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Question 345  capital budgeting, break even, NPV

 Project Data Project life 10 yrs Initial investment in factory $10m Depreciation of factory per year$1m Expected scrap value of factory at end of project $0 Sale price per unit$10 Variable cost per unit $6 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$2m Interest expense per year 0 Tax rate 30% Cost of capital per annum 10%

Notes

1. The firm's current liabilities are forecast to stay at $0.5m. The firm's current assets (mostly inventory) is currently$1m, but is forecast to grow by $0.1m at the end of each year due to the project. At the end of the project, the current assets accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that they were bought. 2. A marketing survey was used to forecast sales. It cost$1.4m which was just paid. The cost has been capitalised by the accountants and is tax-deductible over the life of the project, regardless of whether the project goes ahead or not. This amortisation expense is not included in the depreciation expense listed in the table above.

Assumptions

• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa.
• All rates are given as effective annual rates.

Find the break even unit production (Q) per year to achieve a zero Net Income (NI) and Net Present Value (NPV), respectively. The answers below are listed in the same order.

A company increases the proportion of debt funding it uses to finance its assets by issuing bonds and using the cash to repurchase stock, leaving assets unchanged.

Ignoring the costs of financial distress, which of the following statements is NOT correct:

A method commonly seen in textbooks for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is the following:

\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + \\ &\space\space\space+ Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp(1-t_c) \\ \end{aligned}
Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield?

The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return.

Investment projects that plot on the SML would have:

All things remaining equal, according to the capital asset pricing model, if the systematic variance of an asset increases, its required return will increase and its price will decrease.
If the idiosyncratic variance of an asset increases, its price will be unchanged.

What is the relationship between the price of a call or put option and the total, systematic and idiosyncratic variance of the underlying asset that the option is based on? Select the most correct answer.

Call and put option prices increase when the:

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields.

According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct?

For a price of $13, Carla will sell you a share which will pay a dividend of$1 in one year and every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

Would you like to Carla's share or politely ?

For a price of $102, Andrea will sell you a share which just paid a dividend of$10 yesterday, and is expected to pay dividends every year forever, growing at a rate of 5% pa.

So the next dividend will be $10(1+0.05)^1=10.50$ in one year from now, and the year after it will be $10(1+0.05)^2=11.025$ and so on.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

Would you like to the share or politely ?

What is the NPV of the following series of cash flows when the discount rate is 5% given as an effective annual rate?

The first payment of $10 is in 4 years, followed by payments every 6 months forever after that which shrink by 2% every 6 months. That is, the growth rate every 6 months is actually negative 2%, given as an effective 6 month rate. So the payment at $t=4.5$ years will be $10(1-0.02)^1=9.80$, and so on. A stock pays semi-annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of$10. The growth rate in the dividend is 1% every 6 months, given as an effective 6 month rate. You estimate that the stock's required return is 21% pa, as an effective annual rate.

Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?

A share was bought for $30 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of$6 one year later (at t=1).

Just after the dividend was paid, the share price fell to $27 (at t=1). What were the total, capital and income returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total}$ , $r_\text{capital}$ , $r_\text{dividend}$. The phone company Telstra have 2 mobile service plans on offer which both have the same amount of phone call, text message and internet data credit. Both plans have a contract length of 24 months and the monthly cost is payable in advance. The only difference between the two plans is that one is a: • 'Bring Your Own' (BYO) mobile service plan, costing$50 per month. There is no phone included in this plan. The other plan is a:
• 'Bundled' mobile service plan that comes with the latest smart phone, costing $71 per month. This plan includes the latest smart phone. Neither plan has any additional payments at the start or end. The only difference between the plans is the phone, so what is the implied cost of the phone as a present value? Assume that the discount rate is 2% per month given as an effective monthly rate, the same high interest rate on credit cards. An industrial chicken farmer grows chickens for their meat. Chickens: 1. Cost$0.50 each to buy as chicks. They are bought on the day they’re born, at t=0.
2. Grow at a rate of $0.70 worth of meat per chicken per week for the first 6 weeks (t=0 to t=6). 3. Grow at a rate of$0.40 worth of meat per chicken per week for the next 4 weeks (t=6 to t=10) since they’re older and grow more slowly.
4. Feed costs are $0.30 per chicken per week for their whole life. Chicken feed is bought and fed to the chickens once per week at the beginning of the week. So the first amount of feed bought for a chicken at t=0 costs$0.30, and so on.
5. Can be slaughtered (killed for their meat) and sold at no cost at the end of the week. The price received for the chicken is their total value of meat (note that the chicken grows fast then slow, see above).

The required return of the chicken farm is 0.5% given as an effective weekly rate.

Ignore taxes and the fixed costs of the factory. Ignore the chicken’s welfare and other environmental and ethical concerns.

Find the equivalent weekly cash flow of slaughtering a chicken at 6 weeks and at 10 weeks so the farmer can figure out the best time to slaughter his chickens. The choices below are given in the same order, 6 and 10 weeks.

You just bought a nice dress which you plan to wear once per month on nights out. You bought it a moment ago for $600 (at t=0). In your experience, dresses used once per month last for 6 years. Your younger sister is a student with no money and wants to borrow your dress once a month when she hits the town. With the increased use, your dress will only last for another 3 years rather than 6. What is the present value of the cost of letting your sister use your current dress for the next 3 years? Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new dress when your current one wears out; your sister will only use the current dress, not the next one that you will buy; and the price of a new dress never changes. You own a nice suit which you wear once per week on nights out. You bought it one year ago for$600. In your experience, suits used once per week last for 6 years. So you expect yours to last for another 5 years.

Your younger brother said that retro is back in style so he wants to wants to borrow your suit once a week when he goes out. With the increased use, your suit will only last for another 4 years rather than 5.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your brother use your current suit for the next 4 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new suit when your current one wears out and your brother will not use the new one; your brother will only use your current suit so he will only use it for the next four years; and the price of a new suit never changes.

Details of two different types of desserts or edible treats are given below:

• High-sugar treats like candy, chocolate and ice cream make a person very happy. High sugar treats are cheap at only $2 per day. • Low-sugar treats like nuts, cheese and fruit make a person equally happy if these foods are of high quality. Low sugar treats are more expensive at$4 per day.

The advantage of low-sugar treats is that a person only needs to pay the dentist $2,000 for fillings and root canal therapy once every 15 years. Whereas with high-sugar treats, that treatment needs to be done every 5 years. The real discount rate is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that there are 365 days in every year and that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate. Find the equivalent annual cash flow (EAC) of the high-sugar treats and low-sugar treats, including dental costs. The below choices are listed in that order. Ignore the pain of dental therapy, personal preferences and other factors. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Borrowers: Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Lenders: You're considering making an investment in a particular company. They have preference shares, ordinary shares, senior debt and junior debt. Which is the safest investment? Which will give the highest returns? An 'interest payment' is the same thing as a 'coupon payment'. or ? In these tough economic times, central banks around the world have cut interest rates so low that they are practically zero. In some countries, government bond yields are also very close to zero. A three year government bond with a face value of$100 and a coupon rate of 2% pa paid semi-annually was just issued at a yield of 0%. What is the price of the bond?

A European company just issued two bonds, a

• 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a
• 3 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the company's forward rate over the third year (from t=2 to t=3)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

The coupon rate of a fixed annual-coupon bond is constant (always the same).

What can you say about the income return ($r_\text{income}$) of a fixed annual coupon bond? Remember that:

$$r_\text{total} = r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital}$$

$$r_\text{total, 0 to 1} = \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0}$$

Assume that there is no change in the bond's total annual yield to maturity from when it is issued to when it matures.

Select the most correct statement.

From its date of issue until maturity, the income return of a fixed annual coupon:

You just bought $100,000 worth of inventory from a wholesale supplier. You are given the option of paying within 5 days and receiving a 2% discount, or paying the full price within 60 days. You actually don't have the cash to pay within 5 days, but you could borrow it from the bank (as an overdraft) at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. In 60 days you will have enough money to pay the full cost without having to borrow from the bank. What is the implicit interest rate charged by the wholesale supplier, given as an effective annual rate? Also, should you borrow from the bank in 5 days to pay the supplier and receive the discount? Or just pay the full price on the last possible date? Assume that there are 365 days per year. You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage loan with monthly payments of$1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 10 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change.

You just signed up for a 30 year interest-only mortgage with monthly payments of $3,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change. How much did you borrow? After 15 years, just after the 180th payment at that time, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change. Remember that the mortgage is interest-only and that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month). Below are 4 option graphs. Note that the y-axis is payoff at maturity (T). What options do they depict? List them in the order that they are numbered. You have just sold an 'in the money' 6 month European put option on the mining company BHP at an exercise price of$40 for a premium of $3. Which of the following statements best describes your situation? Which option position has the possibility of unlimited potential losses? The US government recently announced that subsidies for fresh milk producers will be gradually phased out over the next year. Newspapers say that there are expectations of a 40% increase in the spot price of fresh milk over the next year. Option prices on fresh milk trading on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) reflect expectations of this 40% increase in spot prices over the next year. Similarly to the rest of the market, you believe that prices will rise by 40% over the next year. What option trades are likely to be profitable, or to be more specific, result in a positive Net Present Value (NPV)? Assume that: • Only the spot price is expected to increase and there is no change in expected volatility or other variables that affect option prices. • No taxes, transaction costs, information asymmetry, bid-ask spreads or other market frictions. In the Merton model of corporate debt, buying a levered company's debt is equivalent to buying the company's assets and: Which of the following is the least useful method or model to calculate the value of a real option in a project? A risky firm will last for one period only (t=0 to 1), then it will be liquidated. So it's assets will be sold and the debt holders and equity holders will be paid out in that order. The firm has the following quantities: $V$ = Market value of assets. $E$ = Market value of (levered) equity. $D$ = Market value of zero coupon bonds. $F_1$ = Total face value of zero coupon bonds which is promised to be paid in one year. The levered equity graph above contains bold labels a to e. Which of the following statements about those labels is NOT correct? A moped is a bicycle with pedals and a little motor that can be switched on to assist the rider. Mopeds offer the rider: You're thinking of starting a new cafe business, but you're not sure if it will be profitable. You have to decide what type of cups, mugs and glasses you wish to buy. You can have your cafe's name printed on them, or plain un-marked ones. For marketing reasons it's better to have the cafe name printed, but the plain un-marked cups, mugs and glasses maximise your: The cheapest mobile phones available tend to be those that are 'locked' into a cell phone operator's network. Locked phones can not be used with other cell phone operators' networks. Locked mobile phones are cheaper than unlocked phones because the locked-in network operator helps create a monopoly by: A levered firm has a market value of assets of$10m. Its debt is all comprised of zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of $9.9m. Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of 10% pa. Therefore the current market capitalisation of debt $(D_0)$ is$9m and equity $(E_0)$ is $1m. A new project presents itself which requires an investment of$2m and will provide a:

• $6.6m cash flow with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, and a • -$4.4m (notice the negative sign) cash flow with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world.

The project can be funded using the company's excess cash, no debt or equity raisings are required.

What would be the new market capitalisation of equity $(E_\text{0, with project})$ if shareholders vote to proceed with the project, and therefore should shareholders proceed with the project?

Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling $105 million. A scrip offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares plus 75% of the total synergy value.  Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 6,000 700 Debt ($m) 4,800 400 Share price ($) 40 20 Number of shares (m) 30 15

Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money.

Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed.

Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The firms operate in different industries and the CEO's rationale for the merger is to increase diversification and thereby decrease risk. The deal is not expected to create any synergies. An 80% scrip and 20% cash offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares. The cash will be paid out of the firms' cash holdings, no new debt or equity will be raised.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 6,000 700 Debt ($m) 4,800 400 Share price ($) 40 20 Number of shares (m) 30 15 Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling$105 million. A 40% scrip and 60% cash offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares plus 75% of the total synergy value. The cash will be paid out of the firm's cash holdings, no new debt or equity will be raised.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 6,000 700 Debt ($m) 4,800 400 Share price ($) 40 20 Number of shares (m) 30 15 Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. One of Miller and Modigliani's (M&M's) important insights is that a firm's managers should not try to achieve a particular level of leverage or interest tax shields under certain assumptions. So the firm's capital structure is irrelevant. This is because investors can make their own personal leverage and interest tax shields, so there's no need for managers to try to make corporate leverage and interest tax shields. This is true under the assumptions of equal tax rates, interest rates and debt availability for the person and the corporation, no transaction costs and symmetric information. This principal of 'home-made' or 'do-it-yourself' leverage can also be applied to other topics. Read the following statements to decide which are true: (I) Payout policy: a firm's managers should not try to achieve a particular pattern of equity payout. (II) Agency costs: a firm's managers should not try to minimise agency costs. (III) Diversification: a firm's managers should not try to diversify across industries. (IV) Shareholder wealth: a firm's managers should not try to maximise shareholders' wealth. Which of the above statement(s) are true? You just bought a residential apartment as an investment property for$500,000.

You intend to rent it out to tenants. They are ready to move in, they would just like to know how much the monthly rental payments will be, then they will sign a twelve-month lease.

You require a total return of 8% pa and a rental yield of 5% pa.

What would the monthly paid-in-advance rental payments have to be this year to receive that 5% annual rental yield?

Also, if monthly rental payments can be increased each year when a new lease agreement is signed, by how much must you increase rents per year to realise the 8% pa total return on the property?

Ignore all taxes and the costs of renting such as maintenance costs, real estate agent fees, utilities and so on. Assume that there will be no periods of vacancy and that tenants will promptly pay the rental prices you charge.

Note that the first rental payment will be received at t=0. The first lease agreement specifies the first 12 equal payments from t=0 to 11. The next lease agreement can have a rental increase, so the next twelve equal payments from t=12 to 23 can be higher than previously, and so on forever.

One and a half years ago Frank bought a house for $600,000. Now it's worth only$500,000, based on recent similar sales in the area.

The expected total return on Frank's residential property is 7% pa.

He rents his house out for $1,600 per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments. The present value of 12 months of rental payments is$18,617.27.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year in the future is $19,920.48. What is the expected annual rental yield of the property? Ignore the costs of renting such as maintenance, real estate agent fees and so on. There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA). One method is to use the following formulas to transform net income (NI) into FFCF including interest and depreciation tax shields: $$FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp$$ $$NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ Another popular method is to use EBITDA rather than net income. EBITDA is defined as: $$EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC$$ One of the below formulas correctly calculates FFCF from EBITDA, including interest and depreciation tax shields, giving an identical answer to that above. Which formula is correct? A mature firm has constant expected future earnings and dividends. Both amounts are equal. So earnings and dividends are expected to be equal and unchanging. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? A residential real estate investor believes that house prices will grow at a rate of 5% pa and that rents will grow by 2% pa forever. All rates are given as nominal effective annual returns. Assume that: • His forecast is true. • Real estate is and always will be fairly priced and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is true. • Ignore all costs such as taxes, agent fees, maintenance and so on. • All rental income cash flow is paid out to the owner, so there is no re-investment and therefore no additions or improvements made to the property. • The non-monetary benefits of owning real estate and renting remain constant. Which one of the following statements is NOT correct? Over time: A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is 2% of the end-of-year amount, paid at the end of every year. This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money. The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of 10% pa before fees. You are thinking of investing$100,000 in the fund and keeping it there for 40 years when you plan to retire.

How much money do you expect to have in the fund in 40 years? Also, what is the future value of the fees that the fund expects to earn from you? Give both amounts as future values in 40 years. Assume that:

• The fund has no private information.
• Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient.
• The fund's transaction costs are negligible.
• The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible.
• The fund invests its fees in the same companies as it invests your funds in, but with no fees.

The below answer choices list your expected wealth in 40 years and then the fund's expected wealth in 40 years.

A European call option will mature in $T$ years with a strike price of $K$ dollars. The underlying asset has a price of $S$ dollars.

What is an expression for the payoff at maturity $(f_T)$ in dollars from having written (being short) the call option?

A risky firm will last for one period only (t=0 to 1), then it will be liquidated. So it's assets will be sold and the debt holders and equity holders will be paid out in that order. The firm has the following quantities:

$V$ = Market value of assets.

$E$ = Market value of (levered) equity.

$D$ = Market value of zero coupon bonds.

$F_1$ = Total face value of zero coupon bonds which is promised to be paid in one year.

What is the payoff to debt holders at maturity, assuming that they keep their debt until maturity?

Will the price of an out-of-the-money put option on equity or if the standard deviation of returns (risk) of the underlying shares becomes higher?

Two put options are exactly the same, but one matures in one year and the other matures in two years. Which option would you expect to have the higher price, the option which matures or , or should they have the price?

Two call options are exactly the same, but one has a low and the other has a high exercise price. Which option would you expect to have the higher price, the option with the or exercise price, or should they have the price?

A zero coupon bond that matures in 6 months has a face value of $1,000. The firm that issued this bond is trying to forecast its income statement for the year. It needs to calculate the interest expense of the bond this year. The bond is highly illiquid and hasn't traded on the market. But the finance department have assessed the bond's fair value to be$950 and this is its book value right now at the start of the year.

Assume that:

• the firm uses the 'effective interest method' to calculate interest expense.
• the market value of the bond is the same as the book value.
• the firm is only interested in this bond's interest expense. Do not include the interest expense for a new bond issued to refinance the current one, as would normally happen.

What will be the interest expense of the bond this year for the purpose of forecasting the income statement?

You want to buy an apartment worth $400,000. You have saved a deposit of$80,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $320,000 as a fully amortising mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? You're trying to save enough money for a deposit to buy a house. You want to buy a house worth$400,000 and the bank requires a 20% deposit ($80,000) before it will give you a loan for the other$320,000 that you need.

You currently have no savings, but you just started working and can save $2,000 per month, with the first payment in one month from now. Bank interest rates on savings accounts are 4.8% pa with interest paid monthly and interest rates are not expected to change. How long will it take to save the$80,000 deposit? Round your answer up to the nearest month.

You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage with monthly payments of $1,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change. How much did you borrow? After 20 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change. All things remaining equal, the higher the correlation of returns between two stocks: A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0 6 12 18 20 ...

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in 7 years (t = 7), just after the dividend at that time has been paid?

Bonds X and Y are issued by the same company. Both bonds yield 10% pa, and they have the same face value (\$100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond X pays coupons of 6% pa and bond Y pays coupons of 8% pa. Which of the following statements is true?

A 2 year government bond yields 5% pa with a coupon rate of 6% pa, paid semi-annually.

Find the effective six month rate, effective annual rate and the effective daily rate. Assume that each month has 30 days and that there are 360 days in a year.

All answers are given in the same order:

$r_\text{eff semi-annual}$, $r_\text{eff yrly}$, $r_\text{eff daily}$.

The theory of fixed interest bond pricing is an application of the theory of Net Present Value (NPV). Also, a 'fairly priced' asset is not over- or under-priced. Buying or selling a fairly priced asset has an NPV of zero.

Considering this, which of the following statements is NOT correct?