# Fight Finance

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Your neighbour asks you for a loan of $100 and offers to pay you back$120 in one year.

You don't actually have any money right now, but you can borrow and lend from the bank at a rate of 10% pa. Rates are given as effective annual rates.

Assume that your neighbour will definitely pay you back. Ignore interest tax shields and transaction costs.

The Net Present Value (NPV) of lending to your neighbour is $9.09. Describe what you would do to actually receive a$9.09 cash flow right now with zero net cash flows in the future.

What is the net present value (NPV) of undertaking a full-time Australian undergraduate business degree as an Australian citizen? Only include the cash flows over the duration of the degree, ignore any benefits or costs of the degree after it's completed.

Assume the following:

• The degree takes 3 years to complete and all students pass all subjects.
• There are 2 semesters per year and 4 subjects per semester.
• University fees per subject per semester are $1,277, paid at the start of each semester. Fees are expected to stay constant for the next 3 years. • There are 52 weeks per year. • The first semester is just about to start (t=0). The first semester lasts for 19 weeks (t=0 to 19). • The second semester starts immediately afterwards (t=19) and lasts for another 19 weeks (t=19 to 38). • The summer holidays begin after the second semester ends and last for 14 weeks (t=38 to 52). Then the first semester begins the next year, and so on. • Working full time at the grocery store instead of studying full-time pays$20/hr and you can work 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week.
• Full-time students can work full-time during the summer holiday at the grocery store for the same rate of $20/hr for 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week. • The discount rate is 9.8% pa. All rates and cash flows are real. Inflation is expected to be 3% pa. All rates are effective annual. The NPV of costs from undertaking the university degree is: The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. What is the Profitability Index (PI) of the project?  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 0 2 121

A project's Profitability Index (PI) is less than 1. Select the most correct statement:

Private equity firms are known to buy medium sized private companies operating in the same industry, merge them together into a larger company, and then sell it off in a public float (initial public offering, IPO).

If medium-sized private companies trade at PE ratios of 5 and larger listed companies trade at PE ratios of 15, what return can be achieved from this strategy?

Assume that:

• The medium-sized companies can be bought, merged and sold in an IPO instantaneously.
• There are no costs of finding, valuing, merging and restructuring the medium sized companies. Also, there is no competition to buy the medium-sized companies from other private equity firms.
• The large merged firm's earnings are the sum of the medium firms' earnings.
• The only reason for the difference in medium and large firm's PE ratios is due to the illiquidity of the medium firms' shares.
• Return is defined as: $r_{0→1} = (p_1-p_0+c_1)/p_0$ , where time zero is just before the merger and time one is just after.

Which of the following statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct?

In Australia, nominal yields on semi-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently 2.83% pa.

The inflation rate is currently 2.2% pa, given as an APR compounding per quarter. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years.

What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months?

Your main expense is fuel for your car which costs $100 per month. You just refueled, so you won't need any more fuel for another month (first payment at t=1 month). You have$2,500 in a bank account which pays interest at a rate of 6% pa, payable monthly. Interest rates are not expected to change.

Assuming that you have no income, in how many months time will you not have enough money to fully refuel your car?

A student won $1m in a lottery. Currently the money is in a bank account which pays interest at 6% pa, given as an APR compounding per month. She plans to spend$20,000 at the beginning of every month from now on (so the first withdrawal will be at t=0). After each withdrawal, she will check how much money is left in the account. When there is less than $500,000 left, she will donate that remaining amount to charity. In how many months will she make her last withdrawal and donate the remainder to charity? Some countries' interest rates are so low that they're zero. If interest rates are 0% pa and are expected to stay at that level for the foreseeable future, what is the most that you would be prepared to pay a bank now if it offered to pay you$10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years?

In other words, what is the present value of five $10 payments at time 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 if interest rates are 0% pa? The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: $$P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g }$$ What is $g$? The value $g$ is the long term expected: A stock was bought for$8 and paid a dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the stock price was$7 (at t=1 year).

What were the total, capital and dividend returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order:

$r_\text{total}$, $r_\text{capital}$, $r_\text{dividend}$.

Who is most in danger of being personally bankrupt? Assume that all of their businesses' assets are highly liquid and can therefore be sold immediately.

One year ago a pharmaceutical firm floated by selling its 1 million shares for $100 each. Its book and market values of equity were both$100m. Its debt totalled $50m. The required return on the firm's assets was 15%, equity 20% and debt 5% pa. In the year since then, the firm: • Earned net income of$29m.
• Paid dividends totaling $10m. • Discovered a valuable new drug that will lead to a massive 1,000 times increase in the firm's net income in 10 years after the research is commercialised. News of the discovery was publicly announced. The firm's systematic risk remains unchanged. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? All statements are about current figures, not figures one year ago. Hint: Book return on assets (ROA) and book return on equity (ROE) are ratios that accountants like to use to measure a business's past performance. $$\text{ROA}= \dfrac{\text{Net income}}{\text{Book value of assets}}$$ $$\text{ROE}= \dfrac{\text{Net income}}{\text{Book value of equity}}$$ The required return on assets $r_V$ is a return that financiers like to use to estimate a business's future required performance which compensates them for the firm's assets' risks. If the business were to achieve realised historical returns equal to its required returns, then investment into the business's assets would have been a zero-NPV decision, which is neither good nor bad but fair. $$r_\text{V, 0 to 1}= \dfrac{\text{Cash flow from assets}_\text{1}}{\text{Market value of assets}_\text{0}} = \dfrac{CFFA_\text{1}}{V_\text{0}}$$ Similarly for equity and debt. Payout policy is most closely related to which part of a business? The expression 'cash is king' emphasizes the importance of having enough cash to pay your short term debts to avoid bankruptcy. Which business decision is this expression most closely related to? An 'interest payment' is the same thing as a 'coupon payment'. or ? You own a nice suit which you wear once per week on nights out. You bought it one year ago for$600. In your experience, suits used once per week last for 6 years. So you expect yours to last for another 5 years.

Your younger brother said that retro is back in style so he wants to wants to borrow your suit once a week when he goes out. With the increased use, your suit will only last for another 4 years rather than 5.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your brother use your current suit for the next 4 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new suit when your current one wears out and your brother will not use the new one; your brother will only use your current suit so he will only use it for the next four years; and the price of a new suit never changes.

You just bought a nice dress which you plan to wear once per month on nights out. You bought it a moment ago for $600 (at t=0). In your experience, dresses used once per month last for 6 years. Your younger sister is a student with no money and wants to borrow your dress once a month when she hits the town. With the increased use, your dress will only last for another 3 years rather than 6. What is the present value of the cost of letting your sister use your current dress for the next 3 years? Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new dress when your current one wears out; your sister will only use the current dress, not the next one that you will buy; and the price of a new dress never changes. You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage with monthly payments of$1,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 20 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change.

You want to buy an apartment worth $300,000. You have saved a deposit of$60,000.

The bank has agreed to lend you $240,000 as an interest only mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? Bonds A and B are issued by the same company. They have the same face value, maturity, seniority and coupon payment frequency. The only difference is that bond A has a 5% coupon rate, while bond B has a 10% coupon rate. The yield curve is flat, which means that yields are expected to stay the same. Which bond would have the higher current price? A five year bond has a face value of$100, a yield of 12% and a fixed coupon rate of 6%, paid semi-annually.

What is the bond's price?

Find Candys Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Candys Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 200 COGS 50 Operating expense 10 Depreciation 20 Interest expense 10 Income before tax 110 Tax at 30% 33 Net income 77  Candys Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Assets Current assets 220 180 PPE Cost 300 340 Accumul. depr. 60 40 Carrying amount 240 300 Total assets 460 480 Liabilities Current liabilities 175 190 Non-current liabilities 135 130 Owners' equity Retained earnings 50 60 Contributed equity 100 100 Total L and OE 460 480 Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

A company increases the proportion of debt funding it uses to finance its assets by issuing bonds and using the cash to repurchase stock, leaving assets unchanged.

Ignoring the costs of financial distress, which of the following statements is NOT correct:

Find Sidebar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Sidebar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 405 COGS 100 Depreciation 34 Rent expense 22 Interest expense 39 Taxable Income 210 Taxes at 30% 63 Net income 147  Sidebar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Inventory 70 50 Trade debtors 11 16 Rent paid in advance 4 3 PPE 700 680 Total assets 785 749 Trade creditors 11 19 Bond liabilities 400 390 Contributed equity 220 220 Retained profits 154 120 Total L and OE 785 749 Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Bond investors:

An industrial chicken farmer grows chickens for their meat. Chickens:

1. Cost $0.50 each to buy as chicks. They are bought on the day they’re born, at t=0. 2. Grow at a rate of$0.70 worth of meat per chicken per week for the first 6 weeks (t=0 to t=6).
3. Grow at a rate of $0.40 worth of meat per chicken per week for the next 4 weeks (t=6 to t=10) since they’re older and grow more slowly. 4. Feed costs are$0.30 per chicken per week for their whole life. Chicken feed is bought and fed to the chickens once per week at the beginning of the week. So the first amount of feed bought for a chicken at t=0 costs $0.30, and so on. 5. Can be slaughtered (killed for their meat) and sold at no cost at the end of the week. The price received for the chicken is their total value of meat (note that the chicken grows fast then slow, see above). The required return of the chicken farm is 0.5% given as an effective weekly rate. Ignore taxes and the fixed costs of the factory. Ignore the chicken’s welfare and other environmental and ethical concerns. Find the equivalent weekly cash flow of slaughtering a chicken at 6 weeks and at 10 weeks so the farmer can figure out the best time to slaughter his chickens. The choices below are given in the same order, 6 and 10 weeks. Carlos and Edwin are brothers and they both love Holden Commodore cars. Carlos likes to buy the latest Holden Commodore car for$40,000 every 4 years as soon as the new model is released. As soon as he buys the new car, he sells the old one on the second hand car market for $20,000. Carlos never has to bother with paying for repairs since his cars are brand new. Edwin also likes Commodores, but prefers to buy 4-year old cars for$20,000 and keep them for 11 years until the end of their life (new ones last for 15 years in total but the 4-year old ones only last for another 11 years). Then he sells the old car for $2,000 and buys another 4-year old second hand car, and so on. Every time Edwin buys a second hand 4 year old car he immediately has to spend$1,000 on repairs, and then $1,000 every year after that for the next 10 years. So there are 11 payments in total from when the second hand car is bought at t=0 to the last payment at t=10. One year later (t=11) the old car is at the end of its total 15 year life and can be scrapped for$2,000.

Assuming that Carlos and Edwin maintain their love of Commodores and keep up their habits of buying new ones and second hand ones respectively, how much larger is Carlos' equivalent annual cost of car ownership compared with Edwin's?

The real discount rate is 10% pa. All cash flows are real and are expected to remain constant. Inflation is forecast to be 3% pa. All rates are effective annual. Ignore capital gains tax and tax savings from depreciation since cars are tax-exempt for individuals.

A man is thinking about taking a day off from his casual painting job to relax.

He just woke up early in the morning and he's about to call his boss to say that he won't be coming in to work.

But he's thinking about the hours that he could work today (in the future) which are:

Fill in the missing words in the following sentence:

All things remaining equal, as a firm's amount of debt funding falls, benefits of interest tax shields __________ and the costs of financial distress __________.

Over the next year, the management of an unlevered company plans to:

• Achieve firm free cash flow (FFCF or CFFA) of $1m. • Pay dividends of$1.8m
• Complete a $1.3m share buy-back. • Spend$0.8m on new buildings without buying or selling any other fixed assets. This capital expenditure is included in the CFFA figure quoted above.

Assume that:

• All amounts are received and paid at the end of the year so you can ignore the time value of money.
• The firm has sufficient retained profits to pay the dividend and complete the buy back.
• The firm plans to run a very tight ship, with no excess cash above operating requirements currently or over the next year.

How much new equity financing will the company need? In other words, what is the value of new shares that will need to be issued?

Over the next year, the management of an unlevered company plans to:

• Make $5m in sales,$1.9m in net income and $2m in equity free cash flow (EFCF). • Pay dividends of$1m.
• Complete a $1.3m share buy-back. Assume that: • All amounts are received and paid at the end of the year so you can ignore the time value of money. • The firm has sufficient retained profits to legally pay the dividend and complete the buy back. • The firm plans to run a very tight ship, with no excess cash above operating requirements currently or over the next year. How much new equity financing will the company need? In other words, what is the value of new shares that will need to be issued? Your friend is trying to find the net present value of a project. The project is expected to last for just one year with: • a negative cash flow of -$1 million initially (t=0), and
• a positive cash flow of $1.1 million in one year (t=1). The project has a total required return of 10% pa due to its moderate level of undiversifiable risk. Your friend is aware of the importance of opportunity costs and the time value of money, but he is unsure of how to find the NPV of the project. He knows that the opportunity cost of investing the$1m in the project is the expected gain from investing the money in shares instead. Like the project, shares also have an expected return of 10% since they have moderate undiversifiable risk. This opportunity cost is $0.1m $(=1m \times 10\%)$ which occurs in one year (t=1). He knows that the time value of money should be accounted for, and this can be done by finding the present value of the cash flows in one year. Your friend has listed a few different ways to find the NPV which are written down below. (I) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1}$ (II) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} - \dfrac{1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (III) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} - \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (IV) $-1m + 1.1m - \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (V) $-1m + 1.1m - 1.1m \times 0.1$ Which of the above calculations give the correct NPV? Select the most correct answer. Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.  One Year Mining Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in building mine and equipment$9m Depreciation of mine and equipment over the year $8m Kilograms of gold mined at end of year 1,000 Sale price per kilogram$0.05m Variable cost per kilogram $0.03m Before-tax cost of closing mine at end of year$4m Tax rate 30%

Note 1: Due to the project, the firm also anticipates finding some rare diamonds which will give before-tax revenues of $1m at the end of the year. Note 2: The land that will be mined actually has thermal springs and a family of koalas that could be sold to an eco-tourist resort for an after-tax amount of$3m right now. However, if the mine goes ahead then this natural beauty will be destroyed.

Note 3: The mining equipment will have a book value of $1m at the end of the year for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch$2.5m when it is sold.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero and one. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m), with the first cash flow at time zero, and the second at time one. Value the following business project to manufacture a new product.  Project Data Project life 2 yrs Initial investment in equipment$6m Depreciation of equipment per year $3m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project$0.6m Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit $8 Variable cost per unit$5 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $1m Interest expense per year 0 Tax rate 30% Weighted average cost of capital after tax per annum 10% Notes 1. The firm's current assets and current liabilities are$3m and $2m respectively right now. This net working capital will not be used in this project, it will be used in other unrelated projects. Due to the project, current assets (mostly inventory) will grow by$2m initially (at t = 0), and then by $0.2m at the end of the first year (t=1). Current liabilities (mostly trade creditors) will increase by$0.1m at the end of the first year (t=1).
At the end of the project, the net working capital accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that it was bought.
2. The project cost $0.5m to research which was incurred one year ago. Assumptions • All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year. • All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa. • All rates are given as effective annual rates. • The business considering the project is run as a 'sole tradership' (run by an individual without a company) and is therefore eligible for a 50% capital gains tax discount when the equipment is sold, as permitted by the Australian Tax Office. What is the expected net present value (NPV) of the project?  Project Data Project life 2 yrs Initial investment in equipment$600k Depreciation of equipment per year $250k Expected sale price of equipment at end of project$200k Revenue per job $12k Variable cost per job$4k Quantity of jobs per year 120 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $100k Interest expense in first year (at t=1)$16.091k Interest expense in second year (at t=2) $9.711k Tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 6% Levered cost of equity 12.5% Market portfolio return 10% Beta of assets 1.24 Beta of levered equity 1.5 Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio 25% Notes 1. The project will require an immediate purchase of$50k of inventory, which will all be sold at cost when the project ends. Current liabilities are negligible so they can be ignored.

Assumptions

• The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. Note that interest expense is different in each year.
• Thousands are represented by 'k' (kilo).
• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are nominal. The inflation rate is 2% pa.
• All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

Interest expense (IntExp) is an important part of a company's income statement (or 'profit and loss' or 'statement of financial performance').

How does an accountant calculate the annual interest expense of a fixed-coupon bond that has a liquid secondary market? Select the most correct answer:

Annual interest expense is equal to:

The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return.

Investment projects that plot above the SML would have:

Which statement is the most correct?

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of equity and using the funds to repay debt. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields.

According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct?

 Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in equipment $8m Depreciation of equipment per year$8m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project 0 Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit $10 Variable cost per unit$5 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $2m Interest expense in first year (at t=1)$0.562m Corporate tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 9% Market portfolio return 10% Covariance of levered equity returns with market 0.32 Variance of market portfolio returns 0.16 Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio 50%

Notes

1. Due to the project, current assets will increase by $6m now (t=0) and fall by$6m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected.

Assumptions

• The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio.
• Millions are represented by 'm'.
• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

Your friend claims that by reading 'The Economist' magazine's economic news articles, she can identify shares that will have positive abnormal expected returns over the next 2 years. Assuming that her claim is true, which statement(s) are correct?

(i) Weak form market efficiency is broken.

(ii) Semi-strong form market efficiency is broken.

(iii) Strong form market efficiency is broken.

(iv) The asset pricing model used to measure the abnormal returns (such as the CAPM) is either wrong (mis-specification error) or is measured using the wrong inputs (data errors) so the returns may not be abnormal but rather fair for the level of risk.

Select the most correct response:

Fundamentalists who analyse company financial reports and news announcements (but who don't have inside information) will make positive abnormal returns if:

Assume that there exists a perfect world with no transaction costs, no asymmetric information, no taxes, no agency costs, equal borrowing rates for corporations and individual investors, the ability to short the risk free asset, semi-strong form efficient markets, the CAPM holds, investors are rational and risk-averse and there are no other market frictions.

For a firm operating in this perfect world, which statement(s) are correct?

(i) When a firm changes its capital structure and/or payout policy, share holders' wealth is unaffected.

(ii) When the idiosyncratic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns.

(iii) When the systematic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns.

Select the most correct response:

Which of the following discount rates should be the highest for a levered company? Ignore the costs of financial distress.

In general, stock prices tend to rise. What does this mean for futures on equity?

Which of the following statements about futures contracts on shares is NOT correct, assuming that markets are efficient?

When an equity future is first negotiated (at t=0):

A company advertises an investment costing $1,000 which they say is underpriced. They say that it has an expected total return of 15% pa, but a required return of only 10% pa. Of the 15% pa total expected return, the dividend yield is expected to always be 7% pa and rest is the capital yield. Assuming that the company's statements are correct, what is the NPV of buying the investment if the 15% total return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to 10% after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever? In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant, the dividends can only be re-invested at 10% pa and all returns are given as effective annual rates. The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever): Currently, a mining company has a share price of$6 and pays constant annual dividends of $0.50. The next dividend will be paid in 1 year. Suddenly and unexpectedly the mining company announces that due to higher than expected profits, all of these windfall profits will be paid as a special dividend of$0.30 in 1 year.

If investors believe that the windfall profits and dividend is a one-off event, what will be the new share price? If investors believe that the additional dividend is actually permanent and will continue to be paid, what will be the new share price? Assume that the required return on equity is unchanged. Choose from the following, where the first share price includes the one-off increase in earnings and dividends for the first year only $(P_\text{0 one-off})$ , and the second assumes that the increase is permanent $(P_\text{0 permanent})$:

Note: When a firm makes excess profits they sometimes pay them out as special dividends. Special dividends are just like ordinary dividends but they are one-off and investors do not expect them to continue, unlike ordinary dividends which are expected to persist.

Let the standard deviation of returns for a share per month be $\sigma_\text{monthly}$.

What is the formula for the standard deviation of the share's returns per year $(\sigma_\text{yearly})$?

Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) so they have zero auto correlation, meaning that if the return was higher than average today, it does not indicate that the return tomorrow will be higher or lower than average.

Let the variance of returns for a share per month be $\sigma_\text{monthly}^2$.

What is the formula for the variance of the share's returns per year $(\sigma_\text{yearly}^2)$?

Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) so they have zero auto correlation, meaning that if the return was higher than average today, it does not indicate that the return tomorrow will be higher or lower than average.

Diversification in a portfolio of two assets works best when the correlation between their returns is:

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

 Project Data Project life 2 years Initial investment in equipment $8m Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes$3m Unit sales per year 10m Sale price per unit $9 Variable cost per unit$4 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $2m Tax rate 30% Note 1: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase$40m of inventory initially (at t=0). Half of this inventory will be sold at t=1 and the other half at t=2.

Note 2: The equipment will have a book value of $2m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch$1m when it is sold. Assume that the full capital loss is tax-deductible and taxed at the full corporate tax rate.

Note 3: The project will be fully funded by equity which investors will expect to pay dividends totaling $10m at the end of each year. Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m).

An economy has only two investable assets: stocks and cash.

Stocks had a historical nominal average total return of negative two percent per annum (-2% pa) over the last 20 years. Stocks are liquid and actively traded. Stock returns are variable, they have risk.

Cash is riskless and has a nominal constant return of zero percent per annum (0% pa), which it had in the past and will have in the future. Cash can be kept safely at zero cost. Cash can be converted into shares and vice versa at zero cost.

The nominal total return of the shares over the next year is expected to be:

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

In the dividend discount model:

$$P_0= \frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

The pronumeral $g$ is supposed to be the: