A stock pays annual dividends which are expected to continue forever. It just paid a dividend of $10. The growth rate in the dividend is 2% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 10% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price?
What is the net present value (NPV) of undertaking a full-time Australian undergraduate business degree as an Australian citizen? Only include the cash flows over the duration of the degree, ignore any benefits or costs of the degree after it's completed.
Assume the following:
- The degree takes 3 years to complete and all students pass all subjects.
- There are 2 semesters per year and 4 subjects per semester.
- University fees per subject per semester are $1,277, paid at the start of each semester. Fees are expected to stay constant for the next 3 years.
- There are 52 weeks per year.
- The first semester is just about to start (t=0). The first semester lasts for 19 weeks (t=0 to 19).
- The second semester starts immediately afterwards (t=19) and lasts for another 19 weeks (t=19 to 38).
- The summer holidays begin after the second semester ends and last for 14 weeks (t=38 to 52). Then the first semester begins the next year, and so on.
- Working full time at the grocery store instead of studying full-time pays $20/hr and you can work 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week.
- Full-time students can work full-time during the summer holiday at the grocery store for the same rate of $20/hr for 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week.
- The discount rate is 9.8% pa. All rates and cash flows are real. Inflation is expected to be 3% pa. All rates are effective annual.
The NPV of costs from undertaking the university degree is:
A moped is a bicycle with pedals and a little motor that can be switched on to assist the rider. Mopeds offer the rider:
The following cash flows are expected:
- 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 6.5 years from now (first payment at t=6.5).
- A single payment of $500 in 4 years and 3 months (t=4.25) from now.
What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?
An investor owns a whole level of an old office building which is currently worth $1 million. There are three mutually exclusive projects that can be started by the investor. The office building level can be:
- Rented out to a tenant for one year at $0.1m paid immediately, and then sold for $0.99m in one year.
- Refurbished into more modern commercial office rooms at a cost of $1m now, and then sold for $2.4m when the refurbishment is finished in one year.
- Converted into residential apartments at a cost of $2m now, and then sold for $3.4m when the conversion is finished in one year.
All of the development projects have the same risk so the required return of each is 10% pa. The table below shows the estimated cash flows and internal rates of returns (IRR's).
|Mutually Exclusive Projects|
|Project|| Cash flow
| Cash flow in
one year ($)
|Rent then sell as is||-900,000||990,000||10|
|Refurbishment into modern offices||-2,000,000||2,400,000||20|
|Conversion into residential apartments||-3,000,000||3,400,000||13.33|
Which project should the investor accept?
The expression 'my word is my bond' is often used in everyday language to make a serious promise.
Why do you think this expression uses the metaphor of a bond rather than a share?
You bought a house, primarily funded using a home loan from a bank. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
A bank buys 1000 European put options on a $10 non-dividend paying stock at a strike of $12. The bank wishes to hedge this exposure. The bank can trade the underlying stocks and European call options with a strike price of 7 on the same stock with the same maturity. Details of the call and put options are given in the table below. Each call and put option is on a single stock.
|European Options on a Non-dividend Paying Stock|
|Description||Symbol||Put Values||Call Values|
|Spot price ($)||##S_0##||10||10|
|Strike price ($)||##K_T##||12||7|
|Risk free cont. comp. rate (pa)||##r##||0.05||0.05|
|Standard deviation of the stock's cont. comp. returns (pa)||##\sigma##||0.4||0.4|
|Option maturity (years)||##T##||1||1|
|Option price ($)||##p_0## or ##c_0##||2.495350486||3.601466138|
|##N[d_1]##||##\partial c/\partial S##||0.888138405|
|##-N[-d_1]##||##\partial p/\partial S##||-0.552034778|
|Gamma||##\Gamma = \partial^2 c/\partial S^2## or ##\partial^2 p/\partial S^2##||0.098885989||0.047577422|
|Theta||##\Theta = \partial c/\partial T## or ##\partial p/\partial T##||0.348152078||0.672379961|
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?