The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

### p_{0} = \frac{c_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}} ###

What is the discount rate '## r_\text{eff} ##' in this equation?

**Question 58** NPV, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, Annuity

A project to build a toll bridge will take two years to complete, costing three payments of $100 million at the start of each year for the next three years, that is at t=0, 1 and 2.

After completion, the toll bridge will yield a constant $50 million at the end of each year for the next 10 years. So the first payment will be at t=3 and the last at t=12. After the last payment at t=12, the bridge will be given to the government.

The required return of the project is 21% pa given as an effective annual **nominal** rate.

All cash flows are **real** and the expected inflation rate is 10% pa given as an effective annual rate. Ignore taxes.

The Net Present Value is:

You just signed up for a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage loan with monthly payments of $1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 10 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change.

You own a nice suit which you wear once per week on nights out. You bought it one year ago for $600. In your experience, suits used once per week last for 6 years. So you expect yours to last for another 5 years.

Your younger brother said that retro is back in style so he wants to wants to borrow your suit once a week when he goes out. With the increased use, your suit will only last for another 4 years rather than 5.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your brother use your current suit for the next 4 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new suit when your current one wears out and your brother will not use the new one; your brother will only use your current suit so he will only use it for the next four years; and the price of a new suit never changes.

**Question 383** Merton model of corporate debt, real option, option

In the Merton model of corporate debt, buying a levered company's debt is equivalent to buying the company's assets and:

**Question 432** option, option intrinsic value, no explanation

An American call option with a strike price of ##K## dollars will mature in ##T## years. The underlying asset has a price of ##S## dollars.

What is an expression for the current **intrinsic** value in dollars from owning (being long) the American call option? Note that the intrinsic value of an option does not subtract the premium paid to buy the option.

The Australian central bank implements monetary policy by directly controlling which interest rate?

**Question 906** effective rate, return types, net discrete return, return distribution, price gains and returns over time

For an asset's price to double from say $1 to $2 in one year, what must its effective annual return be? Note that an effective annual return is also called a net discrete return per annum. If the price now is ##P_0## and the price in one year is ##P_1## then the effective annul return over the next year is:

###r_\text{effective annual} = \dfrac{P_1 - P_0}{P_0} = \text{NDR}_\text{annual}###**Question 988** variance, covariance, beta, CAPM, risk, no explanation

Price Data Time Series |
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Sourced from Yahoo Finance Historical Price Data | |||||||||||

Date | S&P500 Index (^GSPC) | Apple (AAPL) | |||||||||

Open | High | Low | Close | Adj close | Open | High | Low | Close | Adj close | ||

2007, Wed 3 Jan | 1418 | 1429 | 1408 | 1417 | 1417 | 12.33 | 12.37 | 11.7 | 11.97 | 10.42 | |

2008, Wed 2 Jan | 1468 | 1472 | 1442 | 1447 | 1447 | 28.47 | 28.61 | 27.51 | 27.83 | 24.22 | |

2009, Fri 2 Jan | 903 | 935 | 899 | 932 | 932 | 12.27 | 13.01 | 12.17 | 12.96 | 11.28 | |

2010, Mon 4 Jan | 1117 | 1134 | 1117 | 1133 | 1133 | 30.49 | 30.64 | 30.34 | 30.57 | 26.6 | |

Source: Yahoo Finance. | |||||||||||

Which of the following statements about the above table which is used to calculate Apple's equity beta is **NOT** correct?

The required return of a building project is **10**%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

The building firm is just about to start the project and the client has signed the contract. Initially the firm will pay $100 to the sub-contractors to carry out the work and then will receive an $11 payment from the client in one year and $121 when the project is finished in 2 years. Ignore credit risk.

But the building company is considering selling the project to a competitor at different points in time and is pondering the minimum price that they should sell it for.

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -100 |

1 | 11 |

2 | 121 |

Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct? The project is worth: