The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: ### P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g } ###

What is ##g##? The value ##g## is the long term expected:

In Australia, domestic university students are allowed to buy concession tickets for the bus, train and ferry which sell at a discount of **50**% to full-price tickets.

The Australian Government do not allow international university students to buy concession tickets, they have to pay the full price.

Some international students see this as unfair and they are willing to pay for fake university identification cards which have the concession sticker.

What is the most that an international student would be willing to pay for a fake identification card?

Assume that international students:

- consider buying their fake card on the morning of the first day of university from their neighbour, just before they leave to take the train into university.
- buy their weekly train tickets on the morning of the first day of each week.
- ride the train to university and back home again every day seven days per week until summer holidays
**40**weeks from now. The concession card only lasts for those 40 weeks. Assume that there are**52**weeks in the year for the purpose of interest rate conversion. - a single full-priced one-way train ride costs $
**5**. - have a discount rate of
**11**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Approach this question from a purely financial view point, ignoring the illegality, embarrassment and the morality of committing fraud.

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of equity to raise money for new projects of similar systematic risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct?

**Question 180** equivalent annual cash flow, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Details of two different types of light bulbs are given below:

- Low-energy light bulbs cost $3.50, have a life of nine years, and use about $1.60 of electricity a year, paid at the end of each year.
- Conventional light bulbs cost only $0.50, but last only about a year and use about $6.60 of energy a year, paid at the end of each year.

The real discount rate is 5%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate.

Find the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) of the low-energy and conventional light bulbs. The below choices are listed in that order.

**Question 398** financial distress, capital raising, leverage, capital structure, NPV

A levered firm has zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of $**9.9**m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of **10**% pa.

In one year the firm's assets will be worth:

- $
**13.2**m with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, or - $
**6.6**m with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $**2**m and will provide a certain cash flow of $**3.3**m in one year.

The firm doesn't have any excess cash to make the initial $2m investment, but the funds can be raised from shareholders through a fairly priced rights issue. Ignore all transaction costs.

Should shareholders vote to proceed with the project and equity raising? What will be the gain in shareholder **wealth** if they decide to proceed?

The perpetuity with growth equation is:

###P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}###

Which of the following is **NOT** equal to the expected capital return as an effective annual rate?

**Question 529** DDM, real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, real estate, no explanation

If housing rents are constrained from growing more than the maximum target inflation rate, and houses can be priced as a perpetuity of growing net rental cash flows, then what is the implication for house prices, all things remaining equal? Select the **most correct** answer.

*Background:* Since 1990, many central banks across the world have become 'inflation targeters'. They have adopted a policy of trying to keep inflation in a predictable narrow range, with the hope of encouraging long-term lending to fund more investment and maintain higher GDP growth.

Australia's central bank, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), has specifically stated their inflation target range is between 2 and 3% pa.

Some Australian residential property market commentators suggest that because rental costs comprise a large part of the Australian consumer price index (CPI), rent costs across the nation cannot significantly exceed the maximum inflation target range of 3% pa without the prices of other goods growing by less than the target range for long periods, which is unlikely.

**Question 772** interest tax shield, capital structure, leverage

A firm issues debt and uses the funds to buy back equity. Assume that there are no costs of financial distress or transactions costs. Which of the following statements about interest tax shields is **NOT** correct?

A New Zealand lady wants to calculate how many New Zealand Dollars (NZD) she needs to buy a 1 million Australian dollar (AUD) house in Sydney, Australia. The exchange rate is **0.69** USD per NZD and **0.72** USD per AUD. What is the AUD 1 million equivalent to in NZD?

**Question 976** comparative advantage in trade, production possibilities curve, no explanation

Arthur and Bindi are the only people on a remote island. Their production possibility curves are shown in the graph.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?