|Project life||1 year|
|Initial investment in equipment||$6m|
|Depreciation of equipment per year||$6m|
|Expected sale price of equipment at end of project||0|
|Unit sales per year||9m|
|Sale price per unit||$8|
|Variable cost per unit||$6|
|Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year||$1m|
|Interest expense in first year (at t=1)||$0.53m|
|Government treasury bond yield||5%|
|Bank loan debt yield||6%|
|Market portfolio return||10%|
|Covariance of levered equity returns with market||0.08|
|Variance of market portfolio returns||0.16|
|Firm's and project's debt-to-assets ratio||50%|
- Due to the project, current assets will increase by $5m now (t=0) and fall by $5m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected.
- The debt-to-assets ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio.
- Millions are represented by 'm'.
- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa.
- All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.
What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?