retailing firm's after-tax WACC is 20%. Furniture manufacturing firms have an after-tax WACC of 30%. Both firms are optimally geared. Assume a classical tax system.

Which method(s) will give the correct valuation of the new furniture-making project? Select the most correct answer.

One method for calculating a firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to ignore interest expense. That is, pretend that interest expense ##(IntExp)## is zero:

###\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - 0)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC - 0\\ \end{aligned}###

**Question 413** CFFA, interest tax shield, depreciation tax shield

There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA).

One method is to use the following formulas to transform net income (NI) into FFCF including interest and depreciation tax shields:

###FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp###

###NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )###

Another popular method is to use EBITDA rather than net income. EBITDA is defined as:

###EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC###

One of the below formulas correctly calculates FFCF from EBITDA, including interest and depreciation tax shields, giving an identical answer to that above. Which formula is correct?

**Question 99** capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged.

Assume that:

- The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates.
- The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium.
- There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs.
- Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered.

According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct?

**Question 121** capital structure, leverage, costs of financial distress, interest tax shield

Fill in the missing words in the following sentence:

All things remaining equal, as a firm's amount of debt funding falls, benefits of interest tax shields __________ and the costs of financial distress __________.

**Question 337** capital structure, interest tax shield, leverage, real and nominal returns and cash flows, multi stage growth model

A fast-growing firm is suitable for valuation using a multi-stage growth model.

It's **nominal** unlevered cash flow from assets (##CFFA_U##) at the end of this year (**t=1**) is expected to be $**1** million. After that it is expected to grow at a rate of:

**12**% pa for the next two years (from t=1 to 3),**5**% over the fourth year (from t=3 to 4), and**-1**% forever after that (from t=4 onwards). Note that this is a negative one percent growth rate.

Assume that:

- The nominal WACC
**after**tax is**9.5**% pa and is not expected to change. - The nominal WACC
**before**tax is**10**% pa and is not expected to change. - The firm has a target debt-to-
**equity**ratio that it plans to maintain. - The inflation rate is
**3**% pa. - All rates are given as
**nominal**effective annual rates.

What is the levered value of this fast growing firm's assets?

Katya offers to pay you $10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years (t=1,2,3,4,5) if you pay her $50 now (t=0). You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Ignore credit risk.

Your friend wants to borrow $1,000 and offers to pay you back $100 in 6 months, with more $100 payments at the end of every month for another 11 months. So there will be twelve $100 payments in total. She says that 12 payments of $100 equals $1,200 so she's being generous.

If interest rates are 12% pa, given as an APR compounding monthly, what is the Net Present Value (NPV) of your friend's deal?

**Question 58** NPV, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, Annuity

A project to build a toll bridge will take two years to complete, costing three payments of $100 million at the start of each year for the next three years, that is at t=0, 1 and 2.

After completion, the toll bridge will yield a constant $50 million at the end of each year for the next 10 years. So the first payment will be at t=3 and the last at t=12. After the last payment at t=12, the bridge will be given to the government.

The required return of the project is 21% pa given as an effective annual **nominal** rate.

All cash flows are **real** and the expected inflation rate is 10% pa given as an effective annual rate. Ignore taxes.

The Net Present Value is:

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $60, with the first payment in 3 years from now (first payment at t=3).
- 1 payment of $400 in 5 years and 6 months (t=5.5) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 3 years from now (first payment at t=3).
- 1 payment of $600 in 5 years and 6 months (t=5.5) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

There are many ways to write the ordinary annuity formula.

Which of the following is **NOT** equal to the ordinary annuity formula?

Your friend overheard that you need some cash and asks if you would like to borrow some money. She can lend you $**5,000** now (t=0), and in return she wants you to pay her back $1,000 in two years (t=2) and every year after that for the next 5 years, so there will be **6** payments of $**1,000** from t=**2** to t=**7** inclusive.

What is the net present value (NPV) of borrowing from your friend?

Assume that banks loan funds at interest rates of **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

This annuity formula ##\dfrac{C_1}{r}\left(1-\dfrac{1}{(1+r)^3} \right)## is equivalent to which of the following formulas? Note the **3**.

In the below formulas, ##C_t## is a cash flow at time t. All of the cash flows are equal, but paid at different times.

**Question 498** NPV, Annuity, perpetuity with growth, multi stage growth model

A business project is expected to cost $100 now (t=0), then pay $10 at the end of the third (t=3), fourth, fifth and sixth years, and then grow by 5% pa every year forever. So the cash flow will be $10.5 at the end of the seventh year (t=7), then $11.025 at the end of the eighth year (t=8) and so on perpetually. The total required return is 10℅ pa.

Which of the following formulas will **NOT** give the correct net present value of the project?

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 6.5 years from now (first payment at t=6.5).
- A single payment of $500 in 4 years and 3 months (t=4.25) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

You are promised **20** payments of $**100**, where the first payment is immediate (t=**0**) and the last is at the end of the 19th year (t=**19**). The effective annual discount rate is ##r##.

Which of the following equations does **NOT** give the correct present value of these 20 payments?

Telsa Motors advertises that its Model S electric car saves $**570** per month in fuel costs. Assume that Tesla cars last for **10** years, fuel and electricity costs remain the same, and savings are made at the end of each month with the first saving of $570 in one month from now.

The effective annual interest rate is **15.8**%, and the effective monthly interest rate is **1.23**%. What is the present value of the savings?

A student just won the lottery. She won $1 million in cash after tax. She is trying to calculate how much she can spend per month for the rest of her life. She assumes that she will live for another 60 years. She wants to withdraw equal amounts at the beginning of every month, starting right now.

All of the cash is currently sitting in a bank account which pays interest at a rate of 6% pa, given as an APR compounding per month. On her last withdrawal, she intends to have nothing left in her bank account. How much can she withdraw at the beginning of each month?

The phone company Optus have 2 mobile service plans on offer which both have the same amount of phone call, text message and internet data credit. Both plans have a contract length of **24** months and the monthly cost is payable in **advance**. The only difference between the two plans is that one is a:

- 'Bring Your Own' (BYO) mobile service plan, costing $
**80**per month. There is no phone included in this plan. The other plan is a: - 'Bundled' mobile service plan that comes with the latest smart phone, costing $
**100**per month. This plan includes the latest smart phone.

Neither plan has any additional payments at the start or end. Assume that the discount rate is **1**% per month given as an effective monthly rate.

The only difference between the plans is the phone, so what is the implied cost of the phone as a present value? Given that the latest smart phone actually costs $**600** to purchase outright from another retailer, should you commit to the BYO plan or the bundled plan?

**Question 65** annuity with growth, needs refinement

Which of the below formulas gives the present value of an annuity with growth?

**Hint**: The equation of a perpetuity without growth is: ###V_\text{0, perp without growth} = \frac{C_\text{1}}{r}###

The formula for the present value of an annuity without growth is derived from the formula for a perpetuity without growth.

The idea is than an annuity with T payments from t=1 to T inclusive is equivalent to a perpetuity starting at t=1 with fixed positive cash flows, plus a perpetuity starting T periods later (t=T+1) with fixed negative cash flows. The positive and negative cash flows after time period T cancel each other out, leaving the positive cash flows between t=1 to T, which is the annuity.

###\begin{aligned} V_\text{0, annuity} &= V_\text{0, perp without growth from t=1} - V_\text{0, perp without growth from t=T+1} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} - \dfrac{ \left( \dfrac{C_\text{T+1}}{r} \right) }{(1+r)^T} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} - \dfrac{ \left( \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} \right) }{(1+r)^T} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r}\left(1 - \dfrac{1}{(1+r)^T}\right) \\ \end{aligned}###

The equation of a perpetuity with growth is:

###V_\text{0, perp with growth} = \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r-g}###A credit card offers an interest rate of 18% pa, compounding monthly.

Find the effective monthly rate, effective annual rate and the effective daily rate. Assume that there are 365 days in a year.

All answers are given in the same order:

### r_\text{eff monthly} , r_\text{eff yearly} , r_\text{eff daily} ###

You want to buy an apartment priced at $300,000. You have saved a deposit of $30,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $270,000 as a **fully amortising** loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 12% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments? Remember that mortgage loan payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

You really want to go on a back packing trip to Europe when you finish university. Currently you have $**1,500** in the bank. Bank interest rates are **8**% pa, given as an APR compounding per month. If the holiday will cost $**2,000**, how long will it take for your bank account to reach that amount?

**Question 49** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, APR, effective rate

In Australia, nominal yields on **semi**-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently **2.83**% pa.

The inflation rate is currently **2.2**% pa, given as an APR compounding per **quarter**. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years.

What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months?

**Question 64** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, APR, effective rate

In Germany, nominal yields on **semi**-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently **0.04**% pa.

The inflation rate is currently **1.4**% pa, given as an APR compounding per **quarter**. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years.

What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months?

You want to buy an apartment worth $500,000. You have saved a deposit of $50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $450,000 as a **fully amortising** mortgage loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments?

Calculate the effective annual rates of the following three APR's:

- A credit card offering an interest rate of 18% pa, compounding monthly.
- A bond offering a yield of 6% pa, compounding semi-annually.
- An annual dividend-paying stock offering a return of 10% pa compounding annually.

All answers are given in the same order:

##r_\text{credit card, eff yrly}##, ##r_\text{bond, eff yrly}##, ##r_\text{stock, eff yrly}##

You want to buy an apartment worth $400,000. You have saved a deposit of $80,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $320,000 as a **fully amortising** mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments?

A three year corporate bond yields 12% pa with a coupon rate of 10% pa, paid semi-annually.

Find the effective six month yield, effective annual yield and the effective daily yield. Assume that each month has 30 days and that there are 360 days in a year.

All answers are given in the same order:

##r_\text{eff semi-annual}##, ##r_\text{eff yearly}##, ##r_\text{eff daily}##.

A 2 year government bond yields 5% pa with a coupon rate of 6% pa, paid semi-annually.

Find the effective six month rate, effective annual rate and the effective daily rate. Assume that each month has 30 days and that there are 360 days in a year.

All answers are given in the same order:

##r_\text{eff semi-annual}##, ##r_\text{eff yrly}##, ##r_\text{eff daily}##.

You just signed up for a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage loan with monthly payments of $2,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 5 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change.

You just signed up for a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage with monthly payments of $1,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 20 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change.

You just signed up for a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage loan with monthly payments of $1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 10 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change.

Harvey Norman the large retailer often runs sales advertising 2 years **interest free** when you purchase its products. This offer can be seen as a free personal loan from Harvey Norman to its customers.

Assume that banks charge an interest rate on personal loans of 12% pa given as an APR compounding per month. This is the interest rate that Harvey Norman deserves on the 2 year loan it extends to its customers. Therefore Harvey Norman must implicitly include the cost of this loan in the advertised sale price of its goods.

If you were a customer buying from Harvey Norman, and you were paying immediately, not in 2 years, what is the minimum percentage discount to the advertised sale price that you would insist on? (Hint: if it makes it easier, assume that you’re buying a product with an advertised price of $100).

You just signed up for a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage loan with monthly payments of $1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

To your surprise, you can actually afford to pay $2,000 per month and your mortgage allows early repayments without fees. If you maintain these higher monthly payments, how long will it take to pay off your mortgage?

You just agreed to a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage loan with monthly payments of $2,500. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 10 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change. The below choices are given in the same order.

You just started work at your new job which pays $48,000 per year.

The human resources department have given you the option of being paid at the end of every week or every month.

Assume that there are 4 weeks per month, 12 months per year and 48 weeks per year.

Bank interest rates are 12% pa given as an APR compounding per month.

What is the dollar gain over one year, as a net present value, of being paid every week rather than every month?

Your main expense is fuel for your car which costs $100 per month. You just refueled, so you won't need any more fuel for another month (first payment at t=1 month).

You have $2,500 in a bank account which pays interest at a rate of 6% pa, payable monthly. Interest rates are not expected to change.

Assuming that you have no income, in how many months time will you not have enough money to **fully** refuel your car?

You want to buy a house priced at $400,000. You have saved a deposit of $40,000. The bank has agreed to lend you $360,000 as a **fully amortising** loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 8% pa payable monthly and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments?

A 2 year corporate bond yields 3% pa with a coupon rate of 5% pa, paid semi-annually.

Find the effective monthly rate, effective six month rate, and effective annual rate.

##r_\text{eff monthly}##, ##r_\text{eff 6 month}##, ##r_\text{eff annual}##.

A student won $**1**m in a lottery. Currently the money is in a bank account which pays interest at **6**% pa, given as an APR compounding per month.

She plans to spend $**20,000** at the **beginning** of every month from now on (so the first withdrawal will be at t=0). After each withdrawal, she will check how much money is left in the account. When there is less than $**500,000** left, she will donate that remaining amount to charity.

In how many months will she make her last withdrawal and donate the remainder to charity?

Which of the below statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is **NOT** correct?

A **10** year Australian government bond was just issued at **par** with a yield of **3.9**% pa. The fixed coupon payments are **semi-annual**. The bond has a face value of $**1,000**.

**Six months** later, just **after** the first coupon is paid, the yield of the bond decreases to **3.65**% pa. What is the bond's **new price**?

Which of the following statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is **NOT** correct?

**Question 550** fully amortising loan, interest only loan, APR, no explanation

Many Australian home loans that are interest-only actually require payments to be made on a fully amortising basis after a number of years.

You decide to borrow $**600,000** from the bank at an interest rate of **4.25**% pa for 25 years. The payments will be **interest-only** for the first **10** years (t=0 to 10 years), then they will have to be paid on a **fully amortising** basis for the last **15** years (t=10 to 25 years).

Assuming that interest rates will remain constant, what will be your monthly payments for the next 10 years from now, and then the next 15 years after that? The answer options are given in the same order.

You just entered into a fully amortising home loan with a principal of $**600,000**, a variable interest rate of **4.25**% pa and a term of **25** years.

Immediately after settling the loan, the variable interest rate suddenly falls to **4**% pa! You can't believe your luck. Despite this, you plan to continue paying the same home loan payments as you did before. How long will it now take to pay off your home loan?

Assume that the lower interest rate was granted immediately and that rates were and are now again expected to remain constant. Round your answer up to the nearest whole month.

A home loan company advertises an interest rate of 6% pa, payable monthly. Which of the following statements about the interest rate is **NOT** correct? All rates are given to four decimal places.

A credit card company advertises an interest rate of 18% pa, payable monthly. Which of the following statements about the interest rate is **NOT** correct? All rates are given to four decimal places.

**Question 659** APR, effective rate, effective rate conversion, no explanation

A home loan company advertises an interest rate of 9% pa, payable monthly. Which of the following statements about the interest rate is **NOT** correct? All rates are given with an accuracy of 4 decimal places.

How much more can you borrow using an **interest-only** loan compared to a **25**-year **fully amortising** loan if interest rates are **6**% pa compounding per month and are not expected to change? If it makes it easier, assume that you can afford to pay $2,000 per month on either loan. Express your answer as a proportional increase using the following formula:

A home loan company advertises an interest rate of **4.5**% pa, payable monthly. Which of the following statements about the interest rate is **NOT** correct?

**Question 737** financial statement, balance sheet, income statement

Where can a publicly listed firm's book value of equity be found? It can be sourced from the company's:

**Question 738** financial statement, balance sheet, income statement

Where can a private firm's market value of equity be found? It can be sourced from the company's:

**Question 524** risk, expected and historical returns, bankruptcy or insolvency, capital structure, corporate financial decision theory, limited liability

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 531** bankruptcy or insolvency, capital structure, risk, limited liability

Who is most in danger of being **personally** bankrupt? Assume that all of their businesses' assets are highly liquid and can therefore be sold immediately.

For a price of $100, Vera will sell you a 2 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 10% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with similar risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 8% pa.

For a price of $100, Carol will sell you a 5 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 16% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with similar risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 12% pa.

For a price of $100, Rad will sell you a 5 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 16% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 6% pa.

For a price of $100, Andrea will sell you a 2 year bond paying annual coupons of 10% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 6% pa.

For a price of $95, Nicole will sell you a 10 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 8% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 8% pa.

A fixed coupon bond was bought for $90 and paid its annual coupon of $3 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was $92 (at t=1 year). What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates.

The choices are given in the same order: ## r_\text{total},r_\text{capital},r_\text{income} ##.

A three year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 10% and a fixed coupon rate of 5%, paid **semi**-annually. What is its price?

Bonds X and Y are issued by the same US company. Both bonds yield **10**% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond X and Y's **coupon rates** are **8** and **12**% pa respectively. Which of the following statements is true?

**Question 48** IRR, NPV, bond pricing, premium par and discount bonds, market efficiency

The theory of fixed interest bond pricing is an application of the theory of Net Present Value (NPV). Also, a 'fairly priced' asset is not over- or under-priced. Buying or selling a fairly priced asset has an NPV of zero.

Considering this, which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

A two year Government bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 0.5% and a fixed coupon rate of 0.5%, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

A two year Government bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 2.5% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 0.5% pa, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

The theory of fixed interest bond pricing is an application of the theory of Net Present Value (NPV). Also, a 'fairly priced' asset is not over- or under-priced. Buying or selling a fairly priced asset has an NPV of zero.

Considering this, which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

A bond maturing in 10 years has a coupon rate of 4% pa, paid semi-annually. The bond's yield is currently 6% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. What is its price?

Bonds A and B are issued by the same Australian company. Both bonds yield 7% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond A pays coupons of 10% pa and bond B pays coupons of 5% pa. Which of the following statements is true about the bonds' prices?

Bonds X and Y are issued by different companies, but they both pay a semi-annual coupon of 10% pa and they have the same face value ($100), maturity (3 years) and yield (10%) as each other.

Which of the following statements is true?

A four year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 6% and a fixed coupon rate of 12%, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

Which one of the following bonds is trading at a discount?

A five year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 12% and a fixed coupon rate of 6%, paid semi-annually.

What is the bond's price?

Which one of the following bonds is trading at par?

Which one of the following bonds is trading at a premium?

A four year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 9% and a fixed coupon rate of 6%, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

In these tough economic times, central banks around the world have cut interest rates so low that they are practically zero. In some countries, government bond yields are also very close to zero.

A three year government bond with a face value of $100 and a coupon rate of 2% pa paid semi-annually was just issued at a yield of 0%. What is the price of the bond?

A 10 year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 6% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 8% pa, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

Bonds X and Y are issued by the same company. Both bonds yield 10% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond X pays coupons of 6% pa and bond Y pays coupons of 8% pa. Which of the following statements is true?

A **30** year Japanese government bond was just issued at **par** with a yield of **1.7**% pa. The fixed coupon payments are **semi-annual**. The bond has a face value of $**100**.

**Six months** later, just **after** the first coupon is paid, the yield of the bond increases to **2**% pa. What is the bond's **new** price?

Bonds X and Y are issued by the same US company. Both bonds yield **6**% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond X pays coupons of **8**% pa and bond Y pays coupons of **12**% pa. Which of the following statements is true?

Below are some statements about loans and bonds. The first descriptive sentence is correct. But one of the second sentences about the loans' or bonds' prices is not correct. Which statement is **NOT** correct? Assume that interest rates are positive.

Note that coupons or interest payments are the periodic payments made throughout a bond or loan's life. The face or par value of a bond or loan is the amount paid at the end when the debt matures.

Calculate the price of a newly issued **ten** year bond with a face value of $**100**, a yield of **8**% pa and a fixed coupon rate of **6**% pa, paid **annually**. So there's only one coupon per year, paid in arrears every year.

Calculate the price of a newly issued **ten** year bond with a face value of $**100**, a yield of **8**% pa and a fixed coupon rate of **6**% pa, paid **semi**-annually. So there are two coupons per year, paid in arrears every six months.

**Question 536** idiom, bond pricing, capital structure, leverage

The expression 'my word is my bond' is often used in everyday language to make a serious promise.

Why do you think this expression uses the metaphor of a bond rather than a share?

**Question 538** bond pricing, income and capital returns, no explanation

Risk-free government bonds that have coupon rates greater than their yields:

An investor bought a **10** year **2.5**% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at **par**. The face value is $**100**. Coupons are paid **semi-annually** and the next one is in 6 months.

**Six months later**, just **after** the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly fell to **2**% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually.

What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate?

An investor bought a **20** year **5**% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at **par**. The face value is $100. Coupons are paid semi-annually and the next one is in 6 months.

Six months later, just after the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly rose to **5.5**% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually.

What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate?

"Buy low, sell high" is a phrase commonly heard in financial markets. It states that traders should try to buy assets at low prices and sell at high prices.

Traders in the fixed-coupon bond markets often quote promised bond yields rather than prices. Fixed-coupon bond traders should try to:

A **4.5**% fixed coupon Australian Government bond was issued at **par** in mid-**April 2009**. Coupons are paid **semi-annually** in arrears in mid-April and mid-October each year. The face value is $**1,000**. The bond will mature in mid-**April 2020**, so the bond had an original tenor of **11** years.

Today is mid-**September 2015** and similar bonds now yield **1.9**% pa.

What is the bond's new price? Note: there are 10 semi-annual coupon payments remaining from now (mid-September 2015) until maturity (mid-April 2020); both yields are given as APR's compounding semi-annually; assume that the yield curve was flat before the change in yields, and remained flat afterwards as well.

Which of the following statements about book and market equity is **NOT** correct?

**Question 445** financing decision, corporate financial decision theory

The financing decision primarily affects which part of a business?

**Question 446** working capital decision, corporate financial decision theory

The working capital decision primarily affects which part of a business?

**Question 443** corporate financial decision theory, investment decision, financing decision, working capital decision, payout policy

Business people make lots of important decisions. Which of the following is the **most** important long term decision?

**Question 447** payout policy, corporate financial decision theory

Payout policy is most closely related to which part of a business?

The expression 'you have to spend money to make money' relates to which business decision?

**Question 767** idiom, corporate financial decision theory, no explanation

The sayings "Don't cry over spilt milk", "Don't regret the things that you can't change" and "What's done is done" are most closely related to which financial concept?

**Question 22** NPV, perpetuity with growth, effective rate, effective rate conversion

What is the NPV of the following series of cash flows when the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

The first payment of $90 is in 3 years, followed by payments every 6 months in perpetuity after that which shrink by 3% every 6 months. That is, the growth rate every 6 months is actually negative 3%, given as an effective 6 month rate. So the payment at ## t=3.5 ## years will be ## 90(1-0.03)^1=87.3 ##, and so on.

**Question 31** DDM, perpetuity with growth, effective rate conversion

What is the NPV of the following series of cash flows when the discount rate is **5**% given as an effective **annual** rate?

The first payment of $10 is in 4 years, followed by payments every 6 months forever after that which shrink by 2% every 6 months. That is, the growth rate every 6 months is actually **negative 2%**, given as an effective **6 month** rate. So the payment at ## t=4.5 ## years will be ## 10(1-0.02)^1=9.80 ##, and so on.

A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of $10. The dividend is expected to grow at 2% every 6 months forever. This 2% growth rate is an effective 6 month rate. Therefore the next dividend will be $10.20 in six months. The required return of the stock is 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the price of the share now?

**Question 579** price gains and returns over time, time calculation, effective rate

How many years will it take for an asset's price to **double** if the price grows by **10**% pa?

**Question 580** price gains and returns over time, time calculation, effective rate

How many years will it take for an asset's price to **quadruple** (be four times as big, say from $1 to $4) if the price grows by **15**% pa?

**Question 691** continuously compounding rate, effective rate, continuously compounding rate conversion, no explanation

A bank quotes an interest rate of **6**% pa with quarterly compounding. Note that another way of stating this rate is that it is an annual percentage rate (APR) compounding discretely every 3 months.

Which of the following statements about this rate is **NOT** correct? All percentages are given to 6 decimal places. The equivalent:

You want to buy an apartment priced at $300,000. You have saved a deposit of $30,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $270,000 as an **interest only** loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 12% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments? Remember that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

You just signed up for a 30 year **interest-only** mortgage with monthly payments of $3,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 15 years, just after the 180th payment at that time, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change. Remember that the mortgage is interest-only and that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

You just borrowed $400,000 in the form of a 25 year **interest-only** mortgage with monthly payments of $3,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

You actually plan to pay more than the required interest payment. You plan to pay $3,300 in mortgage payments every month, which your mortgage lender allows. These extra payments will reduce the principal and the minimum interest payment required each month.

At the maturity of the mortgage, what will be the principal? That is, after the last (300th) interest payment of $3,300 in 25 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage?

You want to buy an apartment worth $300,000. You have saved a deposit of $60,000.

The bank has agreed to lend you $240,000 as an **interest only** mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments?

A prospective home buyer can afford to pay $2,000 per month in mortgage loan repayments. The central bank recently lowered its policy rate by 0.25%, and residential home lenders cut their mortgage loan rates from 4.74% to 4.49%.

How much more can the prospective home buyer borrow now that interest rates are **4.49%** rather than **4.74%**? Give your answer as a proportional increase over the original amount he could borrow (##V_\text{before}##), so:

Assume that:

- Interest rates are expected to be
**constant**over the life of the loan. - Loans are
**interest-only**and have a life of 30 years. - Mortgage loan payments are made every month in arrears and all interest rates are given as annualised percentage rates compounding per month.

In Australia in the 1980's, inflation was around 8% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 14%.

In 2013, inflation was around 2.5% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 4.5%.

If a person can afford constant mortgage loan payments of $**2,000** per month, how much more can they borrow when interest rates are **4.5**% pa compared with **14.0**% pa?

Give your answer as a proportional increase over the amount you could borrow when interest rates were high ##(V_\text{high rates})##, so:

###\text{Proportional increase} = \dfrac{V_\text{low rates}-V_\text{high rates}}{V_\text{high rates}} ###

Assume that:

- Interest rates are expected to be constant over the life of the loan.
- Loans are
**interest-only**and have a life of**30**years. - Mortgage loan payments are made every month in arrears and all interest rates are given as annualised percentage rates (
**APR**'s) compounding per**month**.

**Question 546** income and capital returns, interest only loan, no explanation

Which of the following statements about the capital and income returns of an **interest-only** loan is correct?

Assume that the yield curve (which shows total returns over different maturities) is flat and is not expected to change.

An interest-only loan's expected:

How much more can you borrow using an **interest-only** loan compared to a **25**-year **fully amortising** loan if interest rates are **4**% pa compounding per month and are not expected to change? If it makes it easier, assume that you can afford to pay $2,000 per month on either loan. Express your answer as a proportional increase using the following formula:

**Question 760** time calculation, interest only loan, no explanation

**Five** years ago (##t=-5## years) you entered into an **interest-only** home loan with a principal of $**500,000**, an interest rate of **4.5**% pa compounding monthly with a term of **25** years.

Then interest rates suddenly fall to **3**% pa (##t=0##), but you continue to pay the same monthly home loan payments as you did before. Will your home loan be paid off by the end of its remaining term? If so, in how many years from now? Measure the time taken to pay off the home loan from the current time which is 5 years after the home loan was first entered into.

Assume that the lower interest rate was given to you immediately after the loan repayment at the end of year 5, which was the 60th payment since the loan was granted. Also assume that rates were and are expected to remain constant.

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university or not.

The young lady's parents say that she must attend university because otherwise all of her hard work studying and attending school during her childhood was a waste.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to decide whether to attend university?

The hard work studying at school in her childhood should be classified as:

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university. Her friends say that she should go to university because she is more likely to meet a clever young man than if she begins full time work straight away.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to find the Net Present Value of going to university rather than working?

The opportunity to meet a desirable future spouse should be classified as:

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university or begin working straight away in her home town.

The young lady's grandma says that she should not go to university because she is less likely to marry the local village boy whom she likes because she will spend less time with him if she attends university.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to decide whether to attend university?

The cost of not marrying the local village boy should be classified as:

The US firm Google operates in the online advertising business. In 2011 Google bought Motorola Mobility which manufactures mobile phones.

Assume the following:

- Google had a 10% after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC) before it bought Motorola.
- Motorola had a 20% after-tax WACC before it merged with Google.
- Google and Motorola have the same level of gearing.
- Both companies operate in a classical tax system.

You are a manager at Motorola. You must value a project for making mobile phones. Which method(s) will give the correct valuation of the mobile phone manufacturing project? Select the most correct answer.

The mobile phone manufacturing project's:

Find Trademark Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

Trademark Corp | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 100 | |

COGS | 25 | |

Operating expense | 5 | |

Depreciation | 20 | |

Interest expense | 20 | |

Income before tax | 30 | |

Tax at 30% | 9 | |

Net income | 21 | |

Trademark Corp | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Assets | ||

Current assets | 120 | 80 |

PPE | ||

Cost | 150 | 140 |

Accumul. depr. | 60 | 40 |

Carrying amount | 90 | 100 |

Total assets | 210 | 180 |

Liabilities | ||

Current liabilities | 75 | 65 |

Non-current liabilities | 75 | 55 |

Owners' equity | ||

Retained earnings | 10 | 10 |

Contributed equity | 50 | 50 |

Total L and OE | 210 | 180 |

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Interest expense (IntExp) is an important part of a company's income statement (or 'profit and loss' or 'statement of financial performance').

How does an **accountant** calculate the annual interest expense of a fixed-coupon bond that has a liquid secondary market? Select the most correct answer:

Annual interest expense is equal to:

Find UniBar Corp's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

UniBar Corp | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 80 | |

COGS | 40 | |

Operating expense | 15 | |

Depreciation | 10 | |

Interest expense | 5 | |

Income before tax | 10 | |

Tax at 30% | 3 | |

Net income | 7 | |

UniBar Corp | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Assets | ||

Current assets | 120 | 90 |

PPE | ||

Cost | 360 | 320 |

Accumul. depr. | 40 | 30 |

Carrying amount | 320 | 290 |

Total assets | 440 | 380 |

Liabilities | ||

Current liabilities | 110 | 60 |

Non-current liabilities | 190 | 180 |

Owners' equity | ||

Retained earnings | 95 | 95 |

Contributed equity | 45 | 45 |

Total L and OE | 440 | 380 |

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Find Piano Bar's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

Piano Bar | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 310 | |

COGS | 185 | |

Operating expense | 20 | |

Depreciation | 15 | |

Interest expense | 10 | |

Income before tax | 80 | |

Tax at 30% | 24 | |

Net income | 56 | |

Piano Bar | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Assets | ||

Current assets | 240 | 230 |

PPE | ||

Cost | 420 | 400 |

Accumul. depr. | 50 | 35 |

Carrying amount | 370 | 365 |

Total assets | 610 | 595 |

Liabilities | ||

Current liabilities | 180 | 190 |

Non-current liabilities | 290 | 265 |

Owners' equity | ||

Retained earnings | 90 | 90 |

Contributed equity | 50 | 50 |

Total L and OE | 610 | 595 |

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Find World Bar's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

World Bar | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 300 | |

COGS | 150 | |

Operating expense | 50 | |

Depreciation | 40 | |

Interest expense | 10 | |

Taxable income | 50 | |

Tax at 30% | 15 | |

Net income | 35 | |

World Bar | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Assets | ||

Current assets | 200 | 230 |

PPE | ||

Cost | 400 | 400 |

Accumul. depr. | 75 | 35 |

Carrying amount | 325 | 365 |

Total assets | 525 | 595 |

Liabilities | ||

Current liabilities | 150 | 205 |

Non-current liabilities | 235 | 250 |

Owners' equity | ||

Retained earnings | 100 | 100 |

Contributed equity | 40 | 40 |

Total L and OE | 525 | 595 |

Note: all figures above and below are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Value the following business project to manufacture a new product.

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 yrs | |

Initial investment in equipment | $6m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year | $3m | |

Expected sale price of equipment at end of project | $0.6m | |

Unit sales per year | 4m | |

Sale price per unit | $8 | |

Variable cost per unit | $5 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $1m | |

Interest expense per year | 0 | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Weighted average cost of capital after tax per annum | 10% | |

**Notes**

- The firm's current assets and current liabilities are $3m and $2m respectively right now. This net working capital will not be used in this project, it will be used in other unrelated projects.

Due to the project, current assets (mostly inventory) will grow by $2m initially (at t = 0), and then by $0.2m at the end of the first year (t=1).

Current liabilities (mostly trade creditors) will increase by $0.1m at the end of the first year (t=1).

At the end of the project, the net working capital accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that it was bought. - The project cost $0.5m to research which was incurred one year ago.

**Assumptions**

- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa.
- All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The business considering the project is run as a 'sole tradership' (run by an individual without a company) and is therefore eligible for a 50% capital gains tax discount when the equipment is sold, as permitted by the Australian Tax Office.

What is the expected net present value (NPV) of the project?

Find Scubar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

Scubar Corp | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 200 | |

COGS | 60 | |

Depreciation | 20 | |

Rent expense | 11 | |

Interest expense | 19 | |

Taxable Income | 90 | |

Taxes at 30% | 27 | |

Net income | 63 | |

Scubar Corp | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Inventory | 60 | 50 |

Trade debtors | 19 | 6 |

Rent paid in advance | 3 | 2 |

PPE | 420 | 400 |

Total assets | 502 | 458 |

Trade creditors | 10 | 8 |

Bond liabilities | 200 | 190 |

Contributed equity | 130 | 130 |

Retained profits | 162 | 130 |

Total L and OE | 502 | 458 |

Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

Find Sidebar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

Sidebar Corp | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 405 | |

COGS | 100 | |

Depreciation | 34 | |

Rent expense | 22 | |

Interest expense | 39 | |

Taxable Income | 210 | |

Taxes at 30% | 63 | |

Net income | 147 | |

Sidebar Corp | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Inventory | 70 | 50 |

Trade debtors | 11 | 16 |

Rent paid in advance | 4 | 3 |

PPE | 700 | 680 |

Total assets | 785 | 749 |

Trade creditors | 11 | 19 |

Bond liabilities | 400 | 390 |

Contributed equity | 220 | 220 |

Retained profits | 154 | 120 |

Total L and OE | 785 | 749 |

Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

Find Ching-A-Lings Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

Ching-A-Lings Corp | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2013 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 100 | |

COGS | 20 | |

Depreciation | 20 | |

Rent expense | 11 | |

Interest expense | 19 | |

Taxable Income | 30 | |

Taxes at 30% | 9 | |

Net income | 21 | |

Ching-A-Lings Corp | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2013 | 2012 |

$m | $m | |

Inventory | 49 | 38 |

Trade debtors | 14 | 2 |

Rent paid in advance | 5 | 5 |

PPE | 400 | 400 |

Total assets | 468 | 445 |

Trade creditors | 4 | 10 |

Bond liabilities | 200 | 190 |

Contributed equity | 145 | 145 |

Retained profits | 119 | 100 |

Total L and OE | 468 | 445 |

Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA). Some include the annual interest tax shield in the cash flow and some do not.

Which of the below FFCF formulas include the interest tax shield in the cash flow?

###(1) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp### ###(2) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp.(1-t_c)### ###(3) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c )+ Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c### ###(4) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c) + Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC### ###(5) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c### ###(6) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC### ###(7) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC### ###(8) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c### ###(9) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC### ###(10) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c###The formulas for net income (NI also called earnings), EBIT and EBITDA are given below. Assume that depreciation and amortisation are both represented by 'Depr' and that 'FC' represents fixed costs such as rent.

###NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )### ###EBIT=Rev - COGS - FC-Depr### ###EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC### ###Tax =(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).t_c= \dfrac{NI.t_c}{1-t_c}###One formula for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to use earnings before interest and tax (EBIT).

###\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (EBIT)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp.t_c \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp.t_c \\ \end{aligned} \\###

**Question 370** capital budgeting, NPV, interest tax shield, WACC, CFFA

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 yrs | |

Initial investment in equipment | $600k | |

Depreciation of equipment per year | $250k | |

Expected sale price of equipment at end of project | $200k | |

Revenue per job | $12k | |

Variable cost per job | $4k | |

Quantity of jobs per year | 120 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $100k | |

Interest expense in first year (at t=1) | $16.091k | |

Interest expense in second year (at t=2) | $9.711k | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Government treasury bond yield | 5% | |

Bank loan debt yield | 6% | |

Levered cost of equity | 12.5% | |

Market portfolio return | 10% | |

Beta of assets | 1.24 | |

Beta of levered equity | 1.5 | |

Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio |
25% | |

**Notes**

- The project will require an immediate purchase of $
**50**k of inventory, which will all be sold at cost when the project ends. Current liabilities are negligible so they can be ignored.

**Assumptions**

- The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. Note that interest expense is different in each year.
- Thousands are represented by 'k' (kilo).
- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are nominal. The inflation rate is 2% pa.
- All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

One formula for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to use net operating profit after tax (NOPAT).

###\begin{aligned} FFCF &= NOPAT + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ \end{aligned} \\###

Read the following financial statements and calculate the firm's free cash flow over the 2014 financial year.

UBar Corp | ||

Income Statement for | ||

year ending 30th June 2014 | ||

$m | ||

Sales | 293 | |

COGS | 200 | |

Rent expense | 15 | |

Gas expense | 8 | |

Depreciation | 10 | |

EBIT | 60 | |

Interest expense | 0 | |

Taxable income | 60 | |

Taxes | 18 | |

Net income | 42 | |

UBar Corp | ||

Balance Sheet | ||

as at 30th June | 2014 | 2013 |

$m | $m | |

Assets | ||

Cash | 30 | 29 |

Accounts receivable | 5 | 7 |

Pre-paid rent expense | 1 | 0 |

Inventory | 50 | 46 |

PPE | 290 | 300 |

Total assets | 376 | 382 |

Liabilities | ||

Trade payables | 20 | 18 |

Accrued gas expense | 3 | 2 |

Non-current liabilities | 0 | 0 |

Contributed equity | 212 | 212 |

Retained profits | 136 | 150 |

Asset revaluation reserve | 5 | 0 |

Total L and OE | 376 | 382 |

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The firm's free cash flow over the 2014 financial year was:

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 years | |

Initial investment in equipment | $6m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes | $1m | |

Unit sales per year | 4m | |

Sale price per unit | $8 | |

Variable cost per unit | $3 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $1.5m | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Note 1: The equipment will have a book value of $4m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $0.9 million when it is sold at t=2.

Note 2: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase $0.8m of inventory initially, which it will sell at t=1. The firm will buy another $0.8m at t=1 and sell it all again at t=2 with zero inventory left. The project will have no effect on the firm's current liabilities.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Use the below information to value a levered company with constant annual perpetual cash flows from assets. The next cash flow will be generated in one year from now, so a perpetuity can be used to value this firm. Both the cash flow from assets including and excluding interest tax shields are constant (but not equal to each other).

Data on a Levered Firm with Perpetual Cash Flows | ||

Item abbreviation | Value | Item full name |

##\text{CFFA}_\text{U}## | $100m | Cash flow from assets excluding interest tax shields (unlevered) |

##\text{CFFA}_\text{L}## | $112m | Cash flow from assets including interest tax shields (levered) |

##g## | 0% pa | Growth rate of cash flow from assets, levered and unlevered |

##\text{WACC}_\text{BeforeTax}## | 7% pa | Weighted average cost of capital before tax |

##\text{WACC}_\text{AfterTax}## | 6.25% pa | Weighted average cost of capital after tax |

##r_\text{D}## | 5% pa | Cost of debt |

##r_\text{EL}## | 9% pa | Cost of levered equity |

##D/V_L## | 50% pa | Debt to assets ratio, where the asset value includes tax shields |

##t_c## | 30% | Corporate tax rate |

What is the value of the levered firm including interest tax shields?

**Question 545** income and capital returns, fully amortising loan, no explanation

Which of the following statements about the capital and income returns of a **25 year** **fully amortising** loan asset is correct?

Assume that the yield curve (which shows total returns over different maturities) is flat and is not expected to change.

Over the 25 years from issuance to maturity, a fully amortising loan's expected **annual** effective:

**Question 758** time calculation, fully amortising loan, no explanation

**Two** years ago you entered into a **fully amortising** home loan with a principal of $**1,000,000**, an interest rate of **6**% pa compounding monthly with a term of **25** years.

Then interest rates suddenly fall to **4.5**% pa (t=0), but you continue to pay the same monthly home loan payments as you did before. How long will it now take to pay off your home loan? Measure the time taken to pay off the home loan from the current time which is 2 years after the home loan was first entered into.

Assume that the lower interest rate was given to you immediately after the loan repayment at the end of year 2, which was the 24th payment since the loan was granted. Also assume that rates were and are expected to remain constant.

The below screenshot of Commonwealth Bank of Australia's (CBA) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 7 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was CBA's market capitalisation of equity?

The below screenshot of Microsoft's (MSFT) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 28 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was MSFT's market capitalisation of equity?

**Question 759** time calculation, fully amortising loan, no explanation

**Five** years ago you entered into a **fully amortising** home loan with a principal of $**500,000**, an interest rate of **4.5**% pa compounding monthly with a term of **25** years.

Then interest rates suddenly fall to **3**% pa (t=0), but you continue to pay the same monthly home loan payments as you did before. How long will it now take to pay off your home loan? Measure the time taken to pay off the home loan from the current time which is 5 years after the home loan was first entered into.

Assume that the lower interest rate was given to you immediately after the loan repayment at the end of year 5, which was the 60th payment since the loan was granted. Also assume that rates were and are expected to remain constant.

A firm's weighted average cost of capital before tax (##r_\text{WACC before tax}##) would **increase** due to:

A company issues a large amount of bonds to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. The net present value (NPV) of the new projects is positive but small. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is **NOT** correct?

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of equity to raise money for new projects of similar systematic risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct?

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of debt to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct?

Which of the following statements about the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is **NOT** correct?

One year ago you bought $**100,000** of shares partly funded using a margin loan. The margin loan size was $**70,000** and the other $**30,000** was your own wealth or 'equity' in the share assets.

The interest rate on the margin loan was **7.84**% pa.

Over the year, the shares produced a dividend yield of **4**% pa and a capital gain of **5**% pa.

What was the **total** return on your **wealth**? Ignore taxes, assume that all cash flows (interest payments and dividends) were paid and received at the end of the year, and all rates above are effective annual rates.

Hint: Remember that wealth in this context is your equity (E) in the house asset (V = D+E) which is funded by the loan (D) and your deposit or equity (E).

One year ago you bought a $**1,000,000** house partly funded using a mortgage loan. The loan size was $**800,000** and the other $**200,000** was your wealth or 'equity' in the house asset.

The interest rate on the home loan was **4**% pa.

Over the year, the house produced a net rental yield of **2**% pa and a capital gain of **2.5**% pa.

Assuming that all cash flows (interest payments and net rental payments) were paid and received at the end of the year, and all rates are given as effective annual rates, what was the **total** return on your **wealth** over the past year?

Hint: Remember that wealth in this context is your equity (E) in the house asset (V = D+E) which is funded by the loan (D) and your deposit or equity (E).

The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: ### P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g } ###

What is ##g##? The value ##g## is the long term expected:

You deposit money into a bank. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct? You:

You bought a house, primarily funded using a home loan from a bank. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 771** debt terminology, interest expense, interest tax shield, credit risk, no explanation

You deposit money into a bank account. Which of the following statements about this deposit is **NOT** correct?

A pharmaceutical firm has just discovered a valuable new drug. So far the news has been kept a secret.

The net present value of making and commercialising the drug is $**200** million, but $**600** million of bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment.

The firm will release the news of the discovery and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The bonds will be issued shortly after.

Once the announcement is made and the bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets (ΔV), market capitalisation of debt (ΔD) and market cap of equity (ΔE)?

The triangle symbol is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics.

Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt.

Remember: ##ΔV = ΔD+ΔE##

A mining firm has just discovered a new mine. So far the news has been kept a secret.

The net present value of digging the mine and selling the minerals is $**250** million, but $**500** million of new equity and $**300** million of new bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment.

The firm will release the news of the discovery and equity and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The shares and bonds will be issued shortly after.

Once the announcement is made and the new shares and bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets ##(\Delta V)##, market capitalisation of debt ##(\Delta D)## and market cap of equity ##(\Delta E)##? Assume that markets are semi-strong form efficient.

The triangle symbol ##\Delta## is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics.

Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt.

Remember: ##\Delta V = \Delta D+ \Delta E##

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

### p_{0} = \frac{c_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}} ###

What is the discount rate '## r_\text{eff} ##' in this equation?

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

### P_{0} = \frac{C_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}} ###

What would you call the expression ## C_1/P_0 ##?

A share was bought for $20 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of $3 one year later (at t=1). Just after the dividend was paid, the share price was $16 (at t=1). What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates.

The choices are given in the same order: ## r_\text{total},r_\text{capital},r_\text{income} ##.

The following is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) used to price stocks:

### P_0 = \frac{d_1}{r-g} ###Assume that the assumptions of the DDM hold and that the time period is measured in years.

Which of the following is equal to the expected dividend in 3 years, ## d_3 ##?

A stock was bought for $8 and paid a dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the stock price was $7 (at t=1 year).

What were the total, capital and dividend returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order:

##r_\text{total}##, ##r_\text{capital}##, ##r_\text{dividend}##.

When using the dividend discount model to price a stock:

### p_{0} = \frac{d_1}{r - g} ###

The growth rate of dividends (g):

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

### p_0 = \frac{d_1}{r - g} ###

Which expression is **NOT** equal to the expected dividend yield?

A share was bought for $30 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of $6 one year later (at t=1).

Just after the dividend was paid, the share price fell to $27 (at t=1). What were the total, capital and income returns given as effective annual rates?

The choices are given in the same order:

##r_\text{total}## , ##r_\text{capital}## , ##r_\text{dividend}##.

###p_0=\frac{d_1}{r_\text{eff}-g_\text{eff}}###

Which expression is **NOT** equal to the expected capital return?

A share was bought for $10 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1). Just after the dividend was paid, the share price was $11 (at t=1).

What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates. The choices are given in the same order:

##r_\text{total}##, ##r_\text{capital}##, ##r_\text{dividend}##.

The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks:

### p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g} ###

Which of the following statements about the Dividend Discount Model is **NOT** correct?

**Question 210** real estate, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, income and capital returns

Assume that the Gordon Growth Model (same as the dividend discount model or perpetuity with growth formula) is an appropriate method to value real estate.

The rule of thumb in the real estate industry is that properties should yield a **5**% pa rental return. Many investors also regard property to be as risky as the stock market, therefore property is thought to have a required **total** return of **9**% pa which is the average total return on the stock market including dividends.

Assume that all returns are effective annual rates and they are **nominal** (not reduced by inflation). Inflation is expected to be **2**% pa.

You're considering purchasing an investment property which has a rental yield of 5% pa and you expect it to have the same risk as the stock market. Select the most correct statement about this property.

**Question 239** income and capital returns, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, interest only loan

A bank grants a borrower an **interest-only** residential mortgage loan with a very large 50% deposit and a **nominal** interest rate of **6%** that is not expected to change. Assume that inflation is expected to be a **constant 2%** pa over the life of the loan. Ignore credit risk.

From the bank's point of view, what is the long term expected **nominal capital** return of the loan asset?

A 90-day $1 million Bank Accepted Bill (BAB) was bought for $990,000 and sold 30 days later for $996,000 (at t=30 days).

What was the total return, capital return and income return over the 30 days it was held?

Despite the fact that money market instruments such as bills are normally quoted with simple interest rates, please calculate your answers as compound interest rates, specifically, as effective 30-day rates, which is how the below answer choices are listed.

##r_\text{total}##, ##r_\text{capital}##, ## r_\text{income}##

A company's shares just paid their annual dividend of $2 each.

The stock price is now $40 (just after the dividend payment). The annual dividend is expected to grow by 3% every year forever. The assumptions of the dividend discount model are valid for this company.

What do you expect the effective annual **dividend yield** to be in 3 years (dividend yield from t=3 to t=4)?

Two years ago Fred bought a house for $**300,000**.

Now it's worth $**500,000**, based on recent similar sales in the area.

Fred's residential property has an expected total return of **8**% pa.

He rents his house out for $**2,000** per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $**23,173.86**.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year ahead is $**25,027.77**.

What is the expected annual growth rate of the rental payments? In other words, by what percentage increase will Fred have to raise the monthly rent by each year to sustain the expected annual total return of 8%?

**Question 353** income and capital returns, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, real estate

A residential investment property has an expected **nominal** total return of **6**% pa and nominal capital return of **3**% pa.

Inflation is expected to be **2**% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.

What are the property's expected **real** total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order.

**Question 363** income and capital returns, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, real estate

A residential investment property has an expected **nominal** total return of **8**% pa and nominal capital return of **3**% pa.

Inflation is expected to be **2**% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.

What are the property's expected **real** total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order.

**Question 407** income and capital returns, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

A stock has a **real** expected total return of **7**% pa and a real expected capital return of **2**% pa.

Inflation is expected to be **2**% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.

What is the **nominal** expected total return, capital return and dividend yield? The answers below are given in the same order.

A fairly valued share's current price is $**4** and it has a total required return of **30**%. Dividends are paid annually and next year's dividend is expected to be $**1**. After that, dividends are expected to grow by **5**% pa in perpetuity. All rates are effective annual returns.

What is the expected dividend income paid at the end of the second year (t=**2**) and what is the expected capital gain from just after the first dividend (t=**1**) to just after the second dividend (t=**2**)? The answers are given in the same order, the dividend and then the capital gain.

The perpetuity with growth equation is:

###P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}###

Which of the following is **NOT** equal to the expected capital return as an effective annual rate?

The saying "buy low, sell high" suggests that investors should make a:

An asset's total expected return over the next year is given by:

###r_\text{total} = \dfrac{c_1+p_1-p_0}{p_0} ###

Where ##p_0## is the current price, ##c_1## is the expected income in one year and ##p_1## is the expected price in one year. The total return can be split into the income return and the capital return.

Which of the following is the expected **capital** return?

Total cash flows can be broken into income and capital cash flows. What is the name given to the **income** cash flow from owning shares?

Which of the following equations is **NOT** equal to the total return of an asset?

Let ##p_0## be the current price, ##p_1## the expected price in one year and ##c_1## the expected income in one year.

**Question 523** income and capital returns, real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation

A low-growth mature stock has an expected nominal total return of **6**% pa and nominal capital return of **2**% pa. Inflation is expected to be **3**% pa.

All of the above are effective **nominal** rates and investors believe that they will stay the same in perpetuity.

What are the stock's expected **real** total, capital and income returns?

The answer choices below are given in the same order.

The perpetuity with growth formula, also known as the dividend discount model (DDM) or Gordon growth model, is appropriate for valuing a company's shares. ##P_0## is the current share price, ##C_1## is next year's expected dividend, ##r## is the total required return and ##g## is the expected growth rate of the dividend.

###P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}###

The below graph shows the expected future price path of the company's shares. Which of the following statements about the graph is **NOT** correct?

**Question 543** price gains and returns over time, IRR, NPV, income and capital returns, effective return

For an asset price to **triple** every **5** years, what must be the expected future capital return, given as an effective annual rate?

**Question 730** DDM, income and capital returns, no explanation

A stock’s current price is $**1**. Its expected total return is **10**% pa and its long term expected capital return is **4**% pa. It pays an annual dividend and the next one will be paid in **one year**. All rates are given as effective annual rates. The dividend discount model is thought to be a suitable model for the stock. Ignore taxes. Which of the following statements about the stock is **NOT** correct?

**Question 731** DDM, income and capital returns, no explanation

In the dividend discount model (DDM), share prices fall when dividends are paid. Let the high price before the fall be called the peak, and the low price after the fall be called the trough.

###P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}###

Which of the following statements about the DDM is **NOT** correct?

A share’s current price is $**60**. It’s expected to pay a dividend of $**1.50** in one year. The growth rate of the dividend is **0.5**% pa and the stock’s required total return is **3**% pa. The stock’s price can be modeled using the dividend discount model (DDM):

##P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}##

Which of the following methods is **NOT** equal to the stock’s expected price in one year and six months (t=**1.5** years)? Note that the symbolic formulas shown in each line below do equal the formulas with numbers. The formula is just repeated with symbols and then numbers in case it helps you to identify the incorrect statement more quickly.

**Question 745** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, income and capital returns

If the nominal gold price is expected to increase at the same rate as inflation which is 3% pa, which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 748** income and capital returns, DDM, ex dividend date

A stock will pay you a dividend of $**2** tonight if you buy it **today**.

Thereafter the annual dividend is expected to grow by **3**% pa, so the next dividend after the $2 one tonight will be $2.06 in one year, then in two years it will be $2.1218 and so on. The stock's required return is 8% pa.

What is the stock price today and what do you expect the stock price to be tomorrow, approximately?

**Question 770** expected and historical returns, income and capital returns, coupon rate, bond pricing, no explanation

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct? Assume that all things remain equal. So for example, don't assume that just because a company's dividends and profit rise that its required return will also rise, assume the required return stays the same.

A 180-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

A 90-day Bank Accepted Bill (BAB) has a face value of $1,000,000. The simple interest rate is 10% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

**Question 147** bill pricing, simple interest rate, no explanation

A 30-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

**Question 157** bill pricing, simple interest rate, no explanation

A 90-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 6% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price?

A 60-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

Jan asks you for a loan. He wants $100 now and offers to pay you back $120 in 1 year. You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Ignore credit risk. Remember:

### V_0 = \frac{V_t}{(1+r_\text{eff})^t} ###

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -100 |

1 | 0 |

2 | 121 |

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 0.00 | 1.15 | 1.10 | 1.05 | 1.00 | ... |

After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at -5% pa. Note that this is a negative growth rate, so the dividend will actually shrink. So,

- the dividend at t=5 will be ##$1(1-0.05) = $0.95##,
- the dividend at t=6 will be ##$1(1-0.05)^2 = $0.9025##, and so on.

The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -100 |

1 | 11 |

2 | 121 |

In Australia, domestic university students are allowed to buy concession tickets for the bus, train and ferry which sell at a discount of **50**% to full-price tickets.

The Australian Government do not allow international university students to buy concession tickets, they have to pay the full price.

Some international students see this as unfair and they are willing to pay for fake university identification cards which have the concession sticker.

What is the most that an international student would be willing to pay for a fake identification card?

Assume that international students:

- consider buying their fake card on the morning of the first day of university from their neighbour, just before they leave to take the train into university.
- buy their weekly train tickets on the morning of the first day of each week.
- ride the train to university and back home again every day seven days per week until summer holidays
**40**weeks from now. The concession card only lasts for those 40 weeks. Assume that there are**52**weeks in the year for the purpose of interest rate conversion. - a single full-priced one-way train ride costs $
**5**. - have a discount rate of
**11**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Approach this question from a purely financial view point, ignoring the illegality, embarrassment and the morality of committing fraud.

A text book publisher is thinking of asking some teachers to write a new textbook at a cost of $100,000, payable now. The book would be written, printed and ready to sell to students in 2 years. It will be ready just before semester begins.

A cash flow of $100 would be made from each book sold, after all costs such as printing and delivery. There are 600 students per semester. Assume that every student buys a new text book. Remember that there are 2 semesters per year and students buy text books at the beginning of the semester.

Assume that text book publishers will sell the books at the same price forever and that the number of students is constant.

If the discount rate is 8% pa, given as an effective annual rate, what is the NPV of the project?

A project's net present value (NPV) is negative. Select the most correct statement.

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 8 | 8 | 8 | 20 | 8 | ... |

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 8 | 8 | 8 | 20 | 8 | ... |

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in 5 years (t = 5), just after the dividend at that time has been paid?

A project's NPV is positive. Select the most correct statement:

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 2 | 2 | 2 | 10 | 3 | ... |

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 2 | 2 | 2 | 10 | 3 | ... |

What will be the price of the stock in 5 years (t = 5), just after the dividend at that time has been paid?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 0 | 6 | 12 | 18 | 20 | ... |

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 0 | 6 | 12 | 18 | 20 | ... |

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in 7 years (t = 7), just after the dividend at that time has been paid?

A stock is expected to pay a dividend of $15 in one year (t=1), then $25 for 9 years after that (payments at t=2 ,3,...10), and on the 11th year (t=11) the dividend will be 2% less than at t=10, and will continue to shrink at the same rate every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10%. All rates are effective annual rates.

What is the price of the stock now?

A very low-risk stock just paid its semi-annual dividend of $0.14, as it has for the last 5 years. You conservatively estimate that from now on the dividend will fall at a rate of 1% every 6 months.

If the stock currently sells for $3 per share, what must be its required total return as an effective annual rate?

If risk free government bonds are trading at a yield of 4% pa, given as an effective annual rate, would you consider buying or selling the stock?

The stock's required total return is:

You have $100,000 in the bank. The bank pays interest at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume an equal amount now (t=0) and in one year (t=1) and have nothing left in the bank at the end.

How much can you consume at each time?

You have $100,000 in the bank. The bank pays interest at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume an equal amount now (t=0), in one year (t=1) and in two years (t=2), and still have $50,000 in the bank after that (t=2).

How much can you consume at each time?

Suppose you had $100 in a savings account and the interest rate was 2% per year.

After 5 years, how much do you think you would have in the account if you left the money to grow?

**Question 295** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, NPV

When valuing assets using discounted cash flow (net present value) methods, it is important to consider inflation. To properly deal with inflation:

(I) Discount nominal cash flows by nominal discount rates.

(II) Discount nominal cash flows by real discount rates.

(III) Discount real cash flows by nominal discount rates.

(IV) Discount real cash flows by real discount rates.

Which of the above statements is or are correct?

The boss of WorkingForTheManCorp has a wicked (and unethical) idea. He plans to pay his poor workers one week late so that he can get more interest on his cash in the bank.

Every week he is supposed to pay his 1,000 employees $1,000 each. So $**1** million is paid to employees every week.

The boss was just about to pay his employees today, until he thought of this idea so he will actually pay them one week (**7** days) later for the work they did last week and every week in the future, forever.

Bank interest rates are **10**% pa, given as a real effective annual rate. So ##r_\text{eff annual, real} = 0.1## and the real effective weekly rate is therefore ##r_\text{eff weekly, real} = (1+0.1)^{1/52}-1 = 0.001834569##

All rates and cash flows are real, the inflation rate is **3**% pa and there are **52** weeks per year. The boss will always pay wages one week late. The business will operate forever with constant real wages and the same number of employees.

What is the net present value (**NPV**) of the boss's decision to pay later?

Discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation prices assets by finding the present value of the asset's future cash flows. The single cash flow, annuity, and perpetuity equations are very useful for this.

Which of the following equations is the 'perpetuity with growth' equation?

A firm is considering a business project which costs $**11**m now and is expected to pay a constant $**1**m at the end of every year forever.

Assume that the initial $**11**m cost is funded using the firm's **existing cash** so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is **10**% pa.

Which of the following statements about net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is **NOT** correct?

A firm is considering a business project which costs $**10**m now and is expected to pay a single cash flow of $**12.1**m in two years.

Assume that the initial $**10**m cost is funded using the firm's **existing cash** so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is **10**% pa.

Which of the following statements about net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is **NOT** correct?

The below graph shows a project's net present value (NPV) against its annual discount rate.

For what discount rate or range of discount rates would you accept and commence the project?

All answer choices are given as approximations from reading off the graph.

The below graph shows a project's net present value (NPV) against its annual discount rate.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

An investor owns an empty block of land that has local government approval to be developed into a petrol station, car wash or car park. The council will only allow a single development so the projects are mutually exclusive.

All of the development projects have the same risk and the required return of each is 10% pa. Each project has an immediate cost and once construction is finished in one year the land and development will be sold. The table below shows the estimated costs payable now, expected sale prices in one year and the internal rates of returns (IRR's).

Mutually Exclusive Projects | |||

Project | Cost now ($) |
Sale price in one year ($) |
IRR (% pa) |

Petrol station | 9,000,000 | 11,000,000 | 22.22 |

Car wash | 800,000 | 1,100,000 | 37.50 |

Car park | 70,000 | 110,000 | 57.14 |

Which project should the investor accept?

A share currently worth $**100** is expected to pay a constant dividend of $**4** for the next **5** years with the first dividend in one year (t=1) and the last in 5 years (t=5).

The total required return is **10**% pa.

What do you expected the share price to be in **5** years, just **after** the dividend at that time has been paid?

The following cash flows are expected:

- Constant perpetual yearly payments of $70, with the first payment in 2.5 years from now (first payment at t=2.5).
- A single payment of $600 in 3 years and 9 months (t=3.75) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

An investor owns a whole level of an old office building which is currently worth $1 million. There are three mutually exclusive projects that can be started by the investor. The office building level can be:

- Rented out to a tenant for one year at $0.1m paid immediately, and then sold for $0.99m in one year.
- Refurbished into more modern commercial office rooms at a cost of $1m now, and then sold for $2.4m when the refurbishment is finished in one year.
- Converted into residential apartments at a cost of $2m now, and then sold for $3.4m when the conversion is finished in one year.

All of the development projects have the same risk so the required return of each is **10**% pa. The table below shows the estimated cash flows and internal rates of returns (IRR's).

Mutually Exclusive Projects | |||

Project | Cash flow now ($) |
Cash flow in one year ($) |
IRR (% pa) |

Rent then sell as is | -900,000 | 990,000 | 10 |

Refurbishment into modern offices | -2,000,000 | 2,400,000 | 20 |

Conversion into residential apartments | -3,000,000 | 3,400,000 | 13.33 |

Which project should the investor accept?

You have $**100,000** in the bank. The bank pays interest at **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume **twice** as much now (t=0) as in one year (t=1) and have nothing left in the bank at the end.

How much can you consume at time zero and one? The answer choices are given in the same order.

You have $**100,000** in the bank. The bank pays interest at **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume **half** as much now (t=0) as in one year (t=1) and have nothing left in the bank at the end.

How much can you consume at time zero and one? The answer choices are given in the same order.

**Question 574** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, NPV

What is the present value of a **nominal** payment of $100 in 5 years? The **real** discount rate is 10% pa and the inflation rate is 3% pa.

A real estate agent says that the price of a house in Sydney Australia is approximately equal to the gross weekly rent times 1000.

What type of valuation method is the real estate agent using?

The following cash flows are expected:

- A
**perpetuity**of yearly payments of $**30**, with the first payment in**5**years (first payment at t=5, which continues every year after that forever). **One**payment of $**100**in 6 years and 3 months (t=**6.25**).

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is **10**% given as an effective annual rate?

You're considering a business project which costs $**11**m now and is expected to pay a single cash flow of $**11**m in one year. So you pay $11m now, then one year later you receive $11m.

Assume that the initial $**11**m cost is funded using the your firm's **existing cash** so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is **10**% pa.

Which of the following statements about the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is **NOT** correct?

A stock pays annual dividends which are expected to continue forever. It just paid a dividend of $10. The growth rate in the dividend is 2% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 10% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 0.00 | 1.00 | 1.05 | 1.10 | 1.15 | ... |

After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa, so;

- the dividend at t=5 will be $1.15(1+0.05),
- the dividend at t=6 will be $1.15(1+0.05)^2, and so on.

The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What is the current price of the stock?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

Cash Flows of a Stock | ||||||

Time (yrs) | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | ... |

Dividend ($) | 0.00 | 1.00 | 1.05 | 1.10 | 1.15 | ... |

After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa, so;

- the dividend at t=5 will be $1.15(1+0.05),
- the dividend at t=6 will be $1.15(1+0.05)^2, and so on.

The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in three and a half years (t = 3.5)?

For a price of $13, Carla will sell you a share which will pay a dividend of $1 in one year and every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

For a price of $6, Carlos will sell you a share which will pay a dividend of $1 in one year and every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

For a price of $1040, Camille will sell you a share which just paid a dividend of $100, and is expected to pay dividends every year forever, growing at a rate of 5% pa.

So the next dividend will be ##100(1+0.05)^1=$105.00##, and the year after it will be ##100(1+0.05)^2=110.25## and so on.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

For a price of $10.20 each, Renee will sell you 100 shares. Each share is expected to pay dividends in perpetuity, growing at a rate of 5% pa. The next dividend is one year away (t=1) and is expected to be $1 per share.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

For a price of $95, Sherylanne will sell you a share which is expected to pay its first dividend of $10 in 7 years (t=7), and will continue to pay the same $10 dividend every year after that forever.

The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

**Question 50** DDM, stock pricing, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Most listed Australian companies pay dividends twice per year, the 'interim' and 'final' dividends, which are roughly 6 months apart.

You are an equities analyst trying to value the company BHP. You decide to use the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) as a starting point, so you study BHP's dividend history and you find that BHP tends to pay the same interim and final dividend each year, and that both grow by the same rate.

You expect BHP will pay a $0.55 interim dividend in six months and a $0.55 final dividend in one year. You expect each to grow by 4% next year and forever, so the interim and final dividends next year will be $0.572 each, and so on in perpetuity.

Assume BHP's cost of equity is 8% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective rates. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is 2.5% pa.

What is the current price of a BHP share?

A stock pays semi-annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $10. The growth rate in the dividend is 1% every 6 months, given as an effective **6 month** rate. You estimate that the stock's required return is 21% pa, as an effective **annual** rate.

Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?

A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of $10. The dividend is expected to grow at 2% every 6 months forever. This 2% growth rate is an effective **6 month** rate. Therefore the next dividend will be $10.20 in six months. The required return of the stock 10% pa, given as an effective **annual** rate.

What is the price of the share now?

A stock pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $3. The growth rate in the dividend is 4% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 10% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?

A stock pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $5. The growth rate in the dividend is 1% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 8% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.

Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?

A share pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $2. The growth rate in the dividend is 3% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 8% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.

Using the dividend discount model, what is the share price?

A stock **just paid** its annual dividend of $9. The share price is $60. The required return of the stock is 10% pa as an effective annual rate.

What is the implied growth rate of the dividend per year?

###P_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}###

A stock pays dividends annually. It just paid a dividend, but the next dividend (##d_1##) will be paid in one year.

According to the DDM, what is the correct formula for the expected price of the stock in 2.5 years?

When using the dividend discount model, care must be taken to avoid using a nominal dividend growth rate that exceeds the country's nominal GDP growth rate. Otherwise the firm is forecast to take over the country since it grows faster than the average business forever.

Suppose a firm's nominal dividend grows at **10**% pa forever, and nominal GDP growth is **5**% pa forever. The firm's total dividends are currently $**1** billion (t=0). The country's GDP is currently $**1,000** billion (t=0).

In approximately how many years will the company's total dividends be as large as the country's GDP?

Stocks in the United States usually pay **quarterly** dividends. For example, the retailer Wal-Mart Stores paid a $0.47 dividend every quarter over the 2013 calendar year and plans to pay a $0.48 dividend every quarter over the 2014 calendar year.

Using the dividend discount model and net present value techniques, calculate the stock price of Wal-Mart Stores assuming that:

- The time now is the beginning of January 2014. The next dividend of $
**0.48**will be received in**3**months (end of March 2014), with another 3 quarterly payments of $0.48 after this (end of June, September and December 2014). - The quarterly dividend will increase by
**2**% every year, but each quarterly dividend over the year will be equal. So each quarterly dividend paid in 2015 will be $0.4896 (##=0.48×(1+0.02)^1##), with the first at the end of March 2015 and the last at the end of December 2015. In 2016 each quarterly dividend will be $0.499392 (##=0.48×(1+0.02)^2##), with the first at the end of March 2016 and the last at the end of December 2016, and so on**forever**. - The total required return on equity is
**6**% pa. - The required return and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.
- All cash flows and rates are
**nominal**. Inflation is**3**% pa. - Dividend payment dates and ex-dividend dates are at the same time.
- Remember that there are 4 quarters in a year and 3 months in a quarter.

What is the current stock price?

Stocks in the United States usually pay **quarterly** dividends. For example, the software giant Microsoft paid a $0.23 dividend every quarter over the 2013 financial year and plans to pay a $0.28 dividend every quarter over the 2014 financial year.

Using the dividend discount model and net present value techniques, calculate the stock price of Microsoft assuming that:

- The time now is the beginning of July 2014. The next dividend of $
**0.28**will be received in**3**months (end of September 2014), with another 3 quarterly payments of $0.28 after this (end of December 2014, March 2015 and June 2015). - The quarterly dividend will increase by
**2.5**% every year, but each quarterly dividend over the year will be equal. So each quarterly dividend paid in the financial year beginning in September 2015 will be $ 0.287 ##(=0.28×(1+0.025)^1)##, with the last at the end of June 2016. In the next financial year beginning in September 2016 each quarterly dividend will be $0.294175 ##(=0.28×(1+0.025)^2)##, with the last at the end of June 2017, and so on forever. - The total required return on equity is
**6**% pa. - The required return and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.
- Dividend payment dates and ex-dividend dates are at the same time.
- Remember that there are 4 quarters in a year and 3 months in a quarter.

What is the current stock price?

The first payment of a constant perpetual annual cash flow is received at time 5. Let this cash flow be ##C_5## and the required return be ##r##.

So there will be equal annual cash flows at time 5, 6, 7 and so on forever, and all of the cash flows will be equal so ##C_5 = C_6 = C_7 = ...##

When the perpetuity formula is used to value this stream of cash flows, it will give a value (V) at time:

**Question 497** income and capital returns, DDM, ex dividend date

A stock will pay you a dividend of $**10** **tonight** if you buy it **today**. Thereafter the annual dividend is expected to grow by **5**% pa, so the next dividend after the $10 one tonight will be $10.50 in one year, then in two years it will be $11.025 and so on. The stock's required return is **10**% pa.

What is the stock price today and what do you expect the stock price to be tomorrow, approximately?

A stock is expected to pay its **next** dividend of $1 in one year. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. So the first dividend of $1 will be in one year, the year after that $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1), and a year later $1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

A stock **just paid** a dividend of $1. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. The next dividend of $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1) will be in one year, and the year after that the dividend will be $1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2), and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

A stock is **just about to pay** a dividend of $1 **tonight**. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. The next dividend of $1 will be paid tonight, and the year after that the dividend will be $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1), and a year later 1.0404 (=1*(1+0.04)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

**Question 535** DDM, real and nominal returns and cash flows, stock pricing

You are an equities analyst trying to value the equity of the Australian telecoms company Telstra, with ticker TLS. In Australia, listed companies like Telstra tend to pay dividends every **6** months. The payment around August is called the final dividend and the payment around February is called the interim dividend. Both occur annually.

- Today is mid-
**March 2015**. - TLS's last interim dividend of $
**0.15**was one month ago in mid-**February 2015**. - TLS's last final dividend of $
**0.15**was seven months ago in mid-**August 2014**.

Judging by TLS's dividend history and prospects, you estimate that the nominal dividend growth rate will be **1**% pa. Assume that TLS's total nominal cost of equity is **6**% pa. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is **2.5**% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective annual rates. Assume that each month is exactly one twelfth (1/12) of a year, so you can ignore the number of days in each month.

Calculate the current TLS share price.

**Question 734** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, DDM, no explanation

An equities analyst is using the dividend discount model to price a company's shares. The company operates domestically and has no plans to expand overseas. It is part of a mature industry with stable positive growth prospects.

The analyst has estimated the **real** required return (r) of the stock and the value of the dividend that the stock **just paid** a moment before ##(C_\text{0 before})##.

What is the highest perpetual **real** growth rate of dividends (g) that can be justified? Select the most correct statement from the following choices. The highest perpetual real expected growth rate of dividends that can be justified is the country's expected:

**Question 740** real and nominal returns and cash flows, DDM, inflation

Taking inflation into account when using the DDM can be hard. Which of the following formulas will **NOT** give a company's current stock price ##(P_0)##? Assume that the annual dividend was just paid ##(C_0)##, and the next dividend will be paid in one year ##(C_1)##.

A share will pay its next dividend of ##C_1## in one year, and will continue to pay a dividend every year after that forever, growing at a rate of ##g##. So the next dividend will be ##C_2=C_1 (1+g)^1##, then ##C_3=C_2 (1+g)^1##, and so on forever.

The current price of the share is ##P_0## and its required return is ##r##

Which of the following is **NOT** equal to the expected share price in 2 years ##(P_2)## just after the dividend at that time ##(C_2)## has been paid?

A stock is expected to pay its first dividend of $**20** in **3** years (t=3), which it will continue to pay for the next nine years, so there will be **ten** $20 payments altogether with the last payment in year 12 (t=12).

From the thirteenth year onward, the dividend is expected to be **4**% more than the previous year, forever. So the dividend in the thirteenth year (t=13) will be $20.80, then $21.632 in year 14, and so on forever. The required return of the stock is **10**% pa. All rates are effective annual rates. Calculate the current (t=0) stock price.

If a project's net present value (NPV) is zero, then its internal rate of return (IRR) will be:

A three year project's NPV is negative. The cash flows of the project include a negative cash flow at the very start and positive cash flows over its short life. The required return of the project is 10% pa. Select the most correct statement.

What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the project detailed in the table below?

Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. All answers are given as effective annual rates.

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -100 |

1 | 0 |

2 | 121 |

A project has the following cash flows:

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -400 |

1 | 0 |

2 | 500 |

The required return on the project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of this project? The following choices are effective annual rates. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

A project to build a toll road will take **3** years to complete, costing three payments of $**50** million, paid at the start of each year (at times 0, 1, and 2).

After completion, the toll road will yield a constant $**10** million at the end of each year forever with no costs. So the first payment will be at t=**4**.

The required return of the project is 10% pa given as an effective nominal rate. All cash flows are nominal.

What is the **payback period**?

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the payback period of the project in years?

Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are received smoothly over the year. So the $121 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2.

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -100 |

1 | 11 |

2 | 121 |

A project has the following cash flows. Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the $250 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2:

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -400 |

1 | 200 |

2 | 250 |

What is the payback period of the project in years?

A project has the following cash flows:

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -400 |

1 | 0 |

2 | 500 |

What is the payback period of the project in years?

Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the $500 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2.

A project has the following cash flows. Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the $105 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2:

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -90 |

1 | 30 |

2 | 105 |

What is the payback period of the project in years?

A mature firm has constant expected future earnings and dividends. Both amounts are equal. So earnings and dividends are expected to be equal and unchanging.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

A stock is expected to pay a dividend of $1 in one year. Its future annual dividends are expected to grow by 10% pa. So the first dividend of $1 is in one year, and the year after that the dividend will be $1.1 (=1*(1+0.1)^1), and a year later $1.21 (=1*(1+0.1)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 30% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates. The stock is fairly priced.

Calculate the pay back period of buying the stock and holding onto it forever, assuming that the dividends are received as at each time, not smoothly over each year.

**Question 180** equivalent annual cash flow, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Details of two different types of light bulbs are given below:

- Low-energy light bulbs cost $3.50, have a life of nine years, and use about $1.60 of electricity a year, paid at the end of each year.
- Conventional light bulbs cost only $0.50, but last only about a year and use about $6.60 of energy a year, paid at the end of each year.

The real discount rate is 5%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate.

Find the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) of the low-energy and conventional light bulbs. The below choices are listed in that order.

An industrial chicken farmer grows chickens for their meat. Chickens:

- Cost $
**0.50**each to buy as chicks. They are bought on the day they’re born, at t=**0**. - Grow at a rate of $
**0.70**worth of meat per chicken per week for the first 6 weeks (t=**0**to t=**6**). - Grow at a rate of $
**0.40**worth of meat per chicken per week for the next 4 weeks (t=**6**to t=**10**) since they’re older and grow more slowly. - Feed costs are $
**0.30**per chicken per week for their whole life. Chicken feed is bought and fed to the chickens once per week at the beginning of the week. So the first amount of feed bought for a chicken at t=**0**costs $0.30, and so on. - Can be slaughtered (killed for their meat) and sold at no cost at the
**end**of the week. The price received for the chicken is their total value of meat (note that the chicken grows fast then slow, see above).

The required return of the chicken farm is **0.5%** given as an effective **weekly** rate.

Ignore taxes and the fixed costs of the factory. Ignore the chicken’s welfare and other environmental and ethical concerns.

Find the equivalent **weekly** cash flow of slaughtering a chicken at **6** weeks and at **10** weeks so the farmer can figure out the best time to slaughter his chickens. The choices below are given in the same order, 6 and 10 weeks.

You're advising your superstar client 40-cent who is weighing up buying a private jet or a luxury yacht. 40-cent is just as happy with either, but he wants to go with the more cost-effective option. These are the cash flows of the two options:

- The private jet can be bought for $6m now, which will cost $12,000 per month in fuel, piloting and airport costs, payable at the end of each month. The jet will last for
**12**years. - Or the luxury yacht can be bought for $4m now, which will cost $20,000 per month in fuel, crew and berthing costs, payable at the end of each month. The yacht will last for
**20**years.

What's unusual about 40-cent is that he is so famous that he will actually be able to sell his jet or yacht for the same price as it was bought since the next generation of superstar musicians will buy it from him as a status symbol.

Bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. You can assume that 40-cent will live for another 60 years and that when the jet or yacht's life is at an end, he will buy a new one with the same details as above.

Would you advise 40-cent to buy the or the ?

Note that the effective monthly rate is ##r_\text{eff monthly}=(1+0.1)^{1/12}-1=0.00797414##

**Question 215** equivalent annual cash flow, effective rate conversion

You're about to buy a car. These are the cash flows of the two different cars that you can buy:

- You can buy an old car for $5,000 now, for which you will have to buy $90 of fuel at the end of each week from the date of purchase. The old car will last for 3 years, at which point you will sell the old car for $500.
- Or you can buy a new car for $14,000 now for which you will have to buy $50 of fuel at the end of each week from the date of purchase. The new car will last for 4 years, at which point you will sell the new car for $1,000.

Bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that there are exactly 52 weeks in a year. Ignore taxes and environmental and pollution factors.

Should you buy the or the ?

**Question 249** equivalent annual cash flow, effective rate conversion

Details of two different types of desserts or edible treats are given below:

- High-sugar treats like candy, chocolate and ice cream make a person very happy. High sugar treats are cheap at only $2 per day.
- Low-sugar treats like nuts, cheese and fruit make a person equally happy if these foods are of high quality. Low sugar treats are more expensive at $4 per day.

The advantage of low-sugar treats is that a person only needs to pay the dentist $2,000 for fillings and root canal therapy once every 15 years. Whereas with high-sugar treats, that treatment needs to be done every 5 years.

The real discount rate is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that there are 365 days in every year and that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate.

Find the equivalent annual cash flow (EAC) of the high-sugar treats and low-sugar treats, including dental costs. The below choices are listed in that order.

Ignore the pain of dental therapy, personal preferences and other factors.

You just bought a nice dress which you plan to wear once per month on nights out. You bought it a moment ago for $600 (at t=0). In your experience, dresses used once per month last for 6 years.

Your younger sister is a student with no money and wants to borrow your dress once a month when she hits the town. With the increased use, your dress will only last for another 3 years rather than 6.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your sister use your current dress for the next 3 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new dress when your current one wears out; your sister will only use the current dress, not the next one that you will buy; and the price of a new dress never changes.

Carlos and Edwin are brothers and they both love Holden Commodore cars.

Carlos likes to buy the latest Holden Commodore car for **$40,000** every **4** years as soon as the new model is released. As soon as he buys the new car, he sells the old one on the second hand car market for **$20,000**. Carlos never has to bother with paying for repairs since his cars are brand new.

Edwin also likes Commodores, but prefers to buy 4-year old cars for **$20,000** and keep them for **11** years until the end of their life (new ones last for 15 years in total but the 4-year old ones only last for another 11 years). Then he sells the old car for **$2,000** and buys another 4-year old second hand car, and so on.

Every time Edwin buys a second hand 4 year old car he **immediately** has to spend **$1,000** on repairs, and then $1,000 every year after that for the next 10 years. So there are **11** payments in total from when the second hand car is bought at t=0 to the last payment at t=10. One year later (t=11) the old car is at the end of its total 15 year life and can be scrapped for $2,000.

Assuming that Carlos and Edwin maintain their love of Commodores and keep up their habits of buying new ones and second hand ones respectively, how much **larger** is Carlos' **equivalent annual cost** of car ownership compared with Edwin's?

The real discount rate is **10%** pa. All cash flows are real and are expected to remain constant. Inflation is forecast to be **3**% pa. All rates are effective annual. Ignore capital gains tax and tax savings from depreciation since cars are tax-exempt for individuals.

You own some nice shoes which you use once per week on date nights. You bought them **2** years ago for $**500**. In your experience, shoes used once per week last for **6** years. So you expect yours to last for another **4** years.

Your younger sister said that she wants to borrow your shoes once per week. With the increased use, your shoes will only last for another **2** years rather than 4.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your sister use your current shoes for the next 2 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new pair of shoes when your current pair wears out and your sister will not use the new ones; your sister will only use your current shoes so she will only use it for the next 2 years; and the price of new shoes never changes.

**Question 548** equivalent annual cash flow, time calculation, no explanation

An Apple iPhone 6 smart phone can be bought now for $**999**. An Android Kogan Agora 4G+ smart phone can be bought now for $**240**.

If the Kogan phone lasts for **one** year, approximately how long must the Apple phone last for to have the same equivalent annual cost?

Assume that both phones have equivalent features besides their lifetimes, that both are worthless once they've outlasted their life, the discount rate is **10**% pa given as an effective annual rate, and there are no extra costs or benefits from either phone.

An effective **monthly** return of 1% ##(r_\text{eff monthly})## is equivalent to an effective **annual** return ##(r_\text{eff annual})## of:

An effective **semi-annual** return of 5% ##(r_\text{eff 6mth})## is equivalent to an effective **annual** return ##(r_\text{eff annual})## of:

**Question 278** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Imagine that the interest rate on your savings account was 1% per year and inflation was 2% per year.

**Question 522** income and capital returns, real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, real estate

A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of **6**% pa and nominal capital return of **2.5**% pa. Inflation is expected to be **2.5**% pa.

All of the above are effective **nominal** rates and investors believe that they will stay the same in perpetuity.

What are the property's expected **real** total, capital and income returns?

The answer choices below are given in the same order.

**Question 526** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, no explanation

How can a **nominal** cash flow be precisely converted into a **real** cash flow?

**Question 576** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

What is the present value of a **nominal** payment of $1,000 in 4 years? The **nominal** discount rate is 8% pa and the inflation rate is 2% pa.

**Question 577** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

What is the present value of a **real** payment of $500 in 2 years? The **nominal** discount rate is 7% pa and the inflation rate is 4% pa.

**Question 604** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Apples and oranges currently cost $**1** each. Inflation is **5**% pa, and apples and oranges are equally affected by this inflation rate. Note that when payments are not specified as real, as in this question, they're conventionally assumed to be nominal.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 664** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, no explanation

What is the present value of **real** payments of $100 every year forever, with the first payment in one year? The **nominal** discount rate is 7% pa and the inflation rate is 4% pa.

**Question 739** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation

There are a number of different formulas involving real and nominal returns and cash flows. Which one of the following formulas is **NOT** correct? All returns are effective annual rates. Note that the symbol ##\approx## means 'approximately equal to'.

The equations for Net Income (NI, also known as Earnings or Net Profit After Tax) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA, also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm) per year are:

###NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)###

###CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp###

For a firm with debt, what is the amount of the interest tax shield per year?

What is the net present value (NPV) of undertaking a full-time Australian undergraduate business degree as an Australian citizen? Only include the cash flows over the duration of the degree, ignore any benefits or costs of the degree after it's completed.

Assume the following:

- The degree takes
**3**years to complete and all students pass all subjects. - There are
**2**semesters per year and**4**subjects per semester. - University fees per subject per semester are
**$1,277**, paid at the**start**of each semester. Fees are expected to stay constant for the next 3 years. - There are
**52**weeks per year. - The first semester is just about to start (t=0). The first semester lasts for 19 weeks (t=
**0**to**19**). - The second semester starts immediately afterwards (t=19) and lasts for another 19 weeks (t=
**19**to**38**). - The summer holidays begin after the second semester ends and last for
**14**weeks (t=**38**to**52**). Then the first semester begins the next year, and so on. - Working full time at the grocery store instead of studying full-time pays
**$20**/hr and you can work**35**hours per week. Wages are paid at the**end**of each week. - Full-time students can work full-time during the summer holiday at the grocery store for the same rate of $20/hr for 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week.
- The discount rate is
**9.8%**pa. All rates and cash flows are real. Inflation is expected to be**3%**pa. All rates are effective annual.

The NPV of costs from undertaking the university degree is:

Which business structure or structures have the advantage of limited liability for equity investors?

Estimate Microsoft's (MSFT) share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only:

- Apple, Google and Microsoft are comparable companies,
- Apple's (AAPL) share price is $526.24 and historical EPS is $40.32.
- Google's (GOOG) share price is $1,215.65 and historical EPS is $36.23.
- Micrsoft's (MSFT) historical earnings per share (EPS) is $2.71.

Source: Google Finance 28 Feb 2014.

Estimate the US bank JP Morgan's share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only:

- The major US banks JP Morgan Chase (JPM), Citi Group (C) and Wells Fargo (WFC) are comparable companies;
- JP Morgan Chase's historical earnings per share (EPS) is $
**4.37**; - Citi Group's share price is $
**50.05**and historical EPS is $**4.26**; - Wells Fargo's share price is $
**48.98**and historical EPS is $**3.89**.

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 24 March 2014.

Which of the following companies is most suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques?

The below screenshot of Commonwealth Bank of Australia's (CBA) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 7 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was CBA's backwards-looking price-earnings ratio?

A stock has a beta of **0.5**. Its next dividend is expected to be $**3**, paid **one** year from now. Dividends are expected to be paid annually and grow by **2**% pa forever. Treasury bonds yield **5**% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is **10**% pa. All returns are effective annual rates.

What is the price of the stock now?

**Question 235** SML, NPV, CAPM, risk

The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return.

Investment projects that plot * on* the SML would have:

Which statement(s) are correct?

(i) All stocks that plot on the Security Market Line (SML) are fairly priced.

(ii) All stocks that plot above the Security Market Line (SML) are overpriced.

(iii) All fairly priced stocks that plot on the Capital Market Line (CML) have zero idiosyncratic risk.

Select the most correct response:

A stock's required total return will **increase** when its:

In the home loan market, the acronym LVR stands for Loan to Valuation Ratio. If you bought a house worth one million dollars, partly funded by an $800,000 home loan, then your LVR was 80%. The LVR is equivalent to which of the following ratios?

**Question 800** leverage, portfolio return, risk, portfolio risk, capital structure, no explanation

Which of the following assets would you expect to have the highest required rate of return? All values are current market values.

Unrestricted negative gearing is allowed in Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Negative gearing laws allow income losses on investment properties to be deducted from a tax-payer's pre-tax personal income. Negatively geared investors benefit from this tax advantage. They also hope to benefit from capital gains which exceed the income losses.

For example, a property investor buys an apartment funded by an interest only mortgage loan. Interest expense is $2,000 per month. The rental payments received from the tenant living on the property are $1,500 per month. The investor can deduct this income loss of $500 per month from his pre-tax personal income. If his personal marginal tax rate is 46.5%, this saves $232.5 per month in personal income tax.

The advantage of negative gearing is an example of the benefits of:

**Question 803** capital raising, rights issue, initial public offering, on market repurchase, no explanation

Which one of the following capital raisings or payouts involve the **sale** of shares to **existing** shareholders only?

Use the below information to value a levered company with annual perpetual cash flows from assets that grow. The next cash flow will be generated in one year from now, so a perpetuity can be used to value this firm. Note that ‘k’ means kilo or 1,000. So the $30k is $30,000.

Data on a Levered Firm with Perpetual Cash Flows | ||

Item abbreviation | Value | Item full name |

##\text{CFFA}_\text{U}## | $30k | Cash flow from assets excluding interest tax shields (unlevered) |

##g## | 1.5% pa | Growth rate of cash flow from assets, levered and unlevered |

##r_\text{D}## | 4% pa | Cost of debt |

##r_\text{EL}## | 16.3% pa | Cost of levered equity |

##D/V_L## | 80% pa | Debt to assets ratio, where the asset value includes tax shields |

##t_c## | 30% | Corporate tax rate |

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Short selling is a way to make money from falling prices. In what order must the following steps be completed to short-sell an asset? Let Tom, Dick and Harry be traders in the share market.

- Step P: Purchase the asset from Harry.
- Step G: Give the asset to Tom.
- Step W: Wait and hope that the asset price falls.
- Step B: Borrow the asset from Tom.
- Step S: Sell the asset to Dick.

Select the statement with the correct order of steps.

A firm conducts a two-for-one stock split. Which of the following consequences would **NOT** be expected?

**Question 807** market efficiency, expected and historical returns, CAPM, beta, systematic risk, no explanation

You work in Asia and just woke up. It looked like a nice day but then you read the news and found out that last night the American share market fell by **10**% while you were asleep due to surprisingly poor macro-economic world news. You own a portfolio of liquid stocks listed in Asia with a beta of **1.6**. When the Asian equity markets open, what do you expect to happen to your share portfolio? Assume that the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is correct and that the market portfolio contains all shares in the world, of which American shares are a big part. Your portfolio beta is measured against this world market portfolio.

When the Asian equity market opens for trade, you would expect your portfolio value to:

A graph of assets’ expected returns ##(\mu)## versus standard deviations ##(\sigma)## is given in the below diagram.

Each letter corresponds to a separate coloured area. The portfolios at the boundary of the areas, on the black lines, are excluded from each area. Assume that all assets represented in this graph are fairly priced, and that all risky assets can be short-sold.

Which of the following statements about this graph and Markowitz portfolio theory is **NOT** correct?

**Question 810** CAPM, systematic and idiosyncratic risk, market efficiency

Examine the graphs below. Assume that asset A is a single stock. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct? **Asset A**:

**Question 811** log-normal distribution, mean and median returns, return distribution, arithmetic and geometric averages

Which of the following statements about probability distributions is **NOT** correct?

A firm is about to conduct a **2**-for-**7** rights issue with a subscription price of $**10** per share. They haven’t announced the capital raising to the market yet and the share price is currently $**13** per share. Assume that every shareholder will exercise their rights, the cash raised will simply be put in the bank, and the rights issue is completed so quickly that the time value of money can be ignored. Disregard signalling, taxes and agency-related effects.

Which of the following statements about the rights issue is **NOT** correct? After the rights issue is completed:

Assets A, B, M and ##r_f## are shown on the graphs above. Asset M is the market portfolio and ##r_f## is the risk free yield on government bonds. Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct?

Assets A, B, M and ##r_f## are shown on the graphs above. Asset M is the market portfolio and ##r_f## is the risk free yield on government bonds. Assume that investors can borrow and lend at the risk free rate. Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct?