# Fight Finance

#### CoursesTagsRandomAllRecentScores

An investor owns an empty block of land that has local government approval to be developed into a petrol station, car wash or car park. The council will only allow a single development so the projects are mutually exclusive.

All of the development projects have the same risk and the required return of each is 10% pa. Each project has an immediate cost and once construction is finished in one year the land and development will be sold. The table below shows the estimated costs payable now, expected sale prices in one year and the internal rates of returns (IRR's).

 Mutually Exclusive Projects Project Costnow ($) Sale price inone year ($) IRR(% pa) Petrol station 9,000,000 11,000,000 22.22 Car wash 800,000 1,100,000 37.50 Car park 70,000 110,000 57.14

Which project should the investor accept?

An investor owns a whole level of an old office building which is currently worth $1 million. There are three mutually exclusive projects that can be started by the investor. The office building level can be: • Rented out to a tenant for one year at$0.1m paid immediately, and then sold for $0.99m in one year. • Refurbished into more modern commercial office rooms at a cost of$1m now, and then sold for $2.4m when the refurbishment is finished in one year. • Converted into residential apartments at a cost of$2m now, and then sold for $3.4m when the conversion is finished in one year. All of the development projects have the same risk so the required return of each is 10% pa. The table below shows the estimated cash flows and internal rates of returns (IRR's).  Mutually Exclusive Projects Project Cash flownow ($) Cash flow inone year ($) IRR(% pa) Rent then sell as is -900,000 990,000 10 Refurbishment into modern offices -2,000,000 2,400,000 20 Conversion into residential apartments -3,000,000 3,400,000 13.33 Which project should the investor accept? How many years will it take for an asset's price to double if the price grows by 10% pa? One and a half years ago Frank bought a house for$600,000. Now it's worth only $500,000, based on recent similar sales in the area. The expected total return on Frank's residential property is 7% pa. He rents his house out for$1,600 per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $18,617.27. The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year in the future is$19,920.48.

What is the expected annual rental yield of the property? Ignore the costs of renting such as maintenance, real estate agent fees and so on.

A stock has a real expected total return of 7% pa and a real expected capital return of 2% pa.

Inflation is expected to be 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.

What is the nominal expected total return, capital return and dividend yield? The answers below are given in the same order.

How can a nominal cash flow be precisely converted into a real cash flow?

You expect a nominal payment of $100 in 5 years. The real discount rate is 10% pa and the inflation rate is 3% pa. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Which of the following statements about cash in the form of notes and coins is NOT correct? Assume that inflation is positive. Notes and coins: An investor bought a bond for$100 (at t=0) and one year later it paid its annual coupon of $1 (at t=1). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was$100.50 (at t=1). Inflation over the past year (from t=0 to t=1) was 3% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? The bond investment produced a:

You're considering making an investment in a particular company. They have preference shares, ordinary shares, senior debt and junior debt.

Which is the safest investment? Which will give the highest returns?

The perpetuity with growth formula, also known as the dividend discount model (DDM) or Gordon growth model, is appropriate for valuing a company's shares. $P_0$ is the current share price, $C_1$ is next year's expected dividend, $r$ is the total required return and $g$ is the expected growth rate of the dividend.

$$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$

The below graph shows the expected future price path of the company's shares. Which of the following statements about the graph is NOT correct?

A stock’s current price is $1. Its expected total return is 10% pa and its long term expected capital return is 4% pa. It pays an annual dividend and the next one will be paid in one year. All rates are given as effective annual rates. The dividend discount model is thought to be a suitable model for the stock. Ignore taxes. Which of the following statements about the stock is NOT correct? In the dividend discount model (DDM), share prices fall when dividends are paid. Let the high price before the fall be called the peak, and the low price after the fall be called the trough. $$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ Which of the following statements about the DDM is NOT correct? An equities analyst is using the dividend discount model to price a company's shares. The company operates domestically and has no plans to expand overseas. It is part of a mature industry with stable positive growth prospects. The analyst has estimated the real required return (r) of the stock and the value of the dividend that the stock just paid a moment before $(C_\text{0 before})$. What is the highest perpetual real growth rate of dividends (g) that can be justified? Select the most correct statement from the following choices. The highest perpetual real expected growth rate of dividends that can be justified is the country's expected: Business people make lots of important decisions. Which of the following is the most important long term decision? The following is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) used to price stocks: $$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ If the assumptions of the DDM hold, which one of the following statements is NOT correct? The long term expected: In the dividend discount model: $$P_0 = \dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ The return $r$ is supposed to be the: A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0.00 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 ...

After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa, so;

• the dividend at t=5 will be $1.15(1+0.05), • the dividend at t=6 will be$1.15(1+0.05)^2, and so on.

The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What will be the price of the stock in three and a half years (t = 3.5)?

A fairly valued share's current price is $4 and it has a total required return of 30%. Dividends are paid annually and next year's dividend is expected to be$1. After that, dividends are expected to grow by 5% pa in perpetuity. All rates are effective annual returns.

What is the expected dividend income paid at the end of the second year (t=2) and what is the expected capital gain from just after the first dividend (t=1) to just after the second dividend (t=2)? The answers are given in the same order, the dividend and then the capital gain.

The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: $$P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g }$$

What is $g$? The value $g$ is the long term expected:

Most listed Australian companies pay dividends twice per year, the 'interim' and 'final' dividends, which are roughly 6 months apart.

You are an equities analyst trying to value the company BHP. You decide to use the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) as a starting point, so you study BHP's dividend history and you find that BHP tends to pay the same interim and final dividend each year, and that both grow by the same rate.

You expect BHP will pay a $0.55 interim dividend in six months and a$0.55 final dividend in one year. You expect each to grow by 4% next year and forever, so the interim and final dividends next year will be $0.572 each, and so on in perpetuity. Assume BHP's cost of equity is 8% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective rates. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is 2.5% pa. What is the current price of a BHP share? You are an equities analyst trying to value the equity of the Australian telecoms company Telstra, with ticker TLS. In Australia, listed companies like Telstra tend to pay dividends every 6 months. The payment around August is called the final dividend and the payment around February is called the interim dividend. Both occur annually. • Today is mid-March 2015. • TLS's last interim dividend of$0.15 was one month ago in mid-February 2015.
• TLS's last final dividend of $0.15 was seven months ago in mid-August 2014. Judging by TLS's dividend history and prospects, you estimate that the nominal dividend growth rate will be 1% pa. Assume that TLS's total nominal cost of equity is 6% pa. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is 2.5% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective annual rates. Assume that each month is exactly one twelfth (1/12) of a year, so you can ignore the number of days in each month. Calculate the current TLS share price. Two companies BigDiv and ZeroDiv are exactly the same except for their dividend payouts. BigDiv pays large dividends and ZeroDiv doesn't pay any dividends. Currently the two firms have the same earnings, assets, number of shares, share price, expected total return and risk. Assume a perfect world with no taxes, no transaction costs, no asymmetric information and that all assets including business projects are fairly priced and therefore zero-NPV. All things remaining equal, which of the following statements is NOT correct? Which firms tend to have high forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Which firms tend to have low forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Only consider firms with positive PE ratios. A stock is expected to pay a dividend of$15 in one year (t=1), then $25 for 9 years after that (payments at t=2 ,3,...10), and on the 11th year (t=11) the dividend will be 2% less than at t=10, and will continue to shrink at the same rate every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10%. All rates are effective annual rates. What is the price of the stock now? Details of two different types of light bulbs are given below: • Low-energy light bulbs cost$3.50, have a life of nine years, and use about $1.60 of electricity a year, paid at the end of each year. • Conventional light bulbs cost only$0.50, but last only about a year and use about $6.60 of energy a year, paid at the end of each year. The real discount rate is 5%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate. Find the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) of the low-energy and conventional light bulbs. The below choices are listed in that order. You own a nice suit which you wear once per week on nights out. You bought it one year ago for$600. In your experience, suits used once per week last for 6 years. So you expect yours to last for another 5 years.

Your younger brother said that retro is back in style so he wants to wants to borrow your suit once a week when he goes out. With the increased use, your suit will only last for another 4 years rather than 5.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your brother use your current suit for the next 4 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new suit when your current one wears out and your brother will not use the new one; your brother will only use your current suit so he will only use it for the next four years; and the price of a new suit never changes.

You own some nice shoes which you use once per week on date nights. You bought them 2 years ago for $500. In your experience, shoes used once per week last for 6 years. So you expect yours to last for another 4 years. Your younger sister said that she wants to borrow your shoes once per week. With the increased use, your shoes will only last for another 2 years rather than 4. What is the present value of the cost of letting your sister use your current shoes for the next 2 years? Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new pair of shoes when your current pair wears out and your sister will not use the new ones; your sister will only use your current shoes so she will only use it for the next 2 years; and the price of new shoes never changes. An industrial chicken farmer grows chickens for their meat. Chickens: 1. Cost$0.50 each to buy as chicks. They are bought on the day they’re born, at t=0.
2. Grow at a rate of $0.70 worth of meat per chicken per week for the first 6 weeks (t=0 to t=6). 3. Grow at a rate of$0.40 worth of meat per chicken per week for the next 4 weeks (t=6 to t=10) since they’re older and grow more slowly.
4. Feed costs are $0.30 per chicken per week for their whole life. Chicken feed is bought and fed to the chickens once per week at the beginning of the week. So the first amount of feed bought for a chicken at t=0 costs$0.30, and so on.
5. Can be slaughtered (killed for their meat) and sold at no cost at the end of the week. The price received for the chicken is their total value of meat (note that the chicken grows fast then slow, see above).

The required return of the chicken farm is 0.5% given as an effective weekly rate.

Ignore taxes and the fixed costs of the factory. Ignore the chicken’s welfare and other environmental and ethical concerns.

Find the equivalent weekly cash flow of slaughtering a chicken at 6 weeks and at 10 weeks so the farmer can figure out the best time to slaughter his chickens. The choices below are given in the same order, 6 and 10 weeks.

An investor bought two fixed-coupon bonds issued by the same company, a zero-coupon bond and a 7% pa semi-annual coupon bond. Both bonds have a face value of $1,000, mature in 10 years, and had a yield at the time of purchase of 8% pa. A few years later, yields fell to 6% pa. Which of the following statements is correct? Note that a capital gain is an increase in price. In these tough economic times, central banks around the world have cut interest rates so low that they are practically zero. In some countries, government bond yields are also very close to zero. A three year government bond with a face value of$100 and a coupon rate of 2% pa paid semi-annually was just issued at a yield of 0%. What is the price of the bond?

Let the 'income return' of a bond be the coupon at the end of the period divided by the market price now at the start of the period $(C_1/P_0)$. The expected income return of a premium fixed coupon bond is:

A European company just issued two bonds, a

• 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a
• 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the company's forward rate over the second year (from t=1 to t=2)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

You're trying to save enough money to buy your first car which costs $2,500. You can save$100 at the end of each month starting from now. You currently have no money at all. You just opened a bank account with an interest rate of 6% pa payable monthly.

How many months will it take to save enough money to buy the car? Assume that the price of the car will stay the same over time.

A company increases the proportion of debt funding it uses to finance its assets by issuing bonds and using the cash to repurchase stock, leaving assets unchanged.

Ignoring the costs of financial distress, which of the following statements is NOT correct:

Find Sidebar Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.

 Sidebar Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013 $m Sales 405 COGS 100 Depreciation 34 Rent expense 22 Interest expense 39 Taxable Income 210 Taxes at 30% 63 Net income 147  Sidebar Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012$m $m Inventory 70 50 Trade debtors 11 16 Rent paid in advance 4 3 PPE 700 680 Total assets 785 749 Trade creditors 11 19 Bond liabilities 400 390 Contributed equity 220 220 Retained profits 154 120 Total L and OE 785 749 Note: All figures are given in millions of dollars ($m).

The cash flow from assets was:

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university. Her friends say that she should go to university because she is more likely to meet a clever young man than if she begins full time work straight away.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to find the Net Present Value of going to university rather than working?

The opportunity to meet a desirable future spouse should be classified as:

Value the following business project to manufacture a new product.

 Project Data Project life 2 yrs Initial investment in equipment $6m Depreciation of equipment per year$3m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project $0.6m Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit$8 Variable cost per unit $5 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$1m Interest expense per year 0 Tax rate 30% Weighted average cost of capital after tax per annum 10%

Notes

1. The firm's current assets and current liabilities are $3m and$2m respectively right now. This net working capital will not be used in this project, it will be used in other unrelated projects.
Due to the project, current assets (mostly inventory) will grow by $2m initially (at t = 0), and then by$0.2m at the end of the first year (t=1).
Current liabilities (mostly trade creditors) will increase by $0.1m at the end of the first year (t=1). At the end of the project, the net working capital accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that it was bought. 2. The project cost$0.5m to research which was incurred one year ago.

Assumptions

• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa.
• All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The business considering the project is run as a 'sole tradership' (run by an individual without a company) and is therefore eligible for a 50% capital gains tax discount when the equipment is sold, as permitted by the Australian Tax Office.

What is the expected net present value (NPV) of the project?

Your friend just bought a house for $400,000. He financed it using a$320,000 mortgage loan and a deposit of $80,000. In the context of residential housing and mortgages, the 'equity' tied up in the value of a person's house is the value of the house less the value of the mortgage. So the initial equity your friend has in his house is$80,000. Let this amount be E, let the value of the mortgage be D and the value of the house be V. So $V=D+E$.

If house prices suddenly fall by 10%, what would be your friend's percentage change in equity (E)? Assume that the value of the mortgage is unchanged and that no income (rent) was received from the house during the short time over which house prices fell.

Remember:

$$r_{0\rightarrow1}=\frac{p_1-p_0+c_1}{p_0}$$

where $r_{0-1}$ is the return (percentage change) of an asset with price $p_0$ initially, $p_1$ one period later, and paying a cash flow of $c_1$ at time $t=1$.

A manufacturing company is considering a new project in the more risky services industry. The cash flows from assets (CFFA) are estimated for the new project, with interest expense excluded from the calculations. To get the levered value of the project, what should these unlevered cash flows be discounted by?

Assume that the manufacturing firm has a target debt-to-assets ratio that it sticks to.

One formula for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to use net operating profit after tax (NOPAT).

\begin{aligned} FFCF &= NOPAT + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC \\ \end{aligned} \\
Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield?

Which statement about risk, required return and capital structure is the most correct?

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of equity to raise money for new projects of similar systematic risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct?

Question 99  capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged.

Assume that:

• The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates.
• The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium.
• There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs.
• Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered.

According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct?

A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 25%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio?

A firm has a debt-to-equity ratio of 60%. What is its debt-to-assets ratio?

How many years will it take for an asset's price to triple (increase from say $1 to$3) if it grows by 5% pa?

How much more can you borrow using an interest-only loan compared to a 25-year fully amortising loan if interest rates are 4% pa compounding per month and are not expected to change? If it makes it easier, assume that you can afford to pay $2,000 per month on either loan. Express your answer as a proportional increase using the following formula: $$\text{Proportional Increase} = \dfrac{V_\text{0,interest only}}{V_\text{0,fully amortising}} - 1$$ Two years ago you entered into a fully amortising home loan with a principal of$1,000,000, an interest rate of 6% pa compounding monthly with a term of 25 years.

Then interest rates suddenly fall to 4.5% pa (t=0), but you continue to pay the same monthly home loan payments as you did before. How long will it now take to pay off your home loan? Measure the time taken to pay off the home loan from the current time which is 2 years after the home loan was first entered into.

Assume that the lower interest rate was given to you immediately after the loan repayment at the end of year 2, which was the 24th payment since the loan was granted. Also assume that rates were and are expected to remain constant.

A 4.5% fixed coupon Australian Government bond was issued at par in mid-April 2009. Coupons are paid semi-annually in arrears in mid-April and mid-October each year. The face value is $1,000. The bond will mature in mid-April 2020, so the bond had an original tenor of 11 years. Today is mid-September 2015 and similar bonds now yield 1.9% pa. What is the bond's new price? Note: there are 10 semi-annual coupon payments remaining from now (mid-September 2015) until maturity (mid-April 2020); both yields are given as APR's compounding semi-annually; assume that the yield curve was flat before the change in yields, and remained flat afterwards as well. An investor bought a 5 year government bond with a 2% pa coupon rate at par. Coupons are paid semi-annually. The face value is$100.

Calculate the bond's new price 8 months later after yields have increased to 3% pa. Note that both yields are given as APR's compounding semi-annually. Assume that the yield curve was flat before the change in yields, and remained flat afterwards as well.

An investor bought a 10 year 2.5% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at par. The face value is $100. Coupons are paid semi-annually and the next one is in 6 months. Six months later, just after the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly fell to 2% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually. What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate? In the below term structure of interest rates equation, all rates are effective annual yields and the numbers in subscript represent the years that the yields are measured over: $$(1+r_{0-3})^3 = (1+r_{0-1})(1+r_{1-2})(1+r_{2-3})$$ Which of the following statements is NOT correct? A 'fully amortising' loan can also be called a: On 22-Mar-2013 the Australian Government issued series TB139 treasury bonds with a combined face value$23.4m, listed on the ASX with ticker code GSBG25.

The bonds mature on 21-Apr-2025, the fixed coupon rate is 3.25% pa and coupons are paid semi-annually on the 21st of April and October of each year. Each bond's face value is $1,000. At market close on Friday 11-Sep-2015 the bonds' yield was 2.736% pa. At market close on Monday 14-Sep-2015 the bonds' yield was 2.701% pa. Both yields are given as annualised percentage rates (APR's) compounding every 6 months. For convenience, assume 183 days in 6 months and 366 days in a year. What was the historical total return over those 3 calendar days between Friday 11-Sep-2015 and Monday 14-Sep-2015? There are 183 calendar days from market close on the last coupon 21-Apr-2015 to the market close of the next coupon date on 21-Oct-2015. Between the market close times from 21-Apr-2015 to 11-Sep-2015 there are 143 calendar days. From 21-Apr-2015 to 14-Sep-2015 there are 146 calendar days. From 14-Sep-2015 there were 20 coupons remaining to be paid including the next one on 21-Oct-2015. All of the below answers are given as effective 3 day rates. The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time. What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?  Project Cash Flows Time (yrs) Cash flow ($) 0 -100 1 11 2 121

You're considering a business project which costs $11m now and is expected to pay a single cash flow of$11m in one year. So you pay $11m now, then one year later you receive$11m.

Assume that the initial $11m cost is funded using the your firm's existing cash so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is 10% pa. Which of the following statements about the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is NOT correct? Apples and oranges currently cost$1 each. Inflation is 5% pa, and apples and oranges are equally affected by this inflation rate. Note that when payments are not specified as real, as in this question, they're conventionally assumed to be nominal.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

A business project is expected to cost $100 now (t=0), then pay$10 at the end of the third (t=3), fourth, fifth and sixth years, and then grow by 5% pa every year forever. So the cash flow will be $10.5 at the end of the seventh year (t=7), then$11.025 at the end of the eighth year (t=8) and so on perpetually. The total required return is 10℅ pa.

Which of the following formulas will NOT give the correct net present value of the project?

You're advising your superstar client 40-cent who is weighing up buying a private jet or a luxury yacht. 40-cent is just as happy with either, but he wants to go with the more cost-effective option. These are the cash flows of the two options:

• The private jet can be bought for $6m now, which will cost$12,000 per month in fuel, piloting and airport costs, payable at the end of each month. The jet will last for 12 years.
• Or the luxury yacht can be bought for $4m now, which will cost$20,000 per month in fuel, crew and berthing costs, payable at the end of each month. The yacht will last for 20 years.

What's unusual about 40-cent is that he is so famous that he will actually be able to sell his jet or yacht for the same price as it was bought since the next generation of superstar musicians will buy it from him as a status symbol.

Bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. You can assume that 40-cent will live for another 60 years and that when the jet or yacht's life is at an end, he will buy a new one with the same details as above.

Note that the effective monthly rate is $r_\text{eff monthly}=(1+0.1)^{1/12}-1=0.00797414$

A European company just issued two bonds, a

• 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a
• 3 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the company's forward rate over the third year (from t=2 to t=3)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

To value a business's assets, the free cash flow of the firm (FCFF, also called CFFA) needs to be calculated. This requires figures from the firm's income statement and balance sheet. For what figures is the balance sheet needed? Note that the balance sheet is sometimes also called the statement of financial position.