# Fight Finance

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A stock pays annual dividends which are expected to continue forever. It just paid a dividend of $10. The growth rate in the dividend is 2% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 10% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price? If a project's net present value (NPV) is zero, then its internal rate of return (IRR) will be: A two year Government bond has a face value of$100, a yield of 0.5% and a fixed coupon rate of 0.5%, paid semi-annually. What is its price?

The phone company Telstra have 2 mobile service plans on offer which both have the same amount of phone call, text message and internet data credit. Both plans have a contract length of 24 months and the monthly cost is payable in advance. The only difference between the two plans is that one is a:

• 'Bring Your Own' (BYO) mobile service plan, costing $50 per month. There is no phone included in this plan. The other plan is a: • 'Bundled' mobile service plan that comes with the latest smart phone, costing$71 per month. This plan includes the latest smart phone.

Neither plan has any additional payments at the start or end.

The only difference between the plans is the phone, so what is the implied cost of the phone as a present value?

Assume that the discount rate is 2% per month given as an effective monthly rate, the same high interest rate on credit cards.

Stock A and B's returns have a correlation of 0.3. Which statement is NOT correct?

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields.

According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct?

The following is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) used to price stocks:

$$P_0 = \frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

Assume that the assumptions of the DDM hold and that the time period is measured in years.

Which of the following is equal to the expected dividend in 3 years, $d_3$?

A project to build a toll road will take 3 years to complete, costing three payments of $50 million, paid at the start of each year (at times 0, 1, and 2). After completion, the toll road will yield a constant$10 million at the end of each year forever with no costs. So the first payment will be at t=4.

The required return of the project is 10% pa given as an effective nominal rate. All cash flows are nominal.

What is the payback period?

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 0 2 121 The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. What is the Profitability Index (PI) of the project?  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 0 2 121

The theory of fixed interest bond pricing is an application of the theory of Net Present Value (NPV). Also, a 'fairly priced' asset is not over- or under-priced. Buying or selling a fairly priced asset has an NPV of zero.

Considering this, which of the following statements is NOT correct?

In Australia, nominal yields on semi-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently 2.83% pa.

The inflation rate is currently 2.2% pa, given as an APR compounding per quarter. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years.

What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months?

A three year project's NPV is negative. The cash flows of the project include a negative cash flow at the very start and positive cash flows over its short life. The required return of the project is 10% pa. Select the most correct statement.

Which of the following statements about risk free government bonds is NOT correct?

Hint: Total return can be broken into income and capital returns as follows:

\begin{aligned} r_\text{total} &= \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0} \\ &= r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital} \end{aligned}

The capital return is the growth rate of the price.
The income return is the periodic cash flow. For a bond this is the coupon payment.

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 11 2 121 The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. What is the payback period of the project in years? Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are received smoothly over the year. So the$121 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2.

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 11 2 121 The theory of fixed interest bond pricing is an application of the theory of Net Present Value (NPV). Also, a 'fairly priced' asset is not over- or under-priced. Buying or selling a fairly priced asset has an NPV of zero. Considering this, which of the following statements is NOT correct? The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: $$P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g }$$ What is $g$? The value $g$ is the long term expected: The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation. $$p_{0} = \frac{c_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}}$$ What is the discount rate '$r_\text{eff}$' in this equation? A zero coupon bond that matures in 6 months has a face value of$1,000.

The firm that issued this bond is trying to forecast its income statement for the year. It needs to calculate the interest expense of the bond this year.

The bond is highly illiquid and hasn't traded on the market. But the finance department have assessed the bond's fair value to be $950 and this is its book value right now at the start of the year. Assume that: • the firm uses the 'effective interest method' to calculate interest expense. • the market value of the bond is the same as the book value. • the firm is only interested in this bond's interest expense. Do not include the interest expense for a new bond issued to refinance the current one, as would normally happen. What will be the interest expense of the bond this year for the purpose of forecasting the income statement? Jan asks you for a loan. He wants$100 now and offers to pay you back $120 in 1 year. You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. Ignore credit risk. Remember: $$V_0 = \frac{V_t}{(1+r_\text{eff})^t}$$ Will you or Jan's deal? Which statement(s) are correct? (i) All stocks that plot on the Security Market Line (SML) are fairly priced. (ii) All stocks that plot above the Security Market Line (SML) are overpriced. (iii) All fairly priced stocks that plot on the Capital Market Line (CML) have zero idiosyncratic risk. Select the most correct response: The US government recently announced that subsidies for fresh milk producers will be gradually phased out over the next year. Newspapers say that there are expectations of a 40% increase in the spot price of fresh milk over the next year. Option prices on fresh milk trading on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) reflect expectations of this 40% increase in spot prices over the next year. Similarly to the rest of the market, you believe that prices will rise by 40% over the next year. What option trades are likely to be profitable, or to be more specific, result in a positive Net Present Value (NPV)? Assume that: • Only the spot price is expected to increase and there is no change in expected volatility or other variables that affect option prices. • No taxes, transaction costs, information asymmetry, bid-ask spreads or other market frictions. Below are 4 option graphs. Note that the y-axis is payoff at maturity (T). What options do they depict? List them in the order that they are numbered Below are 4 option graphs. Note that the y-axis is payoff at maturity (T). What options do they depict? List them in the order that they are numbered. Katya offers to pay you$10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years (t=1,2,3,4,5) if you pay her $50 now (t=0). You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. Ignore credit risk. Will you or Katya's deal? A stock's correlation with the market portfolio increases while its total risk is unchanged. What will happen to the stock's expected return and systematic risk? For a price of$102, Andrea will sell you a share which just paid a dividend of $10 yesterday, and is expected to pay dividends every year forever, growing at a rate of 5% pa. So the next dividend will be $10(1+0.05)^1=10.50$ in one year from now, and the year after it will be $10(1+0.05)^2=11.025$ and so on. The required return of the stock is 15% pa. Would you like to the share or politely ? For a price of$100, Andrea will sell you a 2 year bond paying annual coupons of 10% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 6% pa. Would you like to the bond or politely ? A credit card offers an interest rate of 18% pa, compounding monthly. Find the effective monthly rate, effective annual rate and the effective daily rate. Assume that there are 365 days in a year. All answers are given in the same order: $$r_\text{eff monthly} , r_\text{eff yearly} , r_\text{eff daily}$$ An 'interest payment' is the same thing as a 'coupon payment'. or ? An 'interest rate' is the same thing as a 'coupon rate'. or ? An 'interest rate' is the same thing as a 'yield'. or ? Calculate the effective annual rates of the following three APR's: • A credit card offering an interest rate of 18% pa, compounding monthly. • A bond offering a yield of 6% pa, compounding semi-annually. • An annual dividend-paying stock offering a return of 10% pa compounding annually. All answers are given in the same order: $r_\text{credit card, eff yrly}$, $r_\text{bond, eff yrly}$, $r_\text{stock, eff yrly}$ A student just won the lottery. She won$1 million in cash after tax. She is trying to calculate how much she can spend per month for the rest of her life. She assumes that she will live for another 60 years. She wants to withdraw equal amounts at the beginning of every month, starting right now.

All of the cash is currently sitting in a bank account which pays interest at a rate of 6% pa, given as an APR compounding per month. On her last withdrawal, she intends to have nothing left in her bank account. How much can she withdraw at the beginning of each month?

Bonds X and Y are issued by different companies, but they both pay a semi-annual coupon of 10% pa and they have the same face value ($100) and maturity (3 years). The only difference is that bond X and Y's yields are 8 and 12% pa respectively. Which of the following statements is true? You want to buy an apartment priced at$300,000. You have saved a deposit of $30,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the$270,000 as an interest only loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 12% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments? Remember that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

Why is Capital Expenditure (CapEx) subtracted in the Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) formula?

$$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \Delta NWC+IntExp$$

All things remaining equal, the variance of a portfolio of two positively-weighted stocks rises as:

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

$$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r_\text{eff}-g_\text{eff}}$$

Which expression is NOT equal to the expected capital return?

A company selling charting and technical analysis software claims that independent academic studies have shown that its software makes significantly positive abnormal returns. Assuming the claim is true, which statement(s) are correct?

(I) Weak form market efficiency is broken.

(II) Semi-strong form market efficiency is broken.

(III) Strong form market efficiency is broken.

(IV) The asset pricing model used to measure the abnormal returns (such as the CAPM) had mis-specification error so the returns may not be abnormal but rather fair for the level of risk.

Select the most correct response:

Your friend claims that by reading 'The Economist' magazine's economic news articles, she can identify shares that will have positive abnormal expected returns over the next 2 years. Assuming that her claim is true, which statement(s) are correct?

(i) Weak form market efficiency is broken.

(ii) Semi-strong form market efficiency is broken.

(iii) Strong form market efficiency is broken.

(iv) The asset pricing model used to measure the abnormal returns (such as the CAPM) is either wrong (mis-specification error) or is measured using the wrong inputs (data errors) so the returns may not be abnormal but rather fair for the level of risk.

Select the most correct response:

For a price of $10.20 each, Renee will sell you 100 shares. Each share is expected to pay dividends in perpetuity, growing at a rate of 5% pa. The next dividend is one year away (t=1) and is expected to be$1 per share.

The required return of the stock is 15% pa.

Would you like to the shares or politely ?

You want to buy an apartment priced at $500,000. You have saved a deposit of$50,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $450,000 as an interest only loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? A three year corporate bond yields 12% pa with a coupon rate of 10% pa, paid semi-annually. Find the effective six month yield, effective annual yield and the effective daily yield. Assume that each month has 30 days and that there are 360 days in a year. All answers are given in the same order: $r_\text{eff semi-annual}$, $r_\text{eff yearly}$, $r_\text{eff daily}$. You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage loan with monthly payments of$1,500 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

To your surprise, you can actually afford to pay $2,000 per month and your mortgage allows early repayments without fees. If you maintain these higher monthly payments, how long will it take to pay off your mortgage? Your neighbour asks you for a loan of$100 and offers to pay you back $120 in one year. You don't actually have any money right now, but you can borrow and lend from the bank at a rate of 10% pa. Rates are given as effective annual rates. Assume that your neighbour will definitely pay you back. Ignore interest tax shields and transaction costs. The Net Present Value (NPV) of lending to your neighbour is$9.09. Describe what you would do to actually receive a $9.09 cash flow right now with zero net cash flows in the future. An Australian company just issued two bonds: • A 6-month zero coupon bond at a yield of 6% pa, and • A 12 month zero coupon bond at a yield of 7% pa. What is the company's forward rate from 6 to 12 months? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. Bonds X and Y are issued by different companies, but they both pay a semi-annual coupon of 10% pa and they have the same face value ($100), maturity (3 years) and yield (10%) as each other.

Which of the following statements is true?

An 'interest only' loan can also be called a:

A share was bought for $30 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of$6 one year later (at t=1).

Just after the dividend was paid, the share price fell to $27 (at t=1). What were the total, capital and income returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total}$ , $r_\text{capital}$ , $r_\text{dividend}$. The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks: $$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$ All rates are effective annual rates and the cash flows ($d_1$) are received every year. Note that the r and g terms in the above DDM could also be labelled as below: $$r = r_{\text{total, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ $$g = r_{\text{capital, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ Which of the following statements is NOT correct? For a price of$100, Vera will sell you a 2 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 10% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with similar risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 8% pa. Would you like to her bond or politely ? For a price of$100, Carol will sell you a 5 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 16% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with similar risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 12% pa. Would you like to her bond or politely ? A text book publisher is thinking of asking some teachers to write a new textbook at a cost of$100,000, payable now. The book would be written, printed and ready to sell to students in 2 years. It will be ready just before semester begins.

A cash flow of $100 would be made from each book sold, after all costs such as printing and delivery. There are 600 students per semester. Assume that every student buys a new text book. Remember that there are 2 semesters per year and students buy text books at the beginning of the semester. Assume that text book publishers will sell the books at the same price forever and that the number of students is constant. If the discount rate is 8% pa, given as an effective annual rate, what is the NPV of the project? A project has the following cash flows:  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 0 2 500

The required return on the project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of this project? The following choices are effective annual rates. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

A project has the following cash flows:

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 0 2 500 What is the payback period of the project in years? Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the$500 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2.

An industrial chicken farmer grows chickens for their meat. Chickens:

1. Cost $0.50 each to buy as chicks. They are bought on the day they’re born, at t=0. 2. Grow at a rate of$0.70 worth of meat per chicken per week for the first 6 weeks (t=0 to t=6).
3. Grow at a rate of $0.40 worth of meat per chicken per week for the next 4 weeks (t=6 to t=10) since they’re older and grow more slowly. 4. Feed costs are$0.30 per chicken per week for their whole life. Chicken feed is bought and fed to the chickens once per week at the beginning of the week. So the first amount of feed bought for a chicken at t=0 costs $0.30, and so on. 5. Can be slaughtered (killed for their meat) and sold at no cost at the end of the week. The price received for the chicken is their total value of meat (note that the chicken grows fast then slow, see above). The required return of the chicken farm is 0.5% given as an effective weekly rate. Ignore taxes and the fixed costs of the factory. Ignore the chicken’s welfare and other environmental and ethical concerns. Find the equivalent weekly cash flow of slaughtering a chicken at 6 weeks and at 10 weeks so the farmer can figure out the best time to slaughter his chickens. The choices below are given in the same order, 6 and 10 weeks. Government bonds currently have a return of 5% pa. A stock has an expected return of 6% pa and the market return is 7% pa. What is the beta of the stock? Here are the Net Income (NI) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) equations: $$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp$$ What is the formula for calculating annual interest expense (IntExp) which is used in the equations above? Select one of the following answers. Note that D is the value of debt which is constant through time, and $r_D$ is the cost of debt. A manufacturing company is considering a new project in the more risky services industry. The cash flows from assets (CFFA) are estimated for the new project, with interest expense excluded from the calculations. To get the levered value of the project, what should these unlevered cash flows be discounted by? Assume that the manufacturing firm has a target debt-to-assets ratio that it sticks to. Due to floods overseas, there is a cut in the supply of the mineral iron ore and its price increases dramatically. An Australian iron ore mining company therefore expects a large but temporary increase in its profit and cash flows. The mining company does not have any positive NPV projects to begin, so what should it do? Select the most correct answer.  Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Correlation Beta Dollars invested A 0.2 0.4 0.12 0.5 40 B 0.3 0.8 1.5 80 What is the beta of the above portfolio? In these tough economic times, central banks around the world have cut interest rates so low that they are practically zero. In some countries, government bond yields are also very close to zero. A three year government bond with a face value of$100 and a coupon rate of 2% pa paid semi-annually was just issued at a yield of 0%. What is the price of the bond?

You own an apartment which you rent out as an investment property.

What is the price of the apartment using discounted cash flow (DCF, same as NPV) valuation?

Assume that:

• You just signed a contract to rent the apartment out to a tenant for the next 12 months at $2,000 per month, payable in advance (at the start of the month, t=0). The tenant is just about to pay you the first$2,000 payment.
• The contract states that monthly rental payments are fixed for 12 months. After the contract ends, you plan to sign another contract but with rental payment increases of 3%. You intend to do this every year.
So rental payments will increase at the start of the 13th month (t=12) to be $2,060 (=2,000(1+0.03)), and then they will be constant for the next 12 months. Rental payments will increase again at the start of the 25th month (t=24) to be$2,121.80 (=2,000(1+0.03)2), and then they will be constant for the next 12 months until the next year, and so on.
• The required return of the apartment is 8.732% pa, given as an effective annual rate.
• Ignore all taxes, maintenance, real estate agent, council and strata fees, periods of vacancy and other costs. Assume that the apartment will last forever and so will the rental payments.

A 10 year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 6% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 8% pa, paid semi-annually. What is its price? A share was bought for$4 and paid an dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the share price fell to$3.50 (at t=1 year). What were the total return, capital return and income returns given as effective annual rates? The answer choices are given in the same order:

$r_\text{total}$, $r_\text{capital}$, $r_\text{income}$

On his 20th birthday, a man makes a resolution. He will deposit $30 into a bank account at the end of every month starting from now, which is the start of the month. So the first payment will be in one month. He will write in his will that when he dies the money in the account should be given to charity. The bank account pays interest at 6% pa compounding monthly, which is not expected to change. If the man lives for another 60 years, how much money will be in the bank account if he dies just after making his last (720th) payment? A European company just issued two bonds, a • 3 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 6% pa, and a • 4 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 6.5% pa. What is the company's forward rate over the fourth year (from t=3 to t=4)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. You're trying to save enough money for a deposit to buy a house. You want to buy a house worth$400,000 and the bank requires a 20% deposit ($80,000) before it will give you a loan for the other$320,000 that you need.

You currently have no savings, but you just started working and can save $2,000 per month, with the first payment in one month from now. Bank interest rates on savings accounts are 4.8% pa with interest paid monthly and interest rates are not expected to change. How long will it take to save the$80,000 deposit? Round your answer up to the nearest month.

A fairly priced stock has an expected return of 15% pa. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. What is the beta of the stock?

The 'option price' in an option contract is paid at the start when the option contract is agreed to. or ?

The 'futures price' in a futures contract is paid at the start when the futures contract is agreed to. or ?

The 'option strike price' in an option contract, also known as the exercise price, is paid at the start when the option contract is agreed to. or ?

The 'initial margin', also known as the performance bond in a futures contract, is paid at the start when the futures contract is agreed to. or ?

Suppose you had $100 in a savings account and the interest rate was 2% per year. After 5 years, how much do you think you would have in the account if you left the money to grow? than$102, $102 or than$102?

Imagine that the interest rate on your savings account was 1% per year and inflation was 2% per year.

After one year, would you be able to buy , exactly the as or than today with the money in this account?

Do you think that the following statement is or ? “Buying a single company stock usually provides a safer return than a stock mutual fund.”

Interest expense (IntExp) is an important part of a company's income statement (or 'profit and loss' or 'statement of financial performance').

How does an accountant calculate the annual interest expense of a fixed-coupon bond that has a liquid secondary market? Select the most correct answer:

Annual interest expense is equal to:

Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) can be defined as:

Which one of the following will increase the Cash Flow From Assets in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

A firm has forecast its Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) for this year and management is worried that it is too low. Which one of the following actions will lead to a higher CFFA for this year (t=0 to 1)? Only consider cash flows this year. Do not consider cash flows after one year, or the change in the NPV of the firm. Consider each action in isolation.

Find World Bar's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 World Bar Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 300 COGS 150 Operating expense 50 Depreciation 40 Interest expense 10 Taxable income 50 Tax at 30% 15 Net income 35  World Bar Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Assets Current assets 200 230 PPE Cost 400 400 Accumul. depr. 75 35 Carrying amount 325 365 Total assets 525 595 Liabilities Current liabilities 150 205 Non-current liabilities 235 250 Owners' equity Retained earnings 100 100 Contributed equity 40 40 Total L and OE 525 595 Note: all figures above and below are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Find Trademark Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Trademark Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 100 COGS 25 Operating expense 5 Depreciation 20 Interest expense 20 Income before tax 30 Tax at 30% 9 Net income 21  Trademark Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Assets Current assets 120 80 PPE Cost 150 140 Accumul. depr. 60 40 Carrying amount 90 100 Total assets 210 180 Liabilities Current liabilities 75 65 Non-current liabilities 75 55 Owners' equity Retained earnings 10 10 Contributed equity 50 50 Total L and OE 210 180 Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

Find UniBar Corp's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 UniBar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 80 COGS 40 Operating expense 15 Depreciation 10 Interest expense 5 Income before tax 10 Tax at 30% 3 Net income 7  UniBar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Assets Current assets 120 90 PPE Cost 360 320 Accumul. depr. 40 30 Carrying amount 320 290 Total assets 440 380 Liabilities Current liabilities 110 60 Non-current liabilities 190 180 Owners' equity Retained earnings 95 95 Contributed equity 45 45 Total L and OE 440 380 Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

For certain shares, the forward-looking Price-Earnings Ratio ($P_0/EPS_1$) is equal to the inverse of the share's total expected return ($1/r_\text{total}$).

For what shares is this true?

Assume:

• The general accounting definition of 'payout ratio' which is dividends per share (DPS) divided by earnings per share (EPS).
• All cash flows, earnings and rates are real.

Question 65  annuity with growth, needs refinement

Which of the below formulas gives the present value of an annuity with growth?

Hint: The equation of a perpetuity without growth is: $$V_\text{0, perp without growth} = \frac{C_\text{1}}{r}$$

The formula for the present value of an annuity without growth is derived from the formula for a perpetuity without growth.

The idea is than an annuity with T payments from t=1 to T inclusive is equivalent to a perpetuity starting at t=1 with fixed positive cash flows, plus a perpetuity starting T periods later (t=T+1) with fixed negative cash flows. The positive and negative cash flows after time period T cancel each other out, leaving the positive cash flows between t=1 to T, which is the annuity.

\begin{aligned} V_\text{0, annuity} &= V_\text{0, perp without growth from t=1} - V_\text{0, perp without growth from t=T+1} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} - \dfrac{ \left( \dfrac{C_\text{T+1}}{r} \right) }{(1+r)^T} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} - \dfrac{ \left( \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} \right) }{(1+r)^T} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r}\left(1 - \dfrac{1}{(1+r)^T}\right) \\ \end{aligned}

The equation of a perpetuity with growth is:

$$V_\text{0, perp with growth} = \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r-g}$$

There are a number of ways that assets can be depreciated. Generally the government's tax office stipulates a certain method.

But if it didn't, what would be the ideal way to depreciate an asset from the perspective of a businesses owner?

You just bought a nice dress which you plan to wear once per month on nights out. You bought it a moment ago for $600 (at t=0). In your experience, dresses used once per month last for 6 years. Your younger sister is a student with no money and wants to borrow your dress once a month when she hits the town. With the increased use, your dress will only last for another 3 years rather than 6. What is the present value of the cost of letting your sister use your current dress for the next 3 years? Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new dress when your current one wears out; your sister will only use the current dress, not the next one that you will buy; and the price of a new dress never changes.  Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Covariance $(\sigma_{A,B})$ Beta Dollars invested A 0.2 0.4 0.12 0.5 40 B 0.3 0.8 1.5 80 What is the standard deviation (not variance) of the above portfolio? Note that the stocks' covariance is given, not correlation. Diversification in a portfolio of two assets works best when the correlation between their returns is:  Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Correlation $(\rho_{A,B})$ Dollars invested A 0.1 0.4 0.5 60 B 0.2 0.6 140 What is the standard deviation (not variance) of the above portfolio? You're the boss of an investment bank's equities research team. Your five analysts are each trying to find the expected total return over the next year of shares in a mining company. The mining firm: • Is regarded as a mature company since it's quite stable in size and was floated around 30 years ago. It is not a high-growth company; • Share price is very sensitive to changes in the price of the market portfolio, economic growth, the exchange rate and commodities prices. Due to this, its standard deviation of total returns is much higher than that of the market index; • Experienced tough times in the last 10 years due to unexpected falls in commodity prices. • Shares are traded in an active liquid market. Your team of analysts present their findings, and everyone has different views. While there's no definitive true answer, who's calculation of the expected total return is the most plausible? Assume that: • The analysts' source data is correct and true, but their inferences might be wrong; • All returns and yields are given as effective annual nominal rates. For a price of$95, Sherylanne will sell you a share which is expected to pay its first dividend of $10 in 7 years (t=7), and will continue to pay the same$10 dividend every year after that forever.

The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

Would you like to the share or politely ?

Question 99  capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged.

Assume that:

• The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates.
• The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium.
• There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs.
• Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered.

According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct?

Diversification is achieved by investing in a large amount of stocks. What type of risk is reduced by diversification?

Which statement about risk, required return and capital structure is the most correct?

Which one of the following bonds is trading at a discount?

An investor bought two fixed-coupon bonds issued by the same company, a zero-coupon bond and a 7% pa semi-annual coupon bond. Both bonds have a face value of $1,000, mature in 10 years, and had a yield at the time of purchase of 8% pa. A few years later, yields fell to 6% pa. Which of the following statements is correct? Note that a capital gain is an increase in price. Two risky stocks A and B comprise an equal-weighted portfolio. The correlation between the stocks' returns is 70%. If the variance of stock A increases but the: • Prices and expected returns of each stock stays the same, • Variance of stock B's returns stays the same, • Correlation of returns between the stocks stays the same. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Examine the following graph which shows stocks' betas $(\beta)$ and expected returns $(\mu)$: Assume that the CAPM holds and that future expectations of stocks' returns and betas are correctly measured. Which statement is NOT correct? The following is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) used to price stocks: $$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ If the assumptions of the DDM hold, which one of the following statements is NOT correct? The long term expected: Which statement is the most correct? The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks: $$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$ Which of the following statements about the Dividend Discount Model is NOT correct? A project's net present value (NPV) is negative. Select the most correct statement. What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the project detailed in the table below? Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. All answers are given as effective annual rates.  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 0 2 121

You're considering making an investment in a particular company. They have preference shares, ordinary shares, senior debt and junior debt.

Which is the safest investment? Which will give the highest returns?

In the dividend discount model:

$$P_0 = \dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$

The return $r$ is supposed to be the:

You operate a cattle farm that supplies hamburger meat to the big fast food chains. You buy a lot of grain to feed your cattle, and you sell the fully grown cattle on the livestock market.

You're afraid of adverse movements in grain and livestock prices. What options should you buy to hedge your exposures in the grain and cattle livestock markets?

Select the most correct response:

You just bought $100,000 worth of inventory from a wholesale supplier. You are given the option of paying within 5 days and receiving a 2% discount, or paying the full price within 60 days. You actually don't have the cash to pay within 5 days, but you could borrow it from the bank (as an overdraft) at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. In 60 days you will have enough money to pay the full cost without having to borrow from the bank. What is the implicit interest rate charged by the wholesale supplier, given as an effective annual rate? Also, should you borrow from the bank in 5 days to pay the supplier and receive the discount? Or just pay the full price on the last possible date? Assume that there are 365 days per year. Your friend just bought a house for$1,000,000. He financed it using a $900,000 mortgage loan and a deposit of$100,000.

In the context of residential housing and mortgages, the 'equity' or 'net wealth' tied up in a house is the value of the house less the value of the mortgage loan. Assuming that your friend's only asset is his house, his net wealth is $100,000. If house prices suddenly fall by 15%, what would be your friend's percentage change in net wealth? Assume that: • No income (rent) was received from the house during the short time over which house prices fell. • Your friend will not declare bankruptcy, he will always pay off his debts. A firm's weighted average cost of capital before tax ($r_\text{WACC before tax}$) would increase due to: A firm is considering a new project of similar risk to the current risk of the firm. This project will expand its existing business. The cash flows of the project have been calculated assuming that there is no interest expense. In other words, the cash flows assume that the project is all-equity financed. In fact the firm has a target debt-to-equity ratio of 1, so the project will be financed with 50% debt and 50% equity. To find the levered value of the firm's assets, what discount rate should be applied to the project's unlevered cash flows? Assume a classical tax system. A company increases the proportion of debt funding it uses to finance its assets by issuing bonds and using the cash to repurchase stock, leaving assets unchanged. Ignoring the costs of financial distress, which of the following statements is NOT correct: A firm can issue 3 year annual coupon bonds at a yield of 10% pa and a coupon rate of 8% pa. The beta of its levered equity is 2. The market's expected return is 10% pa and 3 year government bonds yield 6% pa with a coupon rate of 4% pa. The market value of equity is$1 million and the market value of debt is $1 million. The corporate tax rate is 30%. What is the firm's after-tax WACC? Assume a classical tax system. A company issues a large amount of bonds to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. The net present value (NPV) of the new projects is positive but small. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is NOT correct? Which of the following statements about the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is NOT correct? There are many different ways to value a firm's assets. Which of the following will NOT give the correct market value of a levered firm's assets $(V_L)$? Assume that: • The firm is financed by listed common stock and vanilla annual fixed coupon bonds, which are both traded in a liquid market. • The bonds' yield is equal to the coupon rate, so the bonds are issued at par. The yield curve is flat and yields are not expected to change. When bonds mature they will be rolled over by issuing the same number of new bonds with the same expected yield and coupon rate, and so on forever. • Tax rates on the dividends and capital gains received by investors are equal, and capital gains tax is paid every year, even on unrealised gains regardless of when the asset is sold. • There is no re-investment of the firm's cash back into the business. All of the firm's excess cash flow is paid out as dividends so real growth is zero. • The firm operates in a mature industry with zero real growth. • All cash flows and rates in the below equations are real (not nominal) and are expected to be stable forever. Therefore the perpetuity equation with no growth is suitable for valuation. Where: $$r_\text{WACC before tax} = r_D.\frac{D}{V_L} + r_{EL}.\frac{E_L}{V_L} = \text{Weighted average cost of capital before tax}$$ $$r_\text{WACC after tax} = r_D.(1-t_c).\frac{D}{V_L} + r_{EL}.\frac{E_L}{V_L} = \text{Weighted average cost of capital after tax}$$ $$NI_L=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-\mathbf{IntExp}).(1-t_c) = \text{Net Income Levered}$$ $$CFFA_L=NI_L+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+\mathbf{IntExp} = \text{Cash Flow From Assets Levered}$$ $$NI_U=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr).(1-t_c) = \text{Net Income Unlevered}$$ $$CFFA_U=NI_U+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC= \text{Cash Flow From Assets Unlevered}$$ Which of the below statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct? You believe that the price of a share will fall significantly very soon, but the rest of the market does not. The market thinks that the share price will remain the same. Assuming that your prediction will soon be true, which of the following trades is a bad idea? In other words, which trade will NOT make money or prevent losses? A wholesale shop offers credit to its customers. The customers are given 21 days to pay for their goods. But if they pay straight away (now) they get a 1% discount. What is the effective interest rate given to customers who pay in 21 days? All rates given below are effective annual rates. Assume 365 days in a year. A bathroom and plumbing supplies shop offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 60 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay within 7 days they will get a 2% discount. What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay on either the 7th day or the 60th day. All rates given in this question are effective annual rates. For a bond that pays fixed semi-annual coupons, how is the annual coupon rate defined, and how is the bond's annual income yield from time 0 to 1 defined mathematically? Let: $P_0$ be the bond price now, $F_T$ be the bond's face value, $T$ be the bond's maturity in years, $r_\text{total}$ be the bond's total yield, $r_\text{income}$ be the bond's income yield, $r_\text{capital}$ be the bond's capital yield, and $C_t$ be the bond's coupon at time t in years. So $C_{0.5}$ is the coupon in 6 months, $C_1$ is the coupon in 1 year, and so on. Is it possible for all countries' exchange rates to appreciate by 5% in the same year? or ? If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the American terms quote of the AUD against the USD? If the AUD appreciates against the USD, the American terms quote of the AUD will or ? If the USD appreciates against the AUD, the American terms quote of the AUD will or ? If the AUD appreciates against the USD, the European terms quote of the AUD will or ? If the USD appreciates against the AUD, the European terms quote of the AUD will or ? How is the AUD normally quoted in Australia? Using or terms? When someone says that they're "buying American dollars" (USD), what type of asset are they probably buying? They're probably buying: Investors expect the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to keep the policy rate steady at their next meeting. Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will increase the policy rate by 25 basis points due to fears that the economy is growing too fast and that inflation will be above their target rate of 2 to 3 per cent. What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar is likely to: Assume that there exists a perfect world with no transaction costs, no asymmetric information, no taxes, no agency costs, equal borrowing rates for corporations and individual investors, the ability to short the risk free asset, semi-strong form efficient markets, the CAPM holds, investors are rational and risk-averse and there are no other market frictions. For a firm operating in this perfect world, which statement(s) are correct? (i) When a firm changes its capital structure and/or payout policy, share holders' wealth is unaffected. (ii) When the idiosyncratic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns. (iii) When the systematic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns. Select the most correct response: Suppose the Australian cash rate is expected to be 8.15% pa and the US federal funds rate is expected to be 3.00% pa over the next 2 years, both given as nominal effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is at parity, so 1 USD = 1 AUD. What is the implied 2 year forward foreign exchange rate? If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the European terms quote of the AUD against the USD? The market expects the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to increase the policy rate by 25 basis points at their next meeting. As expected, the RBA increases the policy rate by 25 basis points. What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar will: A company announces that it will pay a dividend, as the market expected. The company's shares trade on the stock exchange which is open from 10am in the morning to 4pm in the afternoon each weekday. When would the share price be expected to fall by the amount of the dividend? Ignore taxes. The share price is expected to fall during the: What is the net present value (NPV) of undertaking a full-time Australian undergraduate business degree as an Australian citizen? Only include the cash flows over the duration of the degree, ignore any benefits or costs of the degree after it's completed. Assume the following: • The degree takes 3 years to complete and all students pass all subjects. • There are 2 semesters per year and 4 subjects per semester. • University fees per subject per semester are$1,277, paid at the start of each semester. Fees are expected to stay constant for the next 3 years.
• There are 52 weeks per year.
• The first semester is just about to start (t=0). The first semester lasts for 19 weeks (t=0 to 19).
• The second semester starts immediately afterwards (t=19) and lasts for another 19 weeks (t=19 to 38).
• The summer holidays begin after the second semester ends and last for 14 weeks (t=38 to 52). Then the first semester begins the next year, and so on.
• Working full time at the grocery store instead of studying full-time pays $20/hr and you can work 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week. • Full-time students can work full-time during the summer holiday at the grocery store for the same rate of$20/hr for 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week.
• The discount rate is 9.8% pa. All rates and cash flows are real. Inflation is expected to be 3% pa. All rates are effective annual.

The NPV of costs from undertaking the university degree is:

All things remaining equal, the higher the correlation of returns between two stocks:

Which of the following statements about short-selling is NOT true?

When valuing assets using discounted cash flow (net present value) methods, it is important to consider inflation. To properly deal with inflation:

(I) Discount nominal cash flows by nominal discount rates.

(II) Discount nominal cash flows by real discount rates.

(III) Discount real cash flows by nominal discount rates.

(IV) Discount real cash flows by real discount rates.

Which of the above statements is or are correct?

Assume that the Gordon Growth Model (same as the dividend discount model or perpetuity with growth formula) is an appropriate method to value real estate.

The rule of thumb in the real estate industry is that properties should yield a 5% pa rental return. Many investors also regard property to be as risky as the stock market, therefore property is thought to have a required total return of 9% pa which is the average total return on the stock market including dividends.

Assume that all returns are effective annual rates and they are nominal (not reduced by inflation). Inflation is expected to be 2% pa.

You're considering purchasing an investment property which has a rental yield of 5% pa and you expect it to have the same risk as the stock market. Select the most correct statement about this property.

Investors expect the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to decrease the overnight cash rate at their next meeting.

Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will keep the policy rate unchanged.

What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar is likely to:

The market expects the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to increase the policy rate by 25 basis points at their next meeting.

Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will increase the policy rate by 50 basis points due to high future GDP and inflation forecasts.

What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar will:

The market expects the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to decrease the policy rate by 25 basis points at their next meeting.

Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will decrease the policy rate by 50 basis points due to fears of a recession and deflation.

What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate? The Australian dollar will:

For a price of $95, Nicole will sell you a 10 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 8% pa. The face value of the bond is$100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 8% pa.

Would you like to the bond or politely ?

A three year bond has a face value of $100, a yield of 10% and a fixed coupon rate of 5%, paid semi-annually. What is its price? A fixed coupon bond was bought for$90 and paid its annual coupon of $3 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was$92 (at t=1 year). What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates.

The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total},r_\text{capital},r_\text{income}$.

Find Sidebar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Sidebar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 405 COGS 100 Depreciation 34 Rent expense 22 Interest expense 39 Taxable Income 210 Taxes at 30% 63 Net income 147  Sidebar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Inventory 70 50 Trade debtors 11 16 Rent paid in advance 4 3 PPE 700 680 Total assets 785 749 Trade creditors 11 19 Bond liabilities 400 390 Contributed equity 220 220 Retained profits 154 120 Total L and OE 785 749 Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of equity to raise money for new projects of similar systematic risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct?

There are many ways to write the ordinary annuity formula.

Which of the following is NOT equal to the ordinary annuity formula?

Find the sample standard deviation of returns using the data in the table:

 Stock Returns Year Return pa 2008 0.3 2009 0.02 2010 -0.2 2011 0.4

The returns above and standard deviations below are given in decimal form.

Let the variance of returns for a share per month be $\sigma_\text{monthly}^2$.

What is the formula for the variance of the share's returns per year $(\sigma_\text{yearly}^2)$?

Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) so they have zero auto correlation, meaning that if the return was higher than average today, it does not indicate that the return tomorrow will be higher or lower than average.

Let the standard deviation of returns for a share per month be $\sigma_\text{monthly}$.

What is the formula for the standard deviation of the share's returns per year $(\sigma_\text{yearly})$?

Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) so they have zero auto correlation, meaning that if the return was higher than average today, it does not indicate that the return tomorrow will be higher or lower than average.

Two years ago Fred bought a house for $300,000. Now it's worth$500,000, based on recent similar sales in the area.

Fred's residential property has an expected total return of 8% pa.

He rents his house out for $2,000 per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments. The present value of 12 months of rental payments is$23,173.86.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year ahead is $25,027.77. What is the expected annual growth rate of the rental payments? In other words, by what percentage increase will Fred have to raise the monthly rent by each year to sustain the expected annual total return of 8%? A firm can issue 5 year annual coupon bonds at a yield of 8% pa and a coupon rate of 12% pa. The beta of its levered equity is 1. Five year government bonds yield 5% pa with a coupon rate of 6% pa. The market's expected dividend return is 4% pa and its expected capital return is 6% pa. The firm's debt-to-equity ratio is 2:1. The corporate tax rate is 30%. What is the firm's after-tax WACC? Assume a classical tax system. A new company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below. To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula: $$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$ Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value? Which one of the following will have no effect on net income (NI) but decrease cash flow from assets (CFFA or FFCF) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant? Remember: $$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - ΔNWC+IntExp$$ Which firms tend to have high forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Estimate the Chinese bank ICBC's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that the renminbi (RMB) is the Chinese currency, also known as the yuan (CNY). • The 4 major Chinese banks ICBC, China Construction Bank (CCB), Bank of China (BOC) and Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) are comparable companies; • ICBC 's historical earnings per share (EPS) is RMB 0.74; • CCB's backward-looking PE ratio is 4.59; • BOC 's backward-looking PE ratio is 4.78; • ABC's backward-looking PE ratio is also 4.78; Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 25 March 2014. Share prices are from the Shanghai stock exchange. Your friend is trying to find the net present value of a project. The project is expected to last for just one year with: • a negative cash flow of -$1 million initially (t=0), and
• a positive cash flow of $1.1 million in one year (t=1). The project has a total required return of 10% pa due to its moderate level of undiversifiable risk. Your friend is aware of the importance of opportunity costs and the time value of money, but he is unsure of how to find the NPV of the project. He knows that the opportunity cost of investing the$1m in the project is the expected gain from investing the money in shares instead. Like the project, shares also have an expected return of 10% since they have moderate undiversifiable risk. This opportunity cost is $0.1m $(=1m \times 10\%)$ which occurs in one year (t=1). He knows that the time value of money should be accounted for, and this can be done by finding the present value of the cash flows in one year. Your friend has listed a few different ways to find the NPV which are written down below. (I) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1}$ (II) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} - \dfrac{1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (III) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} - \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (IV) $-1m + 1.1m - \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (V) $-1m + 1.1m - 1.1m \times 0.1$ Which of the above calculations give the correct NPV? Select the most correct answer. The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation. $$p_0= \frac{c_1}{r-g}$$ Which expression is equal to the expected dividend return? Which one of the following will decrease net income (NI) but increase cash flow from assets (CFFA) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant? Remember: $$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - ΔNWC+IntExp$$ A European company just issued two bonds, a • 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a • 3 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa. What is the company's forward rate over the third year (from t=2 to t=3)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. Which one of the following bonds is trading at a premium? According to the theory of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), total variance can be broken into two components, systematic variance and idiosyncratic variance. Which of the following events would be considered the most diversifiable according to the theory of the CAPM? The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return. Investment projects that plot above the SML would have: Three years ago Frederika bought a house for$400,000.

Now it's worth $600,000, based on recent similar sales in the area. Frederika's residential property has an expected total return of 7% pa. She rents her house out for$2,500 per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months she plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $29,089.48. The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year ahead is$31,125.74.

What is the expected annual capital yield of the property?

Which of the following investable assets are NOT suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques?

The equations for Net Income (NI, also known as Earnings or Net Profit After Tax) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA, also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm) per year are:

$$NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)$$

$$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp$$

For a firm with debt, what is the amount of the interest tax shield per year?

You want to buy an apartment worth $300,000. You have saved a deposit of$60,000.

The bank has agreed to lend you $240,000 as an interest only mortgage loan with a term of 30 years. The interest rate is 6% pa and is not expected to change. What will be your monthly payments? A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is 2% of the start-of-year amount, but it is paid at the end of every year. This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money. The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of 10% pa before fees. You are thinking of investing$100,000 in the fund and keeping it there for 40 years when you plan to retire.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of investing your money in the fund? Note that the question is not asking how much money you will have in 40 years, it is asking: what is the NPV of investing in the fund? Assume that:

• The fund has no private information.
• Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient.
• The fund's transaction costs are negligible.
• The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible.

There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA). Some include the annual interest tax shield in the cash flow and some do not.

Which of the below FFCF formulas include the interest tax shield in the cash flow?

$$(1) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp$$ $$(2) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp.(1-t_c)$$ $$(3) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c )+ Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c$$ $$(4) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c) + Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(5) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c$$ $$(6) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(7) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(8) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c$$ $$(9) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(10) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c$$

The formulas for net income (NI also called earnings), EBIT and EBITDA are given below. Assume that depreciation and amortisation are both represented by 'Depr' and that 'FC' represents fixed costs such as rent.

$$NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$EBIT=Rev - COGS - FC-Depr$$ $$EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC$$ $$Tax =(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).t_c= \dfrac{NI.t_c}{1-t_c}$$

A method commonly seen in textbooks for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is the following:

\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + \\ &\space\space\space+ Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp(1-t_c) \\ \end{aligned}
Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield?

 Project Data Project life 2 yrs Initial investment in equipment $600k Depreciation of equipment per year$250k Expected sale price of equipment at end of project $200k Revenue per job$12k Variable cost per job $4k Quantity of jobs per year 120 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$100k Interest expense in first year (at t=1) $16.091k Interest expense in second year (at t=2)$9.711k Tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 6% Levered cost of equity 12.5% Market portfolio return 10% Beta of assets 1.24 Beta of levered equity 1.5 Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio 25%

Notes

1. The project will require an immediate purchase of $50k of inventory, which will all be sold at cost when the project ends. Current liabilities are negligible so they can be ignored. Assumptions • The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. Note that interest expense is different in each year. • Thousands are represented by 'k' (kilo). • All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year. • All rates and cash flows are nominal. The inflation rate is 2% pa. • All rates are given as effective annual rates. • The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual. What is the net present value (NPV) of the project? Details of two different types of desserts or edible treats are given below: • High-sugar treats like candy, chocolate and ice cream make a person very happy. High sugar treats are cheap at only$2 per day.
• Low-sugar treats like nuts, cheese and fruit make a person equally happy if these foods are of high quality. Low sugar treats are more expensive at $4 per day. The advantage of low-sugar treats is that a person only needs to pay the dentist$2,000 for fillings and root canal therapy once every 15 years. Whereas with high-sugar treats, that treatment needs to be done every 5 years.

The real discount rate is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that there are 365 days in every year and that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate.

Find the equivalent annual cash flow (EAC) of the high-sugar treats and low-sugar treats, including dental costs. The below choices are listed in that order.

Ignore the pain of dental therapy, personal preferences and other factors.

Which option position has the possibility of unlimited potential losses?

Over the next year, the management of an unlevered company plans to:

• Achieve firm free cash flow (FFCF or CFFA) of $1m. • Pay dividends of$1.8m
• Complete a $1.3m share buy-back. • Spend$0.8m on new buildings without buying or selling any other fixed assets. This capital expenditure is included in the CFFA figure quoted above.

Assume that:

• All amounts are received and paid at the end of the year so you can ignore the time value of money.
• The firm has sufficient retained profits to pay the dividend and complete the buy back.
• The firm plans to run a very tight ship, with no excess cash above operating requirements currently or over the next year.

How much new equity financing will the company need? In other words, what is the value of new shares that will need to be issued?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Borrowers:

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Lenders:

Which of the following statements is NOT equivalent to the yield on debt?

Assume that the debt being referred to is fairly priced, but do not assume that it's priced at par.

One formula for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to use net operating profit after tax (NOPAT).

\begin{aligned} FFCF &= NOPAT + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ \end{aligned} \\
Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield?

The coupon rate of a fixed annual-coupon bond is constant (always the same).

What can you say about the income return ($r_\text{income}$) of a fixed annual coupon bond? Remember that:

$$r_\text{total} = r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital}$$

$$r_\text{total, 0 to 1} = \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0}$$

Assume that there is no change in the bond's total annual yield to maturity from when it is issued to when it matures.

Select the most correct statement.

From its date of issue until maturity, the income return of a fixed annual coupon:

The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return.

Investment projects that plot on the SML would have:

Which one of the following is NOT usually considered an 'investable' asset for long-term wealth creation?

Interest expense on debt is tax-deductible, but dividend payments on equity are not. or ?

In the Merton model of corporate debt, buying a levered company's shares is equivalent to:

In the Merton model of corporate debt, buying a levered company's debt is equivalent to buying the company's assets and:

In the Merton model of corporate debt, buying a levered company's debt is equivalent to buying risk free government bonds and:

A risky firm will last for one period only (t=0 to 1), then it will be liquidated. So it's assets will be sold and the debt holders and equity holders will be paid out in that order. The firm has the following quantities:

$V$ = Market value of assets.

$E$ = Market value of (levered) equity.

$D$ = Market value of zero coupon bonds.

$F_1$ = Total face value of zero coupon bonds which is promised to be paid in one year.

The levered equity graph above contains bold labels a to e. Which of the following statements about those labels is NOT correct?

A risky firm will last for one period only (t=0 to 1), then it will be liquidated. So it's assets will be sold and the debt holders and equity holders will be paid out in that order. The firm has the following quantities:

$V$ = Market value of assets.

$E$ = Market value of (levered) equity.

$D$ = Market value of zero coupon bonds.

$F_1$ = Total face value of zero coupon bonds which is promised to be paid in one year.

The risky corporate debt graph above contains bold labels a to e. Which of the following statements about those labels is NOT correct?

An expansion option is best modeled as a or option?

An abandonment option is best modeled as a or option?

A timing option is best modeled as a or option?

According to option theory, it's rational for students to submit their assignments as or as possible?

A levered company's required return on debt is always less than its required return on equity. or ?

Companies must pay interest and principal payments to debt-holders. They're compulsory. But companies are not forced to pay dividends to share holders. or ?

Which of the following is the least useful method or model to calculate the value of a real option in a project?

A levered firm has zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of $9.9m. Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of 10% pa. In one year the firm's assets will be worth: •$13.2m with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, or
• $6.6m with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world. A new project presents itself which requires an investment of$2m and will provide a certain cash flow of $3.3m in one year. The firm doesn't have any excess cash to make the initial$2m investment, but the funds can be raised from shareholders through a fairly priced rights issue. Ignore all transaction costs.

Should shareholders vote to proceed with the project and equity raising? What will be the gain in shareholder wealth if they decide to proceed?

A levered firm has a market value of assets of $10m. Its debt is all comprised of zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of$9.9m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of 10% pa.

Therefore the current market capitalisation of debt $(D_0)$ is $9m and equity $(E_0)$ is$1m.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $2m and will provide a: •$6.6m cash flow with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, and a
• -$4.4m (notice the negative sign) cash flow with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world. The project can be funded using the company's excess cash, no debt or equity raisings are required. What would be the new market capitalisation of equity $(E_\text{0, with project})$ if shareholders vote to proceed with the project, and therefore should shareholders proceed with the project? The cheapest mobile phones available tend to be those that are 'locked' into a cell phone operator's network. Locked phones can not be used with other cell phone operators' networks. Locked mobile phones are cheaper than unlocked phones because the locked-in network operator helps create a monopoly by: Your firm's research scientists can begin an exciting new project at a cost of$10m now, after which there’s a:

• 70% chance that cash flows will be $1m per year forever, starting in 5 years (t=5). This is the A state of the world. • 20% chance that cash flows will be$3m per year forever, starting in 5 years (t=5). This is the B state of the world.
• 10% chance of a major break through in which case the cash flows will be $20m per year forever starting in 5 years (t=5), or the project can be expanded by investing another$10m (at t=5) which is expected to give cash flows of $60m per year forever, starting at year 9 (t=9). This is the C state of the world. The firm's cost of capital is 10% pa. What's the present value (at t=0) of the option to expand in year 5? One of the reasons why firms may not begin projects with relatively small positive net present values (NPV's) is because they wish to maximise the value of their: A moped is a bicycle with pedals and a little motor that can be switched on to assist the rider. Mopeds offer the rider: You're thinking of starting a new cafe business, but you're not sure if it will be profitable. You have to decide what type of cups, mugs and glasses you wish to buy. You can have your cafe's name printed on them, or plain un-marked ones. For marketing reasons it's better to have the cafe name printed, but the plain un-marked cups, mugs and glasses maximise your: Some financially minded people insist on a prenuptial agreement before committing to marry their partner. This agreement states how the couple's assets should be divided in case they divorce. Prenuptial agreements are designed to give the richer partner more of the couples' assets if they divorce, thus maximising the richer partner's: The "interest expense" on a company's annual income statement is equal to the cash interest payments (but not principal payments) made to debt holders during the year. or ? Issuing debt doesn't give away control of the firm because debt holders can't cast votes to determine the company's affairs, such as at the annual general meeting (AGM), and can't appoint directors to the board. or ? A European call option will mature in $T$ years with a strike price of $K$ dollars. The underlying asset has a price of $S$ dollars. What is an expression for the payoff at maturity $(f_T)$ in dollars from owning (being long) the call option? A European put option will mature in $T$ years with a strike price of $K$ dollars. The underlying asset has a price of $S$ dollars. What is an expression for the payoff at maturity $(f_T)$ in dollars from owning (being long) the put option? The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation. $$P_{0} = \frac{C_1}{r_{\text{eff}} - g_{\text{eff}}}$$ What would you call the expression $C_1/P_0$? An established mining firm announces that it expects large losses over the following year due to flooding which has temporarily stalled production at its mines. Which statement(s) are correct? (i) If the firm adheres to a full dividend payout policy it will not pay any dividends over the following year. (ii) If the firm wants to signal that the loss is temporary it will maintain the same level of dividends. It can do this so long as it has enough retained profits. (iii) By law, the firm will be unable to pay a dividend over the following year because it cannot pay a dividend when it makes a loss. Select the most correct response: A company has: • 10 million common shares outstanding, each trading at a price of$90.
• 1 million preferred shares which have a face (or par) value of $100 and pay a constant dividend of 9% of par. They currently trade at a price of$120 each.
• Debentures that have a total face value of $60,000,000 and a yield to maturity of 6% per annum. They are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 90% of their face value. • The risk-free rate is 5% and the market return is 10%. • Market analysts estimate that the company's common stock has a beta of 1.2. The corporate tax rate is 30%. What is the company's after-tax Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)? Assume a classical tax system. Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling$2 million. A scrip offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares plus 70% of the total synergy value.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 60 10 Debt ($m) 20 2 Share price ($) 10 8 Number of shares (m) 4 1 Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling$2 million. A cash offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares plus 70% of the total synergy value. The cash will be paid out of the firm's cash holdings, no new debt or equity will be raised.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 60 10 Debt ($m) 20 2 Share price ($) 10 8 Number of shares (m) 4 1 Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling$105 million. A cash offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares plus 75% of the total synergy value. The cash will be paid out of the firm's cash holdings, no new debt or equity will be raised.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 6,000 700 Debt ($m) 4,800 400 Share price ($) 40 20 Number of shares (m) 30 15 Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling$105 million. A scrip offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares plus 75% of the total synergy value.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 6,000 700 Debt ($m) 4,800 400 Share price ($) 40 20 Number of shares (m) 30 15 Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The firms operate in different industries and the CEO's rationale for the merger is to increase diversification and thereby decrease risk. The deal is not expected to create any synergies. An 80% scrip and 20% cash offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares. The cash will be paid out of the firms' cash holdings, no new debt or equity will be raised.  Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 6,000 700 Debt ($m) 4,800 400 Share price ($) 40 20 Number of shares (m) 30 15

Ignore transaction costs and fees. Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money.

Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed.

In a takeover deal where the offer is 100% cash, the merged firm's number of shares will be equal to the acquirer firm's original number of shares. or ?

In a takeover deal where the offer is 100% scrip (shares), the merged firm's number of shares will be equal to the acquirer firm's original number of shares. or ?

In a takeover deal where the offer is 100% scrip (shares), the merged firm's number of shares will be equal to the sum of the acquirer and target firms' original number of shares. or ?

Acquirer firm plans to launch a takeover of Target firm. The deal is expected to create a present value of synergies totaling $0.5 million, but investment bank fees and integration costs with a present value of$1.5 million is expected. A 10% cash and 90% scrip offer will be made that pays the fair price for the target's shares only. Assume that the Target and Acquirer agree to the deal. The cash will be paid out of the firms' cash holdings, no new debt or equity will be raised.

 Firms Involved in the Takeover Acquirer Target Assets ($m) 60 10 Debt ($m) 20 2 Share price ($) 10 8 Number of shares (m) 4 1 Assume that the firms' debt and equity are fairly priced, and that each firms' debts' risk, yield and values remain constant. The acquisition is planned to occur immediately, so ignore the time value of money. Calculate the merged firm's share price and total number of shares after the takeover has been completed. Select the most correct statement from the following. 'Chartists', also known as 'technical traders', believe that: The hardest and most important aspect of business project valuation is the estimation of the: For a price of$100, Rad will sell you a 5 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 16% pa. The face value of the bond is $100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 6% pa. Would you like to the bond or politely ? You just bought a house worth$1,000,000. You financed it with an $800,000 mortgage loan and a deposit of$200,000.

You estimate that:

• The house has a beta of 1;
• The mortgage loan has a beta of 0.2.

What is the beta of the equity (the $200,000 deposit) that you have in your house? Also, if the risk free rate is 5% pa and the market portfolio's return is 10% pa, what is the expected return on equity in your house? Ignore taxes, assume that all cash flows (interest payments and rent) were paid and received at the end of the year, and all rates are effective annual rates. Which of the following companies is most suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques? Which of the following investable assets is the LEAST suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques? One and a half years ago Frank bought a house for$600,000. Now it's worth only $500,000, based on recent similar sales in the area. The expected total return on Frank's residential property is 7% pa. He rents his house out for$1,600 per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $18,617.27. The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year in the future is$19,920.48.

What is the expected annual rental yield of the property? Ignore the costs of renting such as maintenance, real estate agent fees and so on.

The perpetuity with growth formula is:

$$P_0= \dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$

Which of the following is NOT equal to the total required return (r)?

One year ago you bought $100,000 of shares partly funded using a margin loan. The margin loan size was$70,000 and the other $30,000 was your own wealth or 'equity' in the share assets. The interest rate on the margin loan was 7.84% pa. Over the year, the shares produced a dividend yield of 4% pa and a capital gain of 5% pa. What was the total return on your wealth? Ignore taxes, assume that all cash flows (interest payments and dividends) were paid and received at the end of the year, and all rates above are effective annual rates. Hint: Remember that wealth in this context is your equity (E) in the house asset (V = D+E) which is funded by the loan (D) and your deposit or equity (E). A stock has a real expected total return of 7% pa and a real expected capital return of 2% pa. Inflation is expected to be 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates. What is the nominal expected total return, capital return and dividend yield? The answers below are given in the same order. A pharmaceutical firm has just discovered a valuable new drug. So far the news has been kept a secret. The net present value of making and commercialising the drug is$200 million, but $600 million of bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment. The firm will release the news of the discovery and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The bonds will be issued shortly after. Once the announcement is made and the bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets (ΔV), market capitalisation of debt (ΔD) and market cap of equity (ΔE)? The triangle symbol is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics. Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt. Remember: $ΔV = ΔD+ΔE$ The CAPM can be used to find a business's expected opportunity cost of capital: $$r_i=r_f+β_i (r_m-r_f)$$ What should be used as the risk free rate $r_f$? A firm plans to issue equity and use the cash raised to pay off its debt. No assets will be bought or sold. Ignore the costs of financial distress. Which of the following statements is NOT correct, all things remaining equal? Question 412 enterprise value, no explanation A large proportion of a levered firm's assets is cash held at the bank. The firm is financed with half equity and half debt. Which of the following statements about this firm's enterprise value (EV) and total asset value (V) is NOT correct? There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA). One method is to use the following formulas to transform net income (NI) into FFCF including interest and depreciation tax shields: $$FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp$$ $$NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ Another popular method is to use EBITDA rather than net income. EBITDA is defined as: $$EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC$$ One of the below formulas correctly calculates FFCF from EBITDA, including interest and depreciation tax shields, giving an identical answer to that above. Which formula is correct? A mature firm has constant expected future earnings and dividends. Both amounts are equal. So earnings and dividends are expected to be equal and unchanging. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? A residential real estate investor believes that house prices will grow at a rate of 5% pa and that rents will grow by 2% pa forever. All rates are given as nominal effective annual returns. Assume that: • His forecast is true. • Real estate is and always will be fairly priced and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is true. • Ignore all costs such as taxes, agent fees, maintenance and so on. • All rental income cash flow is paid out to the owner, so there is no re-investment and therefore no additions or improvements made to the property. • The non-monetary benefits of owning real estate and renting remain constant. Which one of the following statements is NOT correct? Over time:  Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in equipment$6m Depreciation of equipment per year $6m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project 0 Unit sales per year 9m Sale price per unit$8 Variable cost per unit $6 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$1m Interest expense in first year (at t=1) $0.53m Tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 6% Market portfolio return 10% Covariance of levered equity returns with market 0.08 Variance of market portfolio returns 0.16 Firm's and project's debt-to-assets ratio 50% Notes 1. Due to the project, current assets will increase by$5m now (t=0) and fall by $5m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected. Assumptions • The debt-to-assets ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. • Millions are represented by 'm'. • All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year. • All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa. • All rates are given as effective annual rates. • The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual. What is the net present value (NPV) of the project? An old company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below. To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula: $$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$ Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value? Economic statistics released this morning were a surprise: they show a strong chance of consumer price inflation (CPI) reaching 5% pa over the next 2 years. This is much higher than the previous forecast of 3% pa. A vanilla fixed-coupon 2-year risk-free government bond was issued at par this morning, just before the economic news was released. What is the expected change in bond price after the economic news this morning, and in the next 2 years? Assume that: • Inflation remains at 5% over the next 2 years. • Investors demand a constant real bond yield. • The bond price falls by the (after-tax) value of the coupon the night before the ex-coupon date, as in real life. Which of the following statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct? In the dividend discount model: $$P_0= \frac{d_1}{r-g}$$ The pronumeral $g$ is supposed to be the: A European put option will mature in $T$ years with a strike price of $K$ dollars. The underlying asset has a price of $S$ dollars. What is an expression for the payoff at maturity $(f_T)$ in dollars from having written (being short) the put option? Question 432 option, option intrinsic value, no explanation An American call option with a strike price of $K$ dollars will mature in $T$ years. The underlying asset has a price of $S$ dollars. What is an expression for the current intrinsic value in dollars from owning (being long) the American call option? Note that the intrinsic value of an option does not subtract the premium paid to buy the option. A risky firm will last for one period only (t=0 to 1), then it will be liquidated. So it's assets will be sold and the debt holders and equity holders will be paid out in that order. The firm has the following quantities: $V$ = Market value of assets. $E$ = Market value of (levered) equity. $D$ = Market value of zero coupon bonds. $F_1$ = Total face value of zero coupon bonds which is promised to be paid in one year. What is the payoff to debt holders at maturity, assuming that they keep their debt until maturity? Will the price of a call option on equity or if the standard deviation of returns (risk) of the underlying shares becomes higher? Will the price of an out-of-the-money put option on equity or if the standard deviation of returns (risk) of the underlying shares becomes higher? Two put options are exactly the same, but one matures in one year and the other matures in two years. Which option would you expect to have the higher price, the option which matures or , or should they have the price? Two call options are exactly the same, but one has a low and the other has a high exercise price. Which option would you expect to have the higher price, the option with the or exercise price, or should they have the price? Two put options are exactly the same, but one has a low and the other has a high exercise price. Which option would you expect to have the higher price, the option with the or exercise price, or should they have the price? A risky firm will last for one period only (t=0 to 1), then it will be liquidated. So it's assets will be sold and the debt holders and equity holders will be paid out in that order. The firm has the following quantities: $V$ = Market value of assets. $E$ = Market value of (levered) equity. $D$ = Market value of zero coupon bonds. $F_1$ = Total face value of zero coupon bonds which is promised to be paid in one year. What is the payoff to equity holders at maturity, assuming that they keep their shares until maturity? A man inherits$500,000 worth of shares.

He believes that by learning the secrets of trading, keeping up with the financial news and doing complex trend analysis with charts that he can quit his job and become a self-employed day trader in the equities markets.

What is the expected gain from doing this over the first year? Measure the net gain in wealth received at the end of this first year due to the decision to become a day trader. Assume the following:

• He earns $60,000 pa in his current job, paid in a lump sum at the end of each year. • He enjoys examining share price graphs and day trading just as much as he enjoys his current job. • Stock markets are weak form and semi-strong form efficient. • He has no inside information. • He makes 1 trade every day and there are 250 trading days in the year. Trading costs are$20 per trade. His broker invoices him for the trading costs at the end of the year.
• The shares that he currently owns and the shares that he intends to trade have the same level of systematic risk as the market portfolio.
• The market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa.

Measure the net gain over the first year as an expected wealth increase at the end of the year.

A new company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below.

To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula:

$$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$

Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value?

Two call options are exactly the same, but one matures in one year and the other matures in two years. Which option would you expect to have the higher price, the option which matures or , or should they have the price?

Treasury bonds currently have a return of 5% pa. A stock has a beta of 0.5 and the market return is 10% pa. What is the expected return of the stock?

A fairly priced stock has a beta that is the same as the market portfolio's beta. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. What is the expected return of the stock?

Over the next year, the management of an unlevered company plans to:

• Make $5m in sales,$1.9m in net income and $2m in equity free cash flow (EFCF). • Pay dividends of$1m.
• Complete a $1.3m share buy-back. Assume that: • All amounts are received and paid at the end of the year so you can ignore the time value of money. • The firm has sufficient retained profits to legally pay the dividend and complete the buy back. • The firm plans to run a very tight ship, with no excess cash above operating requirements currently or over the next year. How much new equity financing will the company need? In other words, what is the value of new shares that will need to be issued? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0.00 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 ...

After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at -5% pa. Note that this is a negative growth rate, so the dividend will actually shrink. So,

• the dividend at t=5 will be $1(1-0.05) = 0.95$,
• the dividend at t=6 will be $1(1-0.05)^2 = 0.9025$, and so on.

The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

A company has:

• 50 million shares outstanding.
• The market price of one share is currently $6. • The risk-free rate is 5% and the market return is 10%. • Market analysts believe that the company's ordinary shares have a beta of 2. • The company has 1 million preferred stock which have a face (or par) value of$100 and pay a constant dividend of 10% of par. They currently trade for $80 each. • The company's debentures are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 90% of their face value. • The debentures have a total face value of$60,000,000 and the current yield to maturity of corporate debentures is 10% per annum. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What is the company's after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC)? Assume a classical tax system.

Business people make lots of important decisions. Which of the following is the most important long term decision?

A small private company has a single shareholder. This year the firm earned a $100 profit before tax. All of the firm's after tax profits will be paid out as dividends to the owner. The corporate tax rate is 30% and the sole shareholder's personal marginal tax rate is 45%. The Australian imputation tax system applies because the company generates all of its income in Australia and pays corporate tax to the Australian Tax Office. Therefore all of the company's dividends are fully franked. The sole shareholder is an Australian for tax purposes and can therefore use the franking credits to offset his personal income tax liability. What will be the personal tax payable by the shareholder and the corporate tax payable by the company? Payout policy is most closely related to which part of a business? The working capital decision primarily affects which part of a business? The financing decision primarily affects which part of a business? The investment decision primarily affects which part of a business? A company advertises an investment costing$1,000 which they say is underpriced. They say that it has an expected total return of 15% pa, but a required return of only 10% pa. Assume that there are no dividend payments so the entire 15% total return is all capital return.

Assuming that the company's statements are correct, what is the NPV of buying the investment if the 15% return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to 10% pa after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever?

In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant. All returns are given as effective annual rates.

The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever):

The below screenshot of Commonwealth Bank of Australia's (CBA) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 7 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was CBA's market capitalisation of equity?

Which of the following statements about book and market equity is NOT correct?

Two companies BigDiv and ZeroDiv are exactly the same except for their dividend payouts.

BigDiv pays large dividends and ZeroDiv doesn't pay any dividends.

Currently the two firms have the same earnings, assets, number of shares, share price, expected total return and risk.

Assume a perfect world with no taxes, no transaction costs, no asymmetric information and that all assets including business projects are fairly priced and therefore zero-NPV.

All things remaining equal, which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

You have just sold an 'in the money' 6 month European put option on the mining company BHP at an exercise price of $40 for a premium of$3.

Which of the following statements best describes your situation?

A newly floated farming company is financed with senior bonds, junior bonds, cumulative non-voting preferred stock and common stock. The new company has no retained profits and due to floods it was unable to record any revenues this year, leading to a loss. The firm is not bankrupt yet since it still has substantial contributed equity (same as paid-up capital).

On which securities must it pay interest or dividend payments in this terrible financial year?

An investor owns an empty block of land that has local government approval to be developed into a petrol station, car wash or car park. The council will only allow a single development so the projects are mutually exclusive.

All of the development projects have the same risk and the required return of each is 10% pa. Each project has an immediate cost and once construction is finished in one year the land and development will be sold. The table below shows the estimated costs payable now, expected sale prices in one year and the internal rates of returns (IRR's).

 Mutually Exclusive Projects Project Costnow ($) Sale price inone year ($) IRR(% pa) Petrol station 9,000,000 11,000,000 22.22 Car wash 800,000 1,100,000 37.50 Car park 70,000 110,000 57.14

Which project should the investor accept?

A fairly priced unlevered firm plans to pay a dividend of $1 next year (t=1) which is expected to grow by 3% pa every year after that. The firm's required return on equity is 8% pa. The firm is thinking about reducing its future dividend payments by 10% so that it can use the extra cash to invest in more projects which are expected to return 8% pa, and have the same risk as the existing projects. Therefore, next year's dividend will be$0.90.

What will be the stock's new annual capital return (proportional increase in price per year) if the change in payout policy goes ahead?

Assume that payout policy is irrelevant to firm value and that all rates are effective annual rates.

A firm is considering a business project which costs $10m now and is expected to pay a single cash flow of$12.1m in two years.

Assume that the initial $10m cost is funded using the firm's existing cash so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is 10% pa. Which of the following statements about net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is NOT correct? A company runs a number of slaughterhouses which supply hamburger meat to McDonalds. The company is afraid that live cattle prices will increase over the next year, even though there is widespread belief in the market that they will be stable. What can the company do to hedge against the risk of increasing live cattle prices? Which statement(s) are correct? (i) buy call options on live cattle. (ii) buy put options on live cattle. (iii) sell call options on live cattle. Select the most correct response: A project has the following cash flows. Normally cash flows are assumed to happen at the given time. But here, assume that the cash flows are received smoothly over the year. So the$250 at time 2 is actually earned smoothly from t=1 to t=2:

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -400 1 200 2 250 What is the payback period of the project in years? The total return of any asset can be broken down in different ways. One possible way is to use the dividend discount model (or Gordon growth model): $$p_0 = \frac{c_1}{r_\text{total}-r_\text{capital}}$$ Which, since $c_1/p_0$ is the income return ($r_\text{income}$), can be expressed as: $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}$$ So the total return of an asset is the income component plus the capital or price growth component. Another way to break up total return is to use the Capital Asset Pricing Model: $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{f}+β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})$$ $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}$$ So the risk free rate is the time value of money and the term $β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})$ is the compensation for taking on systematic risk. Using the above theory and your general knowledge, which of the below equations, if any, are correct? (I) $r_\text{income}=r_\text{time value}$ (II) $r_\text{income}=r_\text{risk premium}$ (III) $r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}$ (IV) $r_\text{capital}=r_\text{risk premium}$ (V) $r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}$ Which of the equations are correct? A business project is expected to cost$100 now (t=0), then pay $10 at the end of the third (t=3), fourth, fifth and sixth years, and then grow by 5% pa every year forever. So the cash flow will be$10.5 at the end of the seventh year (t=7), then $11.025 at the end of the eighth year (t=8) and so on perpetually. The total required return is 10℅ pa. Which of the following formulas will NOT give the correct net present value of the project? A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 25%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio? A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 60%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio? The saying "buy low, sell high" suggests that investors should make a: Total cash flows can be broken into income and capital cash flows. What is the name given to the income cash flow from owning shares? Which of the following equations is NOT equal to the total return of an asset? Let $p_0$ be the current price, $p_1$ the expected price in one year and $c_1$ the expected income in one year. Discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation prices assets by finding the present value of the asset's future cash flows. The single cash flow, annuity, and perpetuity equations are very useful for this. Which of the following equations is the 'perpetuity with growth' equation? The boss of WorkingForTheManCorp has a wicked (and unethical) idea. He plans to pay his poor workers one week late so that he can get more interest on his cash in the bank. Every week he is supposed to pay his 1,000 employees$1,000 each. So $1 million is paid to employees every week. The boss was just about to pay his employees today, until he thought of this idea so he will actually pay them one week (7 days) later for the work they did last week and every week in the future, forever. Bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as a real effective annual rate. So $r_\text{eff annual, real} = 0.1$ and the real effective weekly rate is therefore $r_\text{eff weekly, real} = (1+0.1)^{1/52}-1 = 0.001834569$ All rates and cash flows are real, the inflation rate is 3% pa and there are 52 weeks per year. The boss will always pay wages one week late. The business will operate forever with constant real wages and the same number of employees. What is the net present value (NPV) of the boss's decision to pay later? High risk firms in danger of bankruptcy tend to have: High risk firms in danger of bankruptcy tend to have: A stock was bought for$8 and paid a dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the stock price was$7 (at t=1 year).

What were the total, capital and dividend returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order:

$r_\text{total}$, $r_\text{capital}$, $r_\text{dividend}$.

A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of 6% pa and nominal capital return of 3% pa.

Inflation is expected to be 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.

What are the property's expected real total, capital and income returns? The answer choices below are given in the same order.

Question 449  personal tax on dividends, classical tax system

A small private company has a single shareholder. This year the firm earned a $100 profit before tax. All of the firm's after tax profits will be paid out as dividends to the owner. The corporate tax rate is 30% and the sole shareholder's personal marginal tax rate is 45%. The United States' classical tax system applies because the company generates all of its income in the US and pays corporate tax to the Internal Revenue Service. The shareholder is also an American for tax purposes. What will be the personal tax payable by the shareholder and the corporate tax payable by the company? Which business structure or structures have the advantage of limited liability for equity investors? What is the lowest and highest expected share price and expected return from owning shares in a company over a finite period of time? Let the current share price be $p_0$, the expected future share price be $p_1$, the expected future dividend be $d_1$ and the expected return be $r$. Define the expected return as: $r=\dfrac{p_1-p_0+d_1}{p_0}$ The answer choices are stated using inequalities. As an example, the first answer choice "(a) $0≤p<∞$ and $0≤r< 1$", states that the share price must be larger than or equal to zero and less than positive infinity, and that the return must be larger than or equal to zero and less than one. You are a banker about to grant a 2 year loan to a customer. The loan's principal and interest will be repaid in a single payment at maturity, sometimes called a zero-coupon loan, discount loan or bullet loan. You require a real return of 6% pa over the two years, given as an effective annual rate. Inflation is expected to be 2% this year and 4% next year, both given as effective annual rates. You judge that the customer can afford to pay back$1,000,000 in 2 years, given as a nominal cash flow. How much should you lend to her right now?

One year ago a pharmaceutical firm floated by selling its 1 million shares for $100 each. Its book and market values of equity were both$100m. Its debt totalled $50m. The required return on the firm's assets was 15%, equity 20% and debt 5% pa. In the year since then, the firm: • Earned net income of$29m.
• Paid dividends totaling $10m. • Discovered a valuable new drug that will lead to a massive 1,000 times increase in the firm's net income in 10 years after the research is commercialised. News of the discovery was publicly announced. The firm's systematic risk remains unchanged. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? All statements are about current figures, not figures one year ago. Hint: Book return on assets (ROA) and book return on equity (ROE) are ratios that accountants like to use to measure a business's past performance. $$\text{ROA}= \dfrac{\text{Net income}}{\text{Book value of assets}}$$ $$\text{ROE}= \dfrac{\text{Net income}}{\text{Book value of equity}}$$ The required return on assets $r_V$ is a return that financiers like to use to estimate a business's future required performance which compensates them for the firm's assets' risks. If the business were to achieve realised historical returns equal to its required returns, then investment into the business's assets would have been a zero-NPV decision, which is neither good nor bad but fair. $$r_\text{V, 0 to 1}= \dfrac{\text{Cash flow from assets}_\text{1}}{\text{Market value of assets}_\text{0}} = \dfrac{CFFA_\text{1}}{V_\text{0}}$$ Similarly for equity and debt. A share pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of$2. The growth rate in the dividend is 3% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 8% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.

Using the dividend discount model, what is the share price?

Which firms tend to have low forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Only consider firms with positive PE ratios.

In the 1997 Asian financial crisis many countries' exchange rates depreciated rapidly against the US dollar (USD). The Thai, Indonesian, Malaysian, Korean and Filipino currencies were severely affected. The below graph shows these Asian countries' currencies in USD per one unit of their currency, indexed to 100 in June 1997.

Of the statements below, which is NOT correct? The Asian countries':

A firm has 1 million shares which trade at a price of $30 each. The firm is expected to announce earnings of$3 million at the end of the year and pay an annual dividend of $1.50 per share. What is the firm's (forward looking) price/earnings (PE) ratio? Which of the following is NOT a synonym of 'required return'? Which of the following investable assets are NOT suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques? In Australia in the 1980's, inflation was around 8% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 14%. In 2013, inflation was around 2.5% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 4.5%. If a person can afford constant mortgage loan payments of$2,000 per month, how much more can they borrow when interest rates are 4.5% pa compared with 14.0% pa?

Give your answer as a proportional increase over the amount you could borrow when interest rates were high $(V_\text{high rates})$, so:

$$\text{Proportional increase} = \dfrac{V_\text{low rates}-V_\text{high rates}}{V_\text{high rates}}$$

Assume that:

• Interest rates are expected to be constant over the life of the loan.
• Loans are interest-only and have a life of 30 years.
• Mortgage loan payments are made every month in arrears and all interest rates are given as annualised percentage rates (APR's) compounding per month.

The following cash flows are expected:

• 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 3 years from now (first payment at t=3). • 1 payment of$600 in 5 years and 6 months (t=5.5) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university or begin working straight away in her home town.

The young lady's grandma says that she should not go to university because she is less likely to marry the local village boy whom she likes because she will spend less time with him if she attends university.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to decide whether to attend university?

The cost of not marrying the local village boy should be classified as:

The below graph shows a project's net present value (NPV) against its annual discount rate.

For what discount rate or range of discount rates would you accept and commence the project?

All answer choices are given as approximations from reading off the graph.

A project has the following cash flows:

 Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -90 1 30 2 105 The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. What is the Profitability Index (PI) of the project? Your friend overheard that you need some cash and asks if you would like to borrow some money. She can lend you$5,000 now (t=0), and in return she wants you to pay her back $1,000 in two years (t=2) and every year after that for the next 5 years, so there will be 6 payments of$1,000 from t=2 to t=7 inclusive.

What is the net present value (NPV) of borrowing from your friend?

Assume that banks loan funds at interest rates of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

This annuity formula $\dfrac{C_1}{r}\left(1-\dfrac{1}{(1+r)^3} \right)$ is equivalent to which of the following formulas? Note the 3.

In the below formulas, $C_t$ is a cash flow at time t. All of the cash flows are equal, but paid at different times.

Some countries' interest rates are so low that they're zero.

If interest rates are 0% pa and are expected to stay at that level for the foreseeable future, what is the most that you would be prepared to pay a bank now if it offered to pay you $10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years? In other words, what is the present value of five$10 payments at time 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 if interest rates are 0% pa?

The first payment of a constant perpetual annual cash flow is received at time 5. Let this cash flow be $C_5$ and the required return be $r$.

So there will be equal annual cash flows at time 5, 6, 7 and so on forever, and all of the cash flows will be equal so $C_5 = C_6 = C_7 = ...$

When the perpetuity formula is used to value this stream of cash flows, it will give a value (V) at time:

Which one of the following will decrease net income (NI) but increase cash flow from assets (CFFA) in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

Remember:

$$NI = (Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \Delta NWC+IntExp$$

An asset's total expected return over the next year is given by:

$$r_\text{total} = \dfrac{c_1+p_1-p_0}{p_0}$$

Where $p_0$ is the current price, $c_1$ is the expected income in one year and $p_1$ is the expected price in one year. The total return can be split into the income return and the capital return.

Which of the following is the expected capital return?

The below screenshot of Microsoft's (MSFT) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 28 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was MSFT's market capitalisation of equity?

A man has taken a day off from his casual painting job to relax.

It's the end of the day and he's thinking about the hours that he could have spent working (in the past) which are now:

A fairly priced stock has an expected return equal to the market's. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. What is the stock's beta?

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university. Her friends say that she should go to university because she is more likely to meet a clever young man than if she begins full time work straight away.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to find the Net Present Value of going to university rather than working?

The opportunity to meet a desirable future spouse should be classified as:

Find Candys Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Candys Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 200 COGS 50 Operating expense 10 Depreciation 20 Interest expense 10 Income before tax 110 Tax at 30% 33 Net income 77  Candys Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Assets Current assets 220 180 PPE Cost 300 340 Accumul. depr. 60 40 Carrying amount 240 300 Total assets 460 480 Liabilities Current liabilities 175 190 Non-current liabilities 135 130 Owners' equity Retained earnings 50 60 Contributed equity 100 100 Total L and OE 460 480 Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

A stock pays annual dividends. It just paid a dividend of $3. The growth rate in the dividend is 4% pa. You estimate that the stock's required return is 10% pa. Both the discount rate and growth rate are given as effective annual rates. Using the dividend discount model, what will be the share price? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 8 8 8 20 8 ...

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in 5 years (t = 5), just after the dividend at that time has been paid?

A stock is expected to pay its next dividend of $1 in one year. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. So the first dividend of$1 will be in one year, the year after that $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1), and a year later$1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

A stock just paid a dividend of $1. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. The next dividend of$1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1) will be in one year, and the year after that the dividend will be $1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2), and so on forever. Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates. Calculate the current stock price. A stock is just about to pay a dividend of$1 tonight. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. The next dividend of $1 will be paid tonight, and the year after that the dividend will be$1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1), and a year later 1.0404 (=1*(1+0.04)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

Who is most in danger of being personally bankrupt? Assume that all of their businesses' assets are highly liquid and can therefore be sold immediately.

The perpetuity with growth formula, also known as the dividend discount model (DDM) or Gordon growth model, is appropriate for valuing a company's shares. $P_0$ is the current share price, $C_1$ is next year's expected dividend, $r$ is the total required return and $g$ is the expected growth rate of the dividend.

$$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$

The below graph shows the expected future price path of the company's shares. Which of the following statements about the graph is NOT correct?

How can a nominal cash flow be precisely converted into a real cash flow?

Total cash flows can be broken into income and capital cash flows.

What is the name given to the cash flow generated from selling shares at a higher price than they were bought?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

The expression 'cash is king' emphasizes the importance of having enough cash to pay your short term debts to avoid bankruptcy. Which business decision is this expression most closely related to?

The expression 'you have to spend money to make money' relates to which business decision?

Which of the following decisions relates to the current assets and current liabilities of the firm?

You just signed up for a 30 year fully amortising mortgage with monthly payments of $1,000 per month. The interest rate is 6% pa which is not expected to change. How much did you borrow? After 20 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 6% and is not expected to change. Calculate the price of a newly issued ten year bond with a face value of$100, a yield of 8% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 6% pa, paid annually. So there's only one coupon per year, paid in arrears every year.

Calculate the price of a newly issued ten year bond with a face value of $100, a yield of 8% pa and a fixed coupon rate of 6% pa, paid semi-annually. So there are two coupons per year, paid in arrears every six months. Bonds A and B are issued by the same company. They have the same face value, maturity, seniority and coupon payment frequency. The only difference is that bond A has a 5% coupon rate, while bond B has a 10% coupon rate. The yield curve is flat, which means that yields are expected to stay the same. Which bond would have the higher current price? A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university or not. The young lady's parents say that she must attend university because otherwise all of her hard work studying and attending school during her childhood was a waste. What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to decide whether to attend university? The hard work studying at school in her childhood should be classified as: A man is thinking about taking a day off from his casual painting job to relax. He just woke up early in the morning and he's about to call his boss to say that he won't be coming in to work. But he's thinking about the hours that he could work today (in the future) which are: A stock will pay you a dividend of$10 tonight if you buy it today. Thereafter the annual dividend is expected to grow by 5% pa, so the next dividend after the $10 one tonight will be$10.50 in one year, then in two years it will be $11.025 and so on. The stock's required return is 10% pa. What is the stock price today and what do you expect the stock price to be tomorrow, approximately? The expression 'my word is my bond' is often used in everyday language to make a serious promise. Why do you think this expression uses the metaphor of a bond rather than a share? A retail furniture company buys furniture wholesale and distributes it through its retail stores. The owner believes that she has some good ideas for making stylish new furniture. She is considering a project to buy a factory and employ workers to manufacture the new furniture she's designed. Furniture manufacturing has more systematic risk than furniture retailing. Her furniture retailing firm's after-tax WACC is 20%. Furniture manufacturing firms have an after-tax WACC of 30%. Both firms are optimally geared. Assume a classical tax system. Which method(s) will give the correct valuation of the new furniture-making project? Select the most correct answer. The US firm Google operates in the online advertising business. In 2011 Google bought Motorola Mobility which manufactures mobile phones. Assume the following: • Google had a 10% after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC) before it bought Motorola. • Motorola had a 20% after-tax WACC before it merged with Google. • Google and Motorola have the same level of gearing. • Both companies operate in a classical tax system. You are a manager at Motorola. You must value a project for making mobile phones. Which method(s) will give the correct valuation of the mobile phone manufacturing project? Select the most correct answer. The mobile phone manufacturing project's: Which one of the below statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is NOT correct? An investor wants to make a portfolio of two stocks A and B with a target expected portfolio return of 16% pa. • Stock A has an expected return of 8% pa. • Stock B has an expected return of 12% pa. What portfolio weights should the investor have in stocks A and B respectively? An investor wants to make a portfolio of two stocks A and B with a target expected portfolio return of 6% pa. • Stock A has an expected return of 5% pa. • Stock B has an expected return of 10% pa. What portfolio weights should the investor have in stocks A and B respectively? The standard deviation and variance of a stock's annual returns are calculated over a number of years. The units of the returns are percent per annum $(\% pa)$. What are the units of the standard deviation $(\sigma)$ and variance $(\sigma^2)$ of returns respectively? Hint: Visit Wikipedia to understand the difference between percentage points $(\text{pp})$ and percent $(\%)$. The covariance and correlation of two stocks X and Y's annual returns are calculated over a number of years. The units of the returns are in percent per annum $(\% pa)$. What are the units of the covariance $(\sigma_{X,Y})$ and correlation $(\rho_{X,Y})$ of returns respectively? Hint: Visit Wikipedia to understand the difference between percentage points $(\text{pp})$ and percent $(\%)$. What is the covariance of a variable X with itself? The cov(X, X) or $\sigma_{X,X}$ equals: What is the covariance of a variable X with a constant C? The cov(X, C) or $\sigma_{X,C}$ equals: What is the correlation of a variable X with a constant C? The corr(X, C) or $\rho_{X,C}$ equals: An investor wants to make a portfolio of two stocks A and B with a target expected portfolio return of 12% pa. • Stock A has an expected return of 10% pa and a standard deviation of 20% pa. • Stock B has an expected return of 15% pa and a standard deviation of 30% pa. The correlation coefficient between stock A and B's expected returns is 70%. What will be the annual standard deviation of the portfolio with this 12% pa target return? Which of the following statements about standard statistical mathematics notation is NOT correct? Government bonds currently have a return of 5%. A stock has a beta of 2 and the market return is 7%. What is the expected return of the stock? Estimate the French bank Societe Generale's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that EUR is the euro, the European monetary union's currency. • The 4 major European banks Credit Agricole (ACA), Deutsche Bank AG (DBK), UniCredit (UCG) and Banco Santander (SAN) are comparable companies to Societe Generale (GLE); • Societe Generale's (GLE's) historical earnings per share (EPS) is EUR 2.92; • ACA's backward-looking PE ratio is 16.29 and historical EPS is EUR 0.84; • DBK's backward-looking PE ratio is 25.01 and historical EPS is EUR 1.26; • SAN's backward-looking PE ratio is 14.71 and historical EPS is EUR 0.47; • UCG's backward-looking PE ratio is 15.78 and historical EPS is EUR 0.40; Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 27 March 2015. The accounting identity states that the book value of a company's assets (A) equals its liabilities (L) plus owners equity (OE), so A = L + OE. The finance version states that the market value of a company's assets (V) equals the market value of its debt (D) plus equity (E), so V = D + E. Therefore a business's assets can be seen as a portfolio of the debt and equity that fund the assets. Let $\sigma_\text{V total}^2$ be the total variance of returns on assets, $\sigma_\text{V syst}^2$ be the systematic variance of returns on assets, and $\sigma_\text{V idio}^2$ be the idiosyncratic variance of returns on assets, and $\rho_\text{D idio, E idio}$ be the correlation between the idiosyncratic returns on debt and equity. Which of the following equations is NOT correct? Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.  Project Data Project life 2 years Initial investment in equipment$8m Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes $3m Unit sales per year 10m Sale price per unit$9 Variable cost per unit $4 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$2m Tax rate 30%

Note 1: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase $40m of inventory initially (at t=0). Half of this inventory will be sold at t=1 and the other half at t=2. Note 2: The equipment will have a book value of$2m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $1m when it is sold. Assume that the full capital loss is tax-deductible and taxed at the full corporate tax rate. Note 3: The project will be fully funded by equity which investors will expect to pay dividends totaling$10m at the end of each year.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m). According to the theory of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), total risk can be broken into two components, systematic risk and idiosyncratic risk. Which of the following events would be considered a systematic, undiversifiable event according to the theory of the CAPM? A stock has a beta of 0.5. Its next dividend is expected to be$3, paid one year from now. Dividends are expected to be paid annually and grow by 2% pa forever. Treasury bonds yield 5% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa. All returns are effective annual rates.

What is the price of the stock now?

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of equity and using the funds to repay debt. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields.

According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct?

A firm's WACC before tax would decrease due to:

Fundamentalists who analyse company financial reports and news announcements (but who don't have inside information) will make positive abnormal returns if:

A share was bought for $20 (at t=0) and paid its annual dividend of$3 one year later (at t=1). Just after the dividend was paid, the share price was $16 (at t=1). What was the total return, capital return and income return? Calculate your answers as effective annual rates. The choices are given in the same order: $r_\text{total},r_\text{capital},r_\text{income}$. A firm pays a fully franked cash dividend of$70 to one of its Australian shareholders who has a personal marginal tax rate of 45%. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What will be the shareholder's personal tax payable due to the dividend payment?

The average weekly earnings of an Australian adult worker before tax was $1,542.40 per week in November 2014 according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Therefore average annual earnings before tax were$80,204.80 assuming 52 weeks per year. Personal income tax rates published by the Australian Tax Office are reproduced for the 2014-2015 financial year in the table below:

Taxable income Tax on this income
0 – $18,200 Nil$18,201 – $37,000 19c for each$1 over $18,200$37,001 – $80,000$3,572 plus 32.5c for each $1 over$37,000
$80,001 –$180,000 $17,547 plus 37c for each$1 over $80,000$180,001 and over $54,547 plus 45c for each$1 over $180,000 The above rates do not include the Medicare levy of 2%. Exclude the Medicare levy from your calculations How much personal income tax would you have to pay per year if you earned$80,204.80 per annum before-tax?

A mining firm has just discovered a new mine. So far the news has been kept a secret.

The net present value of digging the mine and selling the minerals is $250 million, but$500 million of new equity and $300 million of new bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment. The firm will release the news of the discovery and equity and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The shares and bonds will be issued shortly after. Once the announcement is made and the new shares and bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets $(\Delta V)$, market capitalisation of debt $(\Delta D)$ and market cap of equity $(\Delta E)$? Assume that markets are semi-strong form efficient. The triangle symbol $\Delta$ is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics. Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt. Remember: $\Delta V = \Delta D+ \Delta E$ A company's share price fell by 20% and its number of shares rose by 25%. Assume that there are no taxes, no signalling effects and no transaction costs. Which one of the following corporate events may have happened? A company conducts a 4 for 3 stock split. What is the percentage change in the stock price and the number of shares outstanding? The answers are given in the same order. A firm pays a fully franked cash dividend of$100 to one of its Australian shareholders who has a personal marginal tax rate of 15%. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What will be the shareholder's personal tax payable due to the dividend payment?

In late 2003 the listed bank ANZ announced a 2-for-11 rights issue to fund the takeover of New Zealand bank NBNZ. Below is the chronology of events:

• 23/10/2003. Share price closes at $18.30. • 24/10/2003. 2-for-11 rights issue announced at a subscription price of$13. The proceeds of the rights issue will be used to acquire New Zealand bank NBNZ. Trading halt announced in morning before market opens.

• 28/10/2003. Trading halt lifted. Last (and only) day that shares trade cum-rights. Share price opens at $18.00 and closes at$18.14.

All things remaining equal, what would you expect ANZ's stock price to open at on the first day that it trades ex-rights (29/10/2003)? Ignore the time value of money since time is negligibly short. Also ignore taxes.

An Australian company just issued two bonds:

• A 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa, and
• A 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa.

What is the forward rate on the company's debt from years 1 to 2? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

 Project Data Project life 2 years Initial investment in equipment $6m Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes$1m Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit $8 Variable cost per unit$3 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $1.5m Tax rate 30% Note 1: The equipment will have a book value of$4m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $0.9 million when it is sold at t=2. Note 2: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase$0.8m of inventory initially, which it will sell at t=1. The firm will buy another $0.8m at t=1 and sell it all again at t=2 with zero inventory left. The project will have no effect on the firm's current liabilities. Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m).

An Indonesian lady wishes to convert 1 million Indonesian rupiah (IDR) to Australian dollars (AUD). Exchange rates are 13,125 IDR per USD and 0.79 USD per AUD. How many AUD is the IDR 1 million worth?

Which of the following is NOT a valid method to estimate future revenues or costs in a pro-forma income statement when trying to value a company?

In the below term structure of interest rates equation, all rates are effective annual yields and the numbers in subscript represent the years that the yields are measured over:

$$(1+r_{0-3})^3 = (1+r_{0-1})(1+r_{1-2})(1+r_{2-3})$$

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

In the below term structure of interest rates equation, all rates are effective annual yields and the numbers in subscript represent the years that the yields are measured over:

$$(1+r_{0-3})^3 = (1+r_{0-1})(1+r_{1-2})(1+r_{2-3})$$

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Bond investors:

An investor bought a 20 year 5% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at par. The face value is $100. Coupons are paid semi-annually and the next one is in 6 months. Six months later, just after the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly rose to 5.5% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually. What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate? A share currently worth$100 is expected to pay a constant dividend of $4 for the next 5 years with the first dividend in one year (t=1) and the last in 5 years (t=5). The total required return is 10% pa. What do you expected the share price to be in 5 years, just after the dividend at that time has been paid? Which of the following statements about the capital and income returns of a 25 year fully amortising loan asset is correct? Assume that the yield curve (which shows total returns over different maturities) is flat and is not expected to change. Over the 25 years from issuance to maturity, a fully amortising loan's expected annual effective: You expect a nominal payment of$100 in 5 years. The real discount rate is 10% pa and the inflation rate is 3% pa. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

How many years will it take for an asset's price to quadruple (be four times as big, say from $1 to$4) if the price grows by 15% pa?

How many years will it take for an asset's price to double if the price grows by 10% pa?

For an asset price to triple every 5 years, what must be the expected future capital return, given as an effective annual rate?

For an asset price to double every 10 years, what must be the expected future capital return, given as an effective annual rate?

Which of the following statements about cash in the form of notes and coins is NOT correct? Assume that inflation is positive.

Notes and coins:

Which of the following statements about inflation is NOT correct?

A home loan company advertises an interest rate of 6% pa, payable monthly. Which of the following statements about the interest rate is NOT correct? All rates are given to four decimal places.

A credit card company advertises an interest rate of 18% pa, payable monthly. Which of the following statements about the interest rate is NOT correct? All rates are given to four decimal places.

A semi-annual coupon bond has a yield of 3% pa. Which of the following statements about the yield is NOT correct? All rates are given to four decimal places.

A 'fully amortising' loan can also be called a:

The current gold price is $700, gold storage costs are 2% pa and the risk free rate is 10% pa, both with continuous compounding. What should be the 3 year gold futures price? Question 598 future, tailing the hedge, cross hedging The standard deviation of monthly changes in the spot price of lamb is$0.015 per pound. The standard deviation of monthly changes in the futures price of live cattle is $0.012 per pound. The correlation between the spot price of lamb and the futures price of cattle is 0.4. It is now January. A lamb producer is committed to selling 1,000,000 pounds of lamb in May. The spot price of live cattle is$0.30 per pound and the June futures price is $0.32 per pound. The spot price of lamb is$0.60 per pound.

The producer wants to use the June live cattle futures contracts to hedge his risk. Each futures contract is for the delivery of 50,000 pounds of cattle.

How many live cattle futures should the lamb farmer sell to hedge his risk? Round your answer to the nearest whole number of contracts.

A trader buys one December futures contract on orange juice. Each contract is for the delivery of 10,000 pounds. The current futures price is $1.20 per pound. The initial margin is$5,000 per contract, and the maintenance margin is $4,000 per contract. What is the smallest price change would that would lead to a margin call for the buyer? The price of gold is currently$700 per ounce. The forward price for delivery in 1 year is $800. An arbitrageur can borrow money at 10% per annum given as an effective discrete annual rate. Assume that gold is fairly priced and the cost of storing gold is zero. What is the best way to conduct an arbitrage in this situation? The best arbitrage strategy requires zero capital, has zero risk and makes money straight away. An arbitrageur should sell 1 forward on gold and: On 22-Mar-2013 the Australian Government issued series TB139 treasury bonds with a combined face value$23.4m, listed on the ASX with ticker code GSBG25.

The bonds mature on 21-Apr-2025, the fixed coupon rate is 3.25% pa and coupons are paid semi-annually on the 21st of April and October of each year. Each bond's face value is $1,000. At market close on Friday 11-Sep-2015 the bonds' yield was 2.736% pa. At market close on Monday 14-Sep-2015 the bonds' yield was 2.701% pa. Both yields are given as annualised percentage rates (APR's) compounding every 6 months. For convenience, assume 183 days in 6 months and 366 days in a year. What was the historical total return over those 3 calendar days between Friday 11-Sep-2015 and Monday 14-Sep-2015? There are 183 calendar days from market close on the last coupon 21-Apr-2015 to the market close of the next coupon date on 21-Oct-2015. Between the market close times from 21-Apr-2015 to 11-Sep-2015 there are 143 calendar days. From 21-Apr-2015 to 14-Sep-2015 there are 146 calendar days. From 14-Sep-2015 there were 20 coupons remaining to be paid including the next one on 21-Oct-2015. All of the below answers are given as effective 3 day rates. After doing extensive fundamental analysis of a company, you believe that their shares are overpriced and will soon fall significantly. The market believes that there will be no such fall. Which of the following strategies is NOT a good idea, assuming that your prediction is true? A 180-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of$1,000,000. The interest rate is 8% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price now?

A Chinese man wishes to convert AUD 1 million into Chinese Renminbi (RMB, also called the Yuan (CNY)). The exchange rate is 6.35 RMB per USD, and 0.72 USD per AUD. How much is the AUD 1 million worth in RMB?

Australians usually quote the Australian dollar in USD per 1 AUD. For example, in October 2015 the Australian dollar was quoted as 0.72 USD per AUD. Is this an or terms quote?

Chinese people usually quote the Chinese Yuan or Renminbi in RMB per 1 USD. For example, in October 2015 the Chinese Renminbi was 6.35 RMB per USD. Is this an or terms quote?

Vietnamese people usually quote the Vietnamese Dong in VND per 1 USD. For example, in October 2015 the Vietnamese Dong was 22,300 VND per USD. Is this an or terms quote?

If the Reserve Bank of Australia is expected to keep its interbank overnight cash rate at 2% pa while the US Federal Reserve is expected to keep its federal funds rate at 0% pa over the next year, is the AUD is expected to , , or remain against the USD over the next year?

Apples and oranges currently cost $1 each. Inflation is 5% pa, and apples and oranges are equally affected by this inflation rate. Note that when payments are not specified as real, as in this question, they're conventionally assumed to be nominal. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Which of the following FX quotes (current in October 2015) is given in American terms? You deposit cash into your bank account. Have you or your money? You deposit cash into your bank account. Have you or debt? You deposit cash into your bank account. Have you or debt? You deposit cash into your bank account. Does the deposit account represent a debt or to you? You owe money. Are you a or a ? You are owed money. Are you a or a ? You own a debt asset. Are you a or a ? "Buy low, sell high" is a phrase commonly heard in financial markets. It states that traders should try to buy assets at low prices and sell at high prices. Traders in the fixed-coupon bond markets often quote promised bond yields rather than prices. Fixed-coupon bond traders should try to: Which of the following statements about yield curves is NOT correct? Technical traders: You buy a house funded using a home loan. Have you or debt? You buy a house funded using a home loan. Have you or debt? A stock's required total return will increase when its: Question 625 dividend re-investment plan, capital raising Which of the following statements about dividend re-investment plans (DRP's) is NOT correct? Who owns a company's shares? The: Assets A, B, M and $r_f$ are shown on the graphs above. Asset M is the market portfolio and $r_f$ is the risk free yield on government bonds. Which of the below statements is NOT correct? Assets A, B, M and $r_f$ are shown on the graphs above. Asset M is the market portfolio and $r_f$ is the risk free yield on government bonds. Assume that investors can borrow and lend at the risk free rate. Which of the below statements is NOT correct? The efficient markets hypothesis (EMH) and no-arbitrage pricing theory is most closely related to which of the following concepts? An economy has only two investable assets: stocks and cash. Stocks had a historical nominal average total return of negative two percent per annum (-2% pa) over the last 20 years. Stocks are liquid and actively traded. Stock returns are variable, they have risk. Cash is riskless and has a nominal constant return of zero percent per annum (0% pa), which it had in the past and will have in the future. Cash can be kept safely at zero cost. Cash can be converted into shares and vice versa at zero cost. The nominal total return of the shares over the next year is expected to be: To value a business's assets, the free cash flow of the firm (FCFF, also called CFFA) needs to be calculated. This requires figures from the firm's income statement and balance sheet. For what figures is the balance sheet needed? Note that the balance sheet is sometimes also called the statement of financial position. Let the 'income return' of a bond be the coupon at the end of the period divided by the market price now at the start of the period $(C_1/P_0)$. The expected income return of a premium fixed coupon bond is: The Australian cash rate is expected to be 2% pa over the next one year, while the Japanese cash rate is expected to be 0% pa, both given as nominal effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is 100 JPY per AUD. What is the implied 1 year forward foreign exchange rate? Which one of the following statements about option contracts is NOT correct? Which of the following statements about option contracts is NOT correct? For every: A man just sold a call option to his counterparty, a lady. The man has just now: If trader A has sold the right that allows counterparty B to buy the underlying asset from him at maturity if counterparty B wants then trader A is: A firm has 2m shares and a market capitalisation of equity of$30m. The firm just announced earnings of $5m and paid an annual dividend of$0.75 per share.

What is the firm's (backward looking) price/earnings (PE) ratio?

Question 589  future, contango, market efficiency

In general, stock prices tend to rise. What does this mean for futures on equity?

Which of the following statements about futures contracts on shares is NOT correct, assuming that markets are efficient?

When an equity future is first negotiated (at t=0):

A firm is considering a business project which costs $11m now and is expected to pay a constant$1m at the end of every year forever.

Assume that the initial $11m cost is funded using the firm's existing cash so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is 10% pa. Which of the following statements about net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is NOT correct? The Australian dollar's value was: • 1.4875 USD per AUD on 31 August 1974. • 0.4890 USD per AUD on 31 March 2001. Did the Australian dollar or against the US dollar between these dates? Below is a graph of the USD against the JPY and EUR from 1980 to 2015, compiled by the RBA. Select the correct statement about what occurred between 1980 and 2015. Note that in 1980 the euro was around 1.3 USD per EUR and the Yen was around 250 JPY per USD. In 2014 the median starting salaries of male and female Australian bachelor degree accounting graduates aged less than 25 years in their first full-time industry job was$50,000 before tax, according to Graduate Careers Australia. See page 9 of this report. Personal income tax rates published by the Australian Tax Office are reproduced for the 2014-2015 financial year in the table below.

Taxable income Tax on this income
0 – $18,200 Nil$18,201 – $37,000 19c for each$1 over $18,200$37,001 – $80,000$3,572 plus 32.5c for each $1 over$37,000
$80,001 –$180,000 $17,547 plus 37c for each$1 over $80,000$180,001 and over $54,547 plus 45c for each$1 over $180,000 The above rates do not include the Medicare levy of 2%. Exclude the Medicare levy from your calculations How much personal income tax would you have to pay per year if you earned$50,000 per annum before-tax?

What is the present value of a real payment of $500 in 2 years? The nominal discount rate is 7% pa and the inflation rate is 4% pa. What is the present value of a nominal payment of$100 in 5 years? The real discount rate is 10% pa and the inflation rate is 3% pa.

The following cash flows are expected:

• 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 6.5 years from now (first payment at t=6.5). • A single payment of$500 in 4 years and 3 months (t=4.25) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

Which of the following statements about European call options on non-dividend paying stocks is NOT correct?

Stocks in the United States usually pay quarterly dividends. For example, the retailer Wal-Mart Stores paid a $0.47 dividend every quarter over the 2013 calendar year and plans to pay a$0.48 dividend every quarter over the 2014 calendar year.

Using the dividend discount model and net present value techniques, calculate the stock price of Wal-Mart Stores assuming that:

• The time now is the beginning of January 2014. The next dividend of $0.48 will be received in 3 months (end of March 2014), with another 3 quarterly payments of$0.48 after this (end of June, September and December 2014).
• The quarterly dividend will increase by 2% every year, but each quarterly dividend over the year will be equal. So each quarterly dividend paid in 2015 will be $0.4896 ($=0.48×(1+0.02)^1$), with the first at the end of March 2015 and the last at the end of December 2015. In 2016 each quarterly dividend will be$0.499392 ($=0.48×(1+0.02)^2$), with the first at the end of March 2016 and the last at the end of December 2016, and so on forever.
• The total required return on equity is 6% pa.
• The required return and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.
• All cash flows and rates are nominal. Inflation is 3% pa.
• Dividend payment dates and ex-dividend dates are at the same time.
• Remember that there are 4 quarters in a year and 3 months in a quarter.

What is the current stock price?

Which of the following statements about futures and forward contracts is NOT correct?

It's possible for both parties in a futures or forward contract to be hedging, so neither are speculating. or ?

Which of the below formulas gives the payoff at maturity $(f_T)$ from being short a future? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$ and the locked-in futures price be $K_T$.

Alice, Bob, Chris and Delta are traders in the futures market. The following trades occur over a single day in a newly-opened equity index future that matures in one year which the exchange just made available.

1. Alice buys a future from Bob.

2. Chris buys a future from Delta.

3. Delta buys a future from Alice.

These were the only trades made in this equity index future. What was the trading volume and what is the open interest?

A stock has a beta of 1.5. The market's expected total return is 10% pa and the risk free rate is 5% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

Over the last year, bad economic news was released showing a higher chance of recession. Over this time the share market fell by 1%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the last year, given as an effective annual rate?

A stock has a beta of 1.5. The market's expected total return is 10% pa and the risk free rate is 5% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

In the last 5 minutes, bad economic news was released showing a higher chance of recession. Over this time the share market fell by 1%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the last 5 minutes, given as an effective 5 minute rate?

A stock has a beta of 1.5. The market's expected total return is 10% pa and the risk free rate is 5% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

What do you think will be the stock's expected return over the next year, given as an effective annual rate?

An equity index stands at 100 points and the one year equity futures price is 107.

The equity index is expected to have a dividend yield of 3% pa. Assume that investors are risk-neutral so their total required return on the shares is the same as the risk free Treasury bond yield which is 10% pa. Both are given as discrete effective annual rates.

Assuming that the equity index is fairly priced, an arbitrageur would recognise that the equity futures are:

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose$50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose$50. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Note that a fair gamble is a bet that has an expected value of zero, such as paying $0.50 to win$1 in a coin flip with heads or nothing if it lands tails. Fairly priced insurance is when the expected present value of the insurance premiums is equal to the expected loss from the disaster that the insurance protects against, such as the cost of rebuilding a home after a catastrophic fire.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which of the below formulas gives the payoff $(f)$ at maturity $(T)$ from being long a call option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$ and the exercise price be $X_T$.

Which of the below formulas gives the payoff $(f)$ at maturity $(T)$ from being short a call option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$ and the exercise price be $X_T$.

Which of the below formulas gives the payoff $(f)$ at maturity $(T)$ from being long a put option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$ and the exercise price be $X_T$.

Which of the below formulas gives the payoff $(f)$ at maturity $(T)$ from being short a put option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$ and the exercise price be $X_T$.

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is NOT correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is NOT correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is NOT correct?

Which of the following is NOT a valid method for estimating the beta of a company's stock? Assume that markets are efficient, a long history of past data is available, the stock possesses idiosyncratic and market risk. The variances and standard deviations below denote total risks.

Which of the below formulas gives the profit $(\pi)$ from being short a put option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$, the exercise price be $X_T$ and the option price be $f_{LP,0}$. Note that $S_T$, $X_T$ and $f_{LP,0}$ are all positive numbers.

A company advertises an investment costing $1,000 which they say is underpriced. They say that it has an expected total return of 15% pa, but a required return of only 10% pa. Of the 15% pa total expected return, the dividend yield is expected to always be 7% pa and rest is the capital yield. Assuming that the company's statements are correct, what is the NPV of buying the investment if the 15% total return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to 10% after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever? In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant, the dividends can only be re-invested at 10% pa and all returns are given as effective annual rates. The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever): A stock's total standard deviation of returns is 20% pa. The market portfolio's total standard deviation of returns is 15% pa. The beta of the stock is 0.8. What is the stock's diversifiable standard deviation? A trader just bought a European style put option on CBA stock. The current option premium is$2, the exercise price is $75, the option matures in one year and the spot CBA stock price is$74.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which of the following interest rate quotes is NOT equivalent to a 10% effective annual rate of return? Assume that each year has 12 months, each month has 30 days, each day has 24 hours, each hour has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds. APR stands for Annualised Percentage Rate.

Convert a 10% effective annual rate $(r_\text{eff annual})$ into a continuously compounded annual rate $(r_\text{cc annual})$. The equivalent continuously compounded annual rate is:

Convert a 10% continuously compounded annual rate $(r_\text{cc annual})$ into an effective annual rate $(r_\text{eff annual})$. The equivalent effective annual rate is:

A continuously compounded monthly return of 1% $(r_\text{cc monthly})$ is equivalent to a continuously compounded annual return $(r_\text{cc annual})$ of:

A continuously compounded semi-annual return of 5% $(r_\text{cc 6mth})$ is equivalent to a continuously compounded annual return $(r_\text{cc annual})$ of:

An effective monthly return of 1% $(r_\text{eff monthly})$ is equivalent to an effective annual return $(r_\text{eff annual})$ of:

An effective semi-annual return of 5% $(r_\text{eff 6mth})$ is equivalent to an effective annual return $(r_\text{eff annual})$ of:

A $100 stock has a continuously compounded expected total return of 10% pa. Its dividend yield is 2% pa with continuous compounding. What do you expect its price to be in one year? If a variable, say X, is normally distributed with mean $\mu$ and variance $\sigma^2$ then mathematicians write $X \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu, \sigma^2)$. If a variable, say Y, is log-normally distributed and the underlying normal distribution has mean $\mu$ and variance $\sigma^2$ then mathematicians write $Y \sim \mathbf{ln} \mathcal{N}(\mu, \sigma^2)$. The below three graphs show probability density functions (PDF) of three different random variables Red, Green and Blue. Select the most correct statement: The below three graphs show probability density functions (PDF) of three different random variables Red, Green and Blue. Let $P_1$ be the unknown price of a stock in one year. $P_1$ is a random variable. Let $P_0 = 1$, so the share price now is$1. This one dollar is a constant, it is not a variable.

Which of the below statements is NOT correct? Financial practitioners commonly assume that the shape of the PDF represented in the colour:

Here is a table of stock prices and returns. Which of the statements below the table is NOT correct?

 Price and Return Population Statistics Time Prices LGDR GDR NDR 0 100 1 50 -0.6931 0.5 -0.5 2 100 0.6931 2 1 Arithmetic average 0 1.25 0.25 Arithmetic standard deviation -0.6931 0.75 0.75

The below three graphs show probability density functions (PDF) of three different random variables Red, Green and Blue.

Which of the below statements is NOT correct?

Here is a table of stock prices and returns. Which of the statements below the table is NOT correct?

 Price and Return Population Statistics Time Prices LGDR GDR NDR 0 100 1 99 -0.010050 0.990000 -0.010000 2 180.40 0.600057 1.822222 0.822222 3 112.73 0.470181 0.624889 0.375111 Arithmetic average 0.0399 1.1457 0.1457 Arithmetic standard deviation 0.4384 0.5011 0.5011

The symbol $\text{GDR}_{0\rightarrow 1}$ represents a stock's gross discrete return per annum over the first year. $\text{GDR}_{0\rightarrow 1} = P_1/P_0$. The subscript indicates the time period that the return is mentioned over. So for example, $\text{AAGDR}_{1 \rightarrow 3}$ is the arithmetic average GDR measured over the two year period from years 1 to 3, but it is expressed as a per annum rate.

Which of the below statements about the arithmetic and geometric average GDR is NOT correct?

If a stock's future expected continuously compounded annual returns are normally distributed, what will be bigger, the stock's or continuously compounded annual return? Or would you expect them to be ?

If a stock's future expected future prices are log-normally distributed, what will be bigger, the stock's or future price? Or would you expect them to be ?

A stock has an arithmetic average continuously compounded return (AALGDR) of 10% pa, a standard deviation of continuously compounded returns (SDLGDR) of 80% pa and current stock price of $1. Assume that stock prices are log-normally distributed. In one year, what do you expect the mean and median prices to be? The answer options are given in the same order. A stock has an arithmetic average continuously compounded return (AALGDR) of 10% pa, a standard deviation of continuously compounded returns (SDLGDR) of 80% pa and current stock price of$1. Assume that stock prices are log-normally distributed.

In 5 years, what do you expect the mean and median prices to be? The answer options are given in the same order.

Which of the following interest rate labels does NOT make sense?

To value a business's assets, the free cash flow of the firm (FCFF, also called CFFA) needs to be calculated. This requires figures from the firm's income statement and balance sheet. For what figures is the income statement needed? Note that the income statement is sometimes also called the profit and loss, P&L, or statement of financial performance.

The 'time value of money' is most closely related to which of the following concepts?

Unrestricted negative gearing is allowed in Australia, New Zealand and Japan. Negative gearing laws allow income losses on investment properties to be deducted from a tax-payer's pre-tax personal income. Negatively geared investors benefit from this tax advantage. They also hope to benefit from capital gains which exceed the income losses.

For example, a property investor buys an apartment funded by an interest only mortgage loan. Interest expense is $2,000 per month. The rental payments received from the tenant living on the property are$1,500 per month. The investor can deduct this income loss of $500 per month from his pre-tax personal income. If his personal marginal tax rate is 46.5%, this saves$232.5 per month in personal income tax.

The advantage of negative gearing is an example of the benefits of:

A trader buys one crude oil European style call option contract on the CME expiring in one year with an exercise price of $44 per barrel for a price of$6.64. The crude oil spot price is $40.33. If the trader doesn’t close out her contract before maturity, then at maturity she will have the: Which of the below statements about utility is NOT generally accepted by economists? Most people are thought to: A trader buys one crude oil European style put option contract on the CME expiring in one year with an exercise price of$44 per barrel for a price of $6.64. The crude oil spot price is$40.33. If the trader doesn’t close out her contract before maturity, then at maturity she will have the:

Which of the below formulas gives the profit $(\pi)$ from being long a put option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be $S_T$, the exercise price be $X_T$ and the option price be $f_{LP,0}$. Note that $S_T$, $X_T$ and $f_{LP,0}$ are all positive numbers.

Fred owns some Commonwealth Bank (CBA) shares. He has calculated CBA’s monthly returns for each month in the past 20 years using this formula:

$$r_\text{t monthly}=\ln⁡ \left( \dfrac{P_t}{P_{t-1}} \right)$$

He then took the arithmetic average and found it to be 1% per month using this formula:

$$\bar{r}_\text{monthly}= \dfrac{ \displaystyle\sum\limits_{t=1}^T{\left( r_\text{t monthly} \right)} }{T} =0.01=1\% \text{ per month}$$

He also found the standard deviation of these monthly returns which was 5% per month:

$$\sigma_\text{monthly} = \dfrac{ \displaystyle\sum\limits_{t=1}^T{\left( \left( r_\text{t monthly} - \bar{r}_\text{monthly} \right)^2 \right)} }{T} =0.05=5\%\text{ per month}$$

Which of the below statements about Fred’s CBA shares is NOT correct? Assume that the past historical average return is the true population average of future expected returns.

A company can invest funds in a five year project at LIBOR plus 50 basis points pa. The five-year swap rate is 4% pa. What fixed rate of interest can the company earn over the next five years by using the swap?

The below screenshot of Commonwealth Bank of Australia's (CBA) details were taken from the Google Finance website on 7 Nov 2014. Some information has been deliberately blanked out.

What was CBA's approximate payout ratio over the 2014 financial year?

Note that the firm's interim and final dividends were $1.83 and$2.18 respectively over the 2014 financial year.

Which one of the below option and futures contracts gives the possibility of potentially unlimited gains?

If a stock's future expected effective annual returns are log-normally distributed, what will be bigger, the stock's or effective annual return? Or would you expect them to be ?

Below are some statements about loans and bonds. The first descriptive sentence is correct. But one of the second sentences about the loans' or bonds' prices is not correct. Which statement is NOT correct? Assume that interest rates are positive.

Note that coupons or interest payments are the periodic payments made throughout a bond or loan's life. The face or par value of a bond or loan is the amount paid at the end when the debt matures.

A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of 6% pa and nominal capital return of 2.5% pa. Inflation is expected to be 2.5% pa.

All of the above are effective nominal rates and investors believe that they will stay the same in perpetuity.

What are the property's expected real total, capital and income returns?

The answer choices below are given in the same order.

Which of the following statements about futures is NOT correct?

Question 668  buy and hold, market efficiency, idiom

A quote from the famous investor Warren Buffet: "Much success can be attributed to inactivity. Most investors cannot resist the temptation to constantly buy and sell."

Buffet is referring to the buy-and-hold strategy which is to buy and never sell shares. Which of the following is a disadvantage of a buy-and-hold strategy? Assume that share markets are semi-strong form efficient. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the strict buy-and-hold strategy? A disadvantage of the buy-and-hold strategy is that it reduces:

A trader sells one crude oil European style put option contract on the CME expiring in one year with an exercise price of $44 per barrel for a price of$6.64. The crude oil spot price is $40.33. If the trader doesn’t close out her contract before maturity, then at maturity she will have the: Bonds X and Y are issued by the same company. Both bonds yield 10% pa, and they have the same face value ($100), maturity, seniority, and payment frequency.

The only difference is that bond X pays coupons of 6% pa and bond Y pays coupons of 8% pa. Which of the following statements is true?

Question 109  credit rating, credit risk

Bonds with lower (worse) credit ratings tend to have:

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 20%. What is its debt-to-equity ratio?

Alice, Bob, Chris and Delta are traders in the futures market. The following trades occur over a single day in a newly-opened equity index future that matures in one year which the exchange just made available.

1. Alice buys a future from Bob.

2. Chris buys a future from Delta.

3. Delta buys a future from Bob.

These were the only trades made in this equity index future. What was the trading volume and what is the open interest?

Alice, Bob, Chris and Delta are traders in the futures market. The following trades occur over a single day in a newly-opened equity index future that matures in one year which the exchange just made available.

1. Alice buys a future from Bob.

2. Chris buys a future from Delta.

3. Bob buys a future from Chris.

These were the only trades made in this equity index future. What was the trading volume and what is the open interest?

Alice, Bob, Chris and Delta are traders in the futures market. The following trades occur over a single day in a newly-opened equity index future that matures in one year which the exchange just made available.

1. Alice buys a future from Bob.

2. Chris buys a future from Delta.

3. Alice buys a future from Chris.

These were the only trades made in this equity index future. What was the trading volume and what is the open interest?

A trader sells a one year futures contract on crude oil. The contract is for the delivery of 1,000 barrels. The current futures price is $38.94 per barrel. The initial margin is$3,410 per contract, and the maintenance margin is $3,100 per contract. What is the smallest price change that would lead to a margin call for the seller? If a firm makes a profit and pays no dividends, which of the following accounts will increase? A stock’s current price is$1. Its expected total return is 10% pa and its long term expected capital return is 4% pa. It pays an annual dividend and the next one will be paid in one year. All rates are given as effective annual rates. The dividend discount model is thought to be a suitable model for the stock. Ignore taxes. Which of the following statements about the stock is NOT correct?

An equities analyst is using the dividend discount model to price a company's shares. The company operates domestically and has no plans to expand overseas. It is part of a mature industry with stable positive growth prospects.

The analyst has estimated the real required return (r) of the stock and the value of the dividend that the stock just paid a moment before $(C_\text{0 before})$.

What is the highest perpetual real growth rate of dividends (g) that can be justified? Select the most correct statement from the following choices. The highest perpetual real expected growth rate of dividends that can be justified is the country's expected:

An investor bought a bond for $100 (at t=0) and one year later it paid its annual coupon of$1 (at t=1). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was $100.50 (at t=1). Inflation over the past year (from t=0 to t=1) was 3% pa, given as an effective annual rate. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? The bond investment produced a: The Australian Federal Government lends money to domestic students to pay for their university education. This is known as the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS). The nominal interest rate on the HECS loan is set equal to the consumer price index (CPI) inflation rate. The interest is capitalised every year, which means that the interest is added to the principal. The interest and principal does not need to be repaid by students until they finish study and begin working. Which of the following statements about HECS loans is NOT correct? A share’s current price is$60. It’s expected to pay a dividend of $1.50 in one year. The growth rate of the dividend is 0.5% pa and the stock’s required total return is 3% pa. The stock’s price can be modeled using the dividend discount model (DDM): $P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$ Which of the following methods is NOT equal to the stock’s expected price in one year and six months (t=1.5 years)? Note that the symbolic formulas shown in each line below do equal the formulas with numbers. The formula is just repeated with symbols and then numbers in case it helps you to identify the incorrect statement more quickly. Use the below information to value a levered company with constant annual perpetual cash flows from assets. The next cash flow will be generated in one year from now, so a perpetuity can be used to value this firm. Both the cash flow from assets including and excluding interest tax shields are constant (but not equal to each other).  Data on a Levered Firm with Perpetual Cash Flows Item abbreviation Value Item full name $\text{CFFA}_\text{U}$$100m Cash flow from assets excluding interest tax shields (unlevered) $\text{CFFA}_\text{L}$ $112m Cash flow from assets including interest tax shields (levered) $g$ 0% pa Growth rate of cash flow from assets, levered and unlevered $\text{WACC}_\text{BeforeTax}$ 7% pa Weighted average cost of capital before tax $\text{WACC}_\text{AfterTax}$ 6.25% pa Weighted average cost of capital after tax $r_\text{D}$ 5% pa Cost of debt $r_\text{EL}$ 9% pa Cost of levered equity $D/V_L$ 50% pa Debt to assets ratio, where the asset value includes tax shields $t_c$ 30% Corporate tax rate What is the value of the levered firm including interest tax shields? You deposit money into a bank. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? You: A real estate agent says that the price of a house in Sydney Australia is approximately equal to the gross weekly rent times 1000. What type of valuation method is the real estate agent using? A stock is expected to pay a dividend of$1 in one year. Its future annual dividends are expected to grow by 10% pa. So the first dividend of $1 is in one year, and the year after that the dividend will be$1.1 (=1*(1+0.1)^1), and a year later $1.21 (=1*(1+0.1)^2) and so on forever. Its required total return is 30% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates. The stock is fairly priced. Calculate the pay back period of buying the stock and holding onto it forever, assuming that the dividends are received as at each time, not smoothly over each year. A stock will pay you a dividend of$2 tonight if you buy it today.

Thereafter the annual dividend is expected to grow by 3% pa, so the next dividend after the $2 one tonight will be$2.06 in one year, then in two years it will be $2.1218 and so on. The stock's required return is 8% pa. What is the stock price today and what do you expect the stock price to be tomorrow, approximately? Radio-Rentals.com offers the Apple iphone 5S smart phone for rent at$12.95 per week paid in advance on a 2 year contract. After renting the phone, you must return it to Radio-Rentals.

Kogan.com offers the Apple iphone 5S smart phone for sale at $699. You estimate that the phone will last for 3 years before it will break and be worthless. Currently, the effective annual interest rate is 11.351%, the effective monthly interest rate 0.9% and the effective weekly interest rate is 0.207%. Assume that there are exactly 52 weeks per year and 12 months per year. Find the equivalent annual cost of renting the phone and also buying the phone. The answers below are listed in the same order. The capital market line (CML) is shown in the graph below. The total standard deviation is denoted by σ and the expected return is μ. Assume that markets are efficient so all assets are fairly priced. Which of the below statements is NOT correct? Estimate the US bank JP Morgan's share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only: • The major US banks JP Morgan Chase (JPM), Citi Group (C) and Wells Fargo (WFC) are comparable companies; • JP Morgan Chase's historical earnings per share (EPS) is$4.37;
• Citi Group's share price is $50.05 and historical EPS is$4.26;
• Wells Fargo's share price is $48.98 and historical EPS is$3.89.

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 24 March 2014.

A firm issues debt and uses the funds to buy back equity. Assume that there are no costs of financial distress or transactions costs. Which of the following statements about interest tax shields is NOT correct?

Below is a graph of 3 peoples’ utility functions, Mr Blue (U=W^(1/2) ), Miss Red (U=W/10) and Mrs Green (U=W^2/1000). Assume that each of them currently have \$50 of wealth.

Which of the following statements about them is NOT correct?

(a) Mr Blue would prefer to invest his wealth in a well diversified portfolio of stocks rather than a single stock, assuming that all stocks had the same total risk and return.