The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

### P_{0} = \frac{C_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}} ###

What would you call the expression ## C_1/P_0 ##?

Suppose that the US government recently announced that subsidies for fresh milk producers will be gradually phased out over the next year. Newspapers say that there are expectations of a 40% increase in the spot price of fresh milk over the next year.

Option prices on fresh milk trading on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) reflect expectations of this 40% increase in spot prices over the next year. Similarly to the rest of the market, you believe that prices will rise by 40% over the next year.

What option trades are likely to be profitable, or to be more specific, result in a positive Net Present Value (NPV)?

Assume that:

- Only the spot price is expected to increase and there is no change in expected volatility or other variables that affect option prices.
- No taxes, transaction costs, information asymmetry, bid-ask spreads or other market frictions.

A wholesale shop offers credit to its customers. The customers are given 21 days to pay for their goods. But if they pay straight away (now) they get a 1% discount.

What is the effective interest rate given to customers who pay in 21 days? All rates given below are effective annual rates. Assume 365 days in a year.

A firm has forecast its Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) for this year and management is worried that it is too low. Which one of the following actions will lead to a higher CFFA for this year (t=0 to 1)? Only consider cash flows this year. Do not consider cash flows after one year, or the change in the NPV of the firm. Consider each action in isolation.

A 10 year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 6% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 8% pa, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

Estimate Microsoft's (MSFT) share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only:

- Apple, Google and Microsoft are comparable companies,
- Apple's (AAPL) share price is $526.24 and historical EPS is $40.32.
- Google's (GOOG) share price is $1,215.65 and historical EPS is $36.23.
- Micrsoft's (MSFT) historical earnings per share (EPS) is $2.71.

Source: Google Finance 28 Feb 2014.

**Question 531** bankruptcy or insolvency, capital structure, risk, limited liability

Who is most in danger of being **personally** bankrupt? Assume that all of their businesses' assets are highly liquid and can therefore be sold immediately.

**Question 956** option, Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing, delta hedging, hedging

A bank sells a European call option on a non-dividend paying stock and delta hedges on a daily basis. Below is the result of their hedging, with columns representing consecutive days. Assume that there are 365 days per year and interest is paid daily in arrears.

Delta Hedging a Short Call using Stocks and Debt |
|||||||

Description |
Symbol |
Days to maturity (T in days) |
|||||

60 |
59 |
58 |
57 |
56 |
55 |
||

Spot price ($) | S | 10000 | 10125 | 9800 | 9675 | 10000 | 10000 |

Strike price ($) | K | 10000 | 10000 | 10000 | 10000 | 10000 | 10000 |

Risk free cont. comp. rate (pa) | r | 0.05 | 0.05 | 0.05 | 0.05 | 0.05 | 0.05 |

Standard deviation of the stock's cont. comp. returns (pa) | σ | 0.4 | 0.4 | 0.4 | 0.4 | 0.4 | 0.4 |

Option maturity (years) | T | 0.164384 | 0.161644 | 0.158904 | 0.156164 | 0.153425 | 0.150685 |

Delta | N[d1] = dc/dS | 0.552416 | 0.582351 | 0.501138 | 0.467885 | 0.550649 | 0.550197 |

Probability that S > K at maturity in risk neutral world | N[d2] | 0.487871 | 0.51878 | 0.437781 | 0.405685 | 0.488282 | 0.488387 |

Call option price ($) | c | 685.391158 | 750.26411 | 567.990995 | 501.487157 | 660.982878 | ? |

Stock investment value ($) | N[d1]*S | 5524.164129 | 5896.301781 | 4911.152036 | 4526.788065 | 5506.488143 | ? |

Borrowing which partly funds stock investment ($) | N[d2]*K/e^(r*T) | 4838.772971 | 5146.037671 | 4343.161041 | 4025.300909 | 4845.505265 | ? |

Interest expense from borrowing paid in arrears ($) | r*N[d2]*K/e^(r*T) | 0.662891 | 0.704985 | 0.594994 | 0.551449 | ? | |

Gain on stock ($) | N[d1]*(SNew - SOld) | 69.052052 | -189.264008 | -62.642245 | 152.062648 | ? | |

Gain on short call option ($) | -1*(cNew - cOld) | -64.872952 | 182.273114 | 66.503839 | -159.495721 | ? | |

Net gain ($) | Gains - InterestExpense | 3.516209 | -7.695878 | 3.266599 | -7.984522 | ? | |

Gamma | Γ = d^2c/dS^2 | 0.000244 | 0.00024 | 0.000255 | 0.00026 | 0.000253 | 0.000255 |

Theta | θ = dc/dT | 2196.873429 | 2227.881353 | 2182.174706 | 2151.539751 | 2266.589184 | 2285.1895 |

In the last column when there are 55 days left to maturity there are missing values. Which of the following statements about those missing values is **NOT** correct?