# Fight Finance

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If housing rents are constrained from growing more than the maximum target inflation rate, and houses can be priced as a perpetuity of growing net rental cash flows, then what is the implication for house prices, all things remaining equal? Select the most correct answer.

Background: Since 1990, many central banks across the world have become 'inflation targeters'. They have adopted a policy of trying to keep inflation in a predictable narrow range, with the hope of encouraging long-term lending to fund more investment and maintain higher GDP growth.

Australia's central bank, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), has specifically stated their inflation target range is between 2 and 3% pa.

Some Australian residential property market commentators suggest that because rental costs comprise a large part of the Australian consumer price index (CPI), rent costs across the nation cannot significantly exceed the maximum inflation target range of 3% pa without the prices of other goods growing by less than the target range for long periods, which is unlikely.

An investor owns a whole level of an old office building which is currently worth $1 million. There are three mutually exclusive projects that can be started by the investor. The office building level can be: • Rented out to a tenant for one year at$0.1m paid immediately, and then sold for $0.99m in one year. • Refurbished into more modern commercial office rooms at a cost of$1m now, and then sold for $2.3m when the refurbishment is finished in one year. • Converted into residential apartments at a cost of$2m now, and then sold for $3.4m when the conversion is finished in one year. All of the development projects have the same risk so the required return of each is 10% pa. The table below shows the estimated cash flows and internal rates of returns (IRR's).  Mutually Exclusive Projects Project Cash flownow ($) Cash flow inone year ($) IRR(% pa) Rent then sell as is -900,000 990,000 10 Refurbishment into modern offices -2,000,000 2,400,000 20 Conversion into residential apartments -3,000,000 3,400,000 13.33 Which project should the investor accept? Risk-free government bonds that have coupon rates greater than their yields: A 'fully amortising' loan can also be called a: For an asset price to double every 10 years, what must be the expected future capital return, given as an effective annual rate? Which of the following statements about the capital and income returns of a 25 year fully amortising loan asset is correct? Assume that the yield curve (which shows total returns over different maturities) is flat and is not expected to change. Over the 25 years from issuance to maturity, a fully amortising loan's expected annual effective: A firm pays out all of its earnings as dividends. Because of this, the firm has no real growth in earnings, dividends or stock price since there is no re-investment back into the firm to buy new assets and make higher earnings. The dividend discount model is suitable to value this company. The firm's revenues and costs are expected to increase by inflation in the foreseeable future. The firm has no debt. It operates in the services industry and has few physical assets so there is negligible depreciation expense and negligible net working capital required. Which of the following statements about this firm's PE ratio is NOT correct? The PE ratio should: Note: The inverse of x is 1/x. Suppose the Australian cash rate is expected to be 8.15% pa and the US federal funds rate is expected to be 3.00% pa over the next 2 years, both given as nominal effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is at parity, so 1 USD = 1 AUD. What is the implied 2 year forward foreign exchange rate? For a price of$95, Sherylanne will sell you a share which is expected to pay its first dividend of $10 in 7 years (t=7), and will continue to pay the same$10 dividend every year after that forever.

The required return of the stock is 10% pa.

Would you like to the share or politely ?

For a price of $95, Nicole will sell you a 10 year bond paying semi-annual coupons of 8% pa. The face value of the bond is$100. Other bonds with the same risk, maturity and coupon characteristics trade at a yield of 8% pa.

Would you like to the bond or politely ?

A person is thinking about borrowing $100 from the bank at 7% pa and investing it in shares with an expected return of 10% pa. One year later the person will sell the shares and pay back the loan in full. Both the loan and the shares are fairly priced. What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of this one year investment? Note that you are asked to find the present value ($V_0$), not the value in one year ($V_1$). The US government recently announced that subsidies for fresh milk producers will be gradually phased out over the next year. Newspapers say that there are expectations of a 40% increase in the spot price of fresh milk over the next year. Option prices on fresh milk trading on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) reflect expectations of this 40% increase in spot prices over the next year. Similarly to the rest of the market, you believe that prices will rise by 40% over the next year. What option trades are likely to be profitable, or to be more specific, result in a positive Net Present Value (NPV)? Assume that: • Only the spot price is expected to increase and there is no change in expected volatility or other variables that affect option prices. • No taxes, transaction costs, information asymmetry, bid-ask spreads or other market frictions. This annuity formula $\dfrac{C_1}{r}\left(1-\dfrac{1}{(1+r)^3} \right)$ is equivalent to which of the following formulas? Note the 3. In the below formulas, $C_t$ is a cash flow at time t. All of the cash flows are equal, but paid at different times. A stock just paid its annual dividend of$9. The share price is $60. The required return of the stock is 10% pa as an effective annual rate. What is the implied growth rate of the dividend per year? Your friend is trying to find the net present value of a project. The project is expected to last for just one year with: • a negative cash flow of -$1 million initially (t=0), and
• a positive cash flow of $1.1 million in one year (t=1). The project has a total required return of 10% pa due to its moderate level of undiversifiable risk. Your friend is aware of the importance of opportunity costs and the time value of money, but he is unsure of how to find the NPV of the project. He knows that the opportunity cost of investing the$1m in the project is the expected gain from investing the money in shares instead. Like the project, shares also have an expected return of 10% since they have moderate undiversifiable risk. This opportunity cost is $0.1m $(=1m \times 10\%)$ which occurs in one year (t=1). He knows that the time value of money should be accounted for, and this can be done by finding the present value of the cash flows in one year. Your friend has listed a few different ways to find the NPV which are written down below. (I) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1}$ (II) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} - \dfrac{1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (III) $-1m + \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} - \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (IV) $-1m + 1.1m - \dfrac{1.1m}{(1+0.1)^1} \times 0.1$ (V) $-1m + 1.1m - 1.1m \times 0.1$ Which of the above calculations give the correct NPV? Select the most correct answer. What is the net present value (NPV) of undertaking a full-time Australian undergraduate business degree as an Australian citizen? Only include the cash flows over the duration of the degree, ignore any benefits or costs of the degree after it's completed. Assume the following: • The degree takes 3 years to complete and all students pass all subjects. • There are 2 semesters per year and 4 subjects per semester. • University fees per subject per semester are$1,277, paid at the start of each semester. Fees are expected to stay constant for the next 3 years.
• There are 52 weeks per year.
• The first semester is just about to start (t=0). The first semester lasts for 19 weeks (t=0 to 19).
• The second semester starts immediately afterwards (t=19) and lasts for another 19 weeks (t=19 to 38).
• The summer holidays begin after the second semester ends and last for 14 weeks (t=38 to 52). Then the first semester begins the next year, and so on.
• Working full time at the grocery store instead of studying full-time pays $20/hr and you can work 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week. • Full-time students can work full-time during the summer holiday at the grocery store for the same rate of$20/hr for 35 hours per week. Wages are paid at the end of each week.
• The discount rate is 9.8% pa. All rates and cash flows are real. Inflation is expected to be 3% pa. All rates are effective annual.

The NPV of costs from undertaking the university degree is:

Why is Capital Expenditure (CapEx) subtracted in the Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) formula?

$$CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \Delta NWC+IntExp$$

A company increases the proportion of debt funding it uses to finance its assets by issuing bonds and using the cash to repurchase stock, leaving assets unchanged.

Ignoring the costs of financial distress, which of the following statements is NOT correct:

Over the next year, the management of an unlevered company plans to:

• Achieve firm free cash flow (FFCF or CFFA) of $1m. • Pay dividends of$1.8m
• Complete a $1.3m share buy-back. • Spend$0.8m on new buildings without buying or selling any other fixed assets. This capital expenditure is included in the CFFA figure quoted above.

Assume that:

• All amounts are received and paid at the end of the year so you can ignore the time value of money.
• The firm has sufficient retained profits to pay the dividend and complete the buy back.
• The firm plans to run a very tight ship, with no excess cash above operating requirements currently or over the next year.

How much new equity financing will the company need? In other words, what is the value of new shares that will need to be issued?

Your friend just bought a house for $400,000. He financed it using a$320,000 mortgage loan and a deposit of $80,000. In the context of residential housing and mortgages, the 'equity' tied up in the value of a person's house is the value of the house less the value of the mortgage. So the initial equity your friend has in his house is$80,000. Let this amount be E, let the value of the mortgage be D and the value of the house be V. So $V=D+E$.

If house prices suddenly fall by 10%, what would be your friend's percentage change in equity (E)? Assume that the value of the mortgage is unchanged and that no income (rent) was received from the house during the short time over which house prices fell.

Remember:

$$r_{0\rightarrow1}=\frac{p_1-p_0+c_1}{p_0}$$

where $r_{0-1}$ is the return (percentage change) of an asset with price $p_0$ initially, $p_1$ one period later, and paying a cash flow of $c_1$ at time $t=1$.

One year ago you bought $100,000 of shares partly funded using a margin loan. The margin loan size was$70,000 and the other 30,000 was your own wealth or 'equity' in the share assets. The interest rate on the margin loan was 7.84% pa. Over the year, the shares produced a dividend yield of 4% pa and a capital gain of 5% pa. What was the total return on your wealth? Ignore taxes, assume that all cash flows (interest payments and dividends) were paid and received at the end of the year, and all rates above are effective annual rates. Hint: Remember that wealth in this context is your equity (E) in the house asset (V = D+E) which is funded by the loan (D) and your deposit or equity (E). There are many ways to calculate a firm's free cash flow (FFCF), also called cash flow from assets (CFFA). Some include the annual interest tax shield in the cash flow and some do not. Which of the below FFCF formulas include the interest tax shield in the cash flow? $$(1) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp$$ $$(2) \quad FFCF=NI + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC + IntExp.(1-t_c)$$ $$(3) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c )+ Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c$$ $$(4) \quad FFCF=EBIT.(1-t_c) + Depr- CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(5) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC+IntExp.t_c$$ $$(6) \quad FFCF=EBITDA.(1-t_c )+Depr.t_c- CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(7) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(8) \quad FFCF=EBIT-Tax + Depr - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c$$ $$(9) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC$$ $$(10) \quad FFCF=EBITDA-Tax - CapEx -ΔNWC-IntExp.t_c$$ The formulas for net income (NI also called earnings), EBIT and EBITDA are given below. Assume that depreciation and amortisation are both represented by 'Depr' and that 'FC' represents fixed costs such as rent. $$NI=(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).(1-t_c )$$ $$EBIT=Rev - COGS - FC-Depr$$ $$EBITDA=Rev - COGS - FC$$ $$Tax =(Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp).t_c= \dfrac{NI.t_c}{1-t_c}$$ One method for calculating a firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to ignore interest expense. That is, pretend that interest expense $(IntExp)$ is zero: \begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - 0)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC - 0\\ \end{aligned} Does this annual FFCF with zero interest expense or the annual interest tax shield? A company issues a large amount of bonds to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. The net present value (NPV) of the new projects is positive but small. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is NOT correct? Question 99 capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged. Assume that: • The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates. • The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium. • There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs. • Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered. According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct? A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of debt to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct? Let the standard deviation of returns for a share per month be $\sigma_\text{monthly}$. What is the formula for the standard deviation of the share's returns per year $(\sigma_\text{yearly})$? Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) so they have zero auto correlation, meaning that if the return was higher than average today, it does not indicate that the return tomorrow will be higher or lower than average. The total return of any asset can be broken down in different ways. One possible way is to use the dividend discount model (or Gordon growth model): $$p_0 = \frac{c_1}{r_\text{total}-r_\text{capital}}$$ Which, since $c_1/p_0$ is the income return ($r_\text{income}$), can be expressed as: $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}$$ So the total return of an asset is the income component plus the capital or price growth component. Another way to break up total return is to use the Capital Asset Pricing Model: $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{f}+β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})$$ $$r_\text{total}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}$$ So the risk free rate is the time value of money and the term $β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})$ is the compensation for taking on systematic risk. Using the above theory and your general knowledge, which of the below equations, if any, are correct? (I) $r_\text{income}=r_\text{time value}$ (II) $r_\text{income}=r_\text{risk premium}$ (III) $r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}$ (IV) $r_\text{capital}=r_\text{risk premium}$ (V) $r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}$ Which of the equations are correct?  Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in equipment8m Depreciation of equipment per year $8m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project 0 Unit sales per year 4m Sale price per unit$10 Variable cost per unit $5 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year$2m Interest expense in first year (at t=1) $0.562m Corporate tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 9% Market portfolio return 10% Covariance of levered equity returns with market 0.32 Variance of market portfolio returns 0.16 Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio 50% Notes 1. Due to the project, current assets will increase by$6m now (t=0) and fall by $6m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected. Assumptions • The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. • Millions are represented by 'm'. • All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year. • All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates. • The project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual. What is the net present value (NPV) of the project? A man inherits$500,000 worth of shares.

He believes that by learning the secrets of trading, keeping up with the financial news and doing complex trend analysis with charts that he can quit his job and become a self-employed day trader in the equities markets.

What is the expected gain from doing this over the first year? Measure the net gain in wealth received at the end of this first year due to the decision to become a day trader. Assume the following:

• He earns $60,000 pa in his current job, paid in a lump sum at the end of each year. • He enjoys examining share price graphs and day trading just as much as he enjoys his current job. • Stock markets are weak form and semi-strong form efficient. • He has no inside information. • He makes 1 trade every day and there are 250 trading days in the year. Trading costs are$20 per trade. His broker invoices him for the trading costs at the end of the year.
• The shares that he currently owns and the shares that he intends to trade have the same level of systematic risk as the market portfolio.
• The market portfolio's expected return is 10% pa.

Measure the net gain over the first year as an expected wealth increase at the end of the year.

A company advertises an investment costing $1,000 which they say is underpriced. They say that it has an expected total return of 15% pa, but a required return of only 10% pa. Assume that there are no dividend payments so the entire 15% total return is all capital return. Assuming that the company's statements are correct, what is the NPV of buying the investment if the 15% return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to 10% pa after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever? In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant. All returns are given as effective annual rates. The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever): An 'interest payment' is the same thing as a 'coupon payment'. or ? Currently, a mining company has a share price of$6 and pays constant annual dividends of $0.50. The next dividend will be paid in 1 year. Suddenly and unexpectedly the mining company announces that due to higher than expected profits, all of these windfall profits will be paid as a special dividend of$0.30 in 1 year.

If investors believe that the windfall profits and dividend is a one-off event, what will be the new share price? If investors believe that the additional dividend is actually permanent and will continue to be paid, what will be the new share price? Assume that the required return on equity is unchanged. Choose from the following, where the first share price includes the one-off increase in earnings and dividends for the first year only $(P_\text{0 one-off})$ , and the second assumes that the increase is permanent $(P_\text{0 permanent})$:

Note: When a firm makes excess profits they sometimes pay them out as special dividends. Special dividends are just like ordinary dividends but they are one-off and investors do not expect them to continue, unlike ordinary dividends which are expected to persist.

A fairly priced unlevered firm plans to pay a dividend of $1 next year (t=1) which is expected to grow by 3% pa every year after that. The firm's required return on equity is 8% pa. The firm is thinking about reducing its future dividend payments by 10% so that it can use the extra cash to invest in more projects which are expected to return 8% pa, and have the same risk as the existing projects. Therefore, next year's dividend will be$0.90.

What will be the stock's new annual capital return (proportional increase in price per year) if the change in payout policy goes ahead?

Assume that payout policy is irrelevant to firm value and that all rates are effective annual rates.

If the AUD appreciates against the USD, the European terms quote of the AUD will or ?

Investors expect the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to keep the policy rate steady at their next meeting.

Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will increase the policy rate by 25 basis points due to fears that the economy is growing too fast and that inflation will be above their target rate of 2 to 3 per cent.

What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar is likely to:

In the 1997 Asian financial crisis many countries' exchange rates depreciated rapidly against the US dollar (USD). The Thai, Indonesian, Malaysian, Korean and Filipino currencies were severely affected. The below graph shows these Asian countries' currencies in USD per one unit of their currency, indexed to 100 in June 1997.

Of the statements below, which is NOT correct? The Asian countries':

The Chinese government attempts to fix its exchange rate against the US dollar and at the same time use monetary policy to fix its interest rate at a set level.

To be able to fix its exchange rate and interest rate in this way, what does the Chinese government actually do?

1. Adopts capital controls to prevent financial arbitrage by private firms and individuals.
2. Adopts the same interest rate (monetary policy) as the United States.
3. Fixes inflation so that the domestic real interest rate is equal to the United States' real interest rate.

Which of the above statements is or are true?

The accounting identity states that the book value of a company's assets (A) equals its liabilities (L) plus owners equity (OE), so A = L + OE.

The finance version states that the market value of a company's assets (V) equals the market value of its debt (D) plus equity (E), so V = D + E.

Therefore a business's assets can be seen as a portfolio of the debt and equity that fund the assets.

Let $\sigma_\text{V total}^2$ be the total variance of returns on assets, $\sigma_\text{V syst}^2$ be the systematic variance of returns on assets, and $\sigma_\text{V idio}^2$ be the idiosyncratic variance of returns on assets, and $\rho_\text{D idio, E idio}$ be the correlation between the idiosyncratic returns on debt and equity.

Which of the following equations is NOT correct?

Which of the following statements about risk free government bonds is NOT correct?

Hint: Total return can be broken into income and capital returns as follows:

\begin{aligned} r_\text{total} &= \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0} \\ &= r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital} \end{aligned}

The capital return is the growth rate of the price.
The income return is the periodic cash flow. For a bond this is the coupon payment.

Bonds X and Y are issued by different companies, but they both pay a semi-annual coupon of 10% pa and they have the same face value ($100) and maturity (3 years). The only difference is that bond X and Y's yields are 8 and 12% pa respectively. Which of the following statements is true? A project's Profitability Index (PI) is less than 1. Select the most correct statement: An investor bought two fixed-coupon bonds issued by the same company, a zero-coupon bond and a 7% pa semi-annual coupon bond. Both bonds have a face value of$1,000, mature in 10 years, and had a yield at the time of purchase of 8% pa.

A few years later, yields fell to 6% pa. Which of the following statements is correct? Note that a capital gain is an increase in price.

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

$$p_0 = \frac{d_1}{r - g}$$

Which expression is NOT equal to the expected dividend yield?

The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks:

$$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

All rates are effective annual rates and the cash flows ($d_1$) are received every year. Note that the r and g terms in the above DDM could also be labelled as below: $$r = r_{\text{total, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ $$g = r_{\text{capital, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

A bank grants a borrower an interest-only residential mortgage loan with a very large 50% deposit and a nominal interest rate of 6% that is not expected to change. Assume that inflation is expected to be a constant 2% pa over the life of the loan. Ignore credit risk.

From the bank's point of view, what is the long term expected nominal capital return of the loan asset?

Interest expense on debt is tax-deductible, but dividend payments on equity are not. or ?

A bathroom and plumbing supplies shop offers credit to its customers. Customers are given 60 days to pay for their goods, but if they pay within 7 days they will get a 2% discount.

What is the effective interest rate implicit in the discount being offered? Assume 365 days in a year and that all customers pay on either the 7th day or the 60th day. All rates given in this question are effective annual rates.

For certain shares, the forward-looking Price-Earnings Ratio ($P_0/EPS_1$) is equal to the inverse of the share's total expected return ($1/r_\text{total}$).

For what shares is this true?

Assume:

• The general accounting definition of 'payout ratio' which is dividends per share (DPS) divided by earnings per share (EPS).
• All cash flows, earnings and rates are real.

You own an apartment which you rent out as an investment property.

What is the price of the apartment using discounted cash flow (DCF, same as NPV) valuation?

Assume that:

• You just signed a contract to rent the apartment out to a tenant for the next 12 months at $2,000 per month, payable in advance (at the start of the month, t=0). The tenant is just about to pay you the first$2,000 payment.
• The contract states that monthly rental payments are fixed for 12 months. After the contract ends, you plan to sign another contract but with rental payment increases of 3%. You intend to do this every year.
So rental payments will increase at the start of the 13th month (t=12) to be $2,060 (=2,000(1+0.03)), and then they will be constant for the next 12 months. Rental payments will increase again at the start of the 25th month (t=24) to be$2,121.80 (=2,000(1+0.03)2), and then they will be constant for the next 12 months until the next year, and so on.
• The required return of the apartment is 8.732% pa, given as an effective annual rate.
• Ignore all taxes, maintenance, real estate agent, council and strata fees, periods of vacancy and other costs. Assume that the apartment will last forever and so will the rental payments.

A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is 2% of the end-of-year amount, paid at the end of every year.

This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money.

The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of 10% pa before fees.

You are thinking of investing $100,000 in the fund and keeping it there for 40 years when you plan to retire. How much money do you expect to have in the fund in 40 years? Also, what is the future value of the fees that the fund expects to earn from you? Give both amounts as future values in 40 years. Assume that: • The fund has no private information. • Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient. • The fund's transaction costs are negligible. • The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible. • The fund invests its fees in the same companies as it invests your funds in, but with no fees. The below answer choices list your expected wealth in 40 years and then the fund's expected wealth in 40 years. The perpetuity with growth equation is: $$P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}$$ Which of the following is NOT equal to the expected capital return as an effective annual rate? A share currently worth$100 is expected to pay a constant dividend of $4 for the next 5 years with the first dividend in one year (t=1) and the last in 5 years (t=5). The total required return is 10% pa. What do you expected the share price to be in 5 years, just after the dividend at that time has been paid? A very low-risk stock just paid its semi-annual dividend of$0.14, as it has for the last 5 years. You conservatively estimate that from now on the dividend will fall at a rate of 1% every 6 months.

If the stock currently sells for $3 per share, what must be its required total return as an effective annual rate? If risk free government bonds are trading at a yield of 4% pa, given as an effective annual rate, would you consider buying or selling the stock? The stock's required total return is: You have$100,000 in the bank. The bank pays interest at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume an equal amount now (t=0), in one year (t=1) and in two years (t=2), and still have $50,000 in the bank after that (t=2). How much can you consume at each time? A levered firm has zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of$9.9m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of 10% pa.

In one year the firm's assets will be worth:

• $13.2m with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, or •$6.6m with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $2m and will provide a certain cash flow of$3.3m in one year.

The firm doesn't have any excess cash to make the initial $2m investment, but the funds can be raised from shareholders through a fairly priced rights issue. Ignore all transaction costs. Should shareholders vote to proceed with the project and equity raising? What will be the gain in shareholder wealth if they decide to proceed? On his 20th birthday, a man makes a resolution. He will deposit$30 into a bank account at the end of every month starting from now, which is the start of the month. So the first payment will be in one month. He will write in his will that when he dies the money in the account should be given to charity.

The bank account pays interest at 6% pa compounding monthly, which is not expected to change.

If the man lives for another 60 years, how much money will be in the bank account if he dies just after making his last (720th) payment?

A company has:

• 10 million common shares outstanding, each trading at a price of $90. • 1 million preferred shares which have a face (or par) value of$100 and pay a constant dividend of 9% of par. They currently trade at a price of $120 each. • Debentures that have a total face value of$60,000,000 and a yield to maturity of 6% per annum. They are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 90% of their face value.
• The risk-free rate is 5% and the market return is 10%.
• Market analysts estimate that the company's common stock has a beta of 1.2. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What is the company's after-tax Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)? Assume a classical tax system.

An industrial chicken farmer grows chickens for their meat. Chickens:

1. Cost $0.50 each to buy as chicks. They are bought on the day they’re born, at t=0. 2. Grow at a rate of$0.70 worth of meat per chicken per week for the first 6 weeks (t=0 to t=6).
3. Grow at a rate of $0.40 worth of meat per chicken per week for the next 4 weeks (t=6 to t=10) since they’re older and grow more slowly. 4. Feed costs are$0.30 per chicken per week for their whole life. Chicken feed is bought and fed to the chickens once per week at the beginning of the week. So the first amount of feed bought for a chicken at t=0 costs $0.30, and so on. 5. Can be slaughtered (killed for their meat) and sold at no cost at the end of the week. The price received for the chicken is their total value of meat (note that the chicken grows fast then slow, see above). The required return of the chicken farm is 0.5% given as an effective weekly rate. Ignore taxes and the fixed costs of the factory. Ignore the chicken’s welfare and other environmental and ethical concerns. Find the equivalent weekly cash flow of slaughtering a chicken at 6 weeks and at 10 weeks so the farmer can figure out the best time to slaughter his chickens. The choices below are given in the same order, 6 and 10 weeks. You're about to buy a car. These are the cash flows of the two different cars that you can buy: • You can buy an old car for$5,000 now, for which you will have to buy $90 of fuel at the end of each week from the date of purchase. The old car will last for 3 years, at which point you will sell the old car for$500.
• Or you can buy a new car for $14,000 now for which you will have to buy$50 of fuel at the end of each week from the date of purchase. The new car will last for 4 years, at which point you will sell the new car for $1,000. Bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that there are exactly 52 weeks in a year. Ignore taxes and environmental and pollution factors. Should you buy the or the ? You're trying to save enough money to buy your first car which costs$2,500. You can save $100 at the end of each month starting from now. You currently have no money at all. You just opened a bank account with an interest rate of 6% pa payable monthly. How many months will it take to save enough money to buy the car? Assume that the price of the car will stay the same over time. You just borrowed$400,000 in the form of a 25 year interest-only mortgage with monthly payments of $3,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change. You actually plan to pay more than the required interest payment. You plan to pay$3,300 in mortgage payments every month, which your mortgage lender allows. These extra payments will reduce the principal and the minimum interest payment required each month.

At the maturity of the mortgage, what will be the principal? That is, after the last (300th) interest payment of $3,300 in 25 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? A company has: • 50 million shares outstanding. • The market price of one share is currently$6.
• The risk-free rate is 5% and the market return is 10%.
• Market analysts believe that the company's ordinary shares have a beta of 2.
• The company has 1 million preferred stock which have a face (or par) value of $100 and pay a constant dividend of 10% of par. They currently trade for$80 each.
• The company's debentures are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 90% of their face value.
• The debentures have a total face value of $60,000,000 and the current yield to maturity of corporate debentures is 10% per annum. The corporate tax rate is 30%. What is the company's after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC)? Assume a classical tax system. Find Trademark Corporation's Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA), also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), over the year ending 30th June 2013.  Trademark Corp Income Statement for year ending 30th June 2013$m Sales 100 COGS 25 Operating expense 5 Depreciation 20 Interest expense 20 Income before tax 30 Tax at 30% 9 Net income 21
 Trademark Corp Balance Sheet as at 30th June 2013 2012 $m$m Assets Current assets 120 80 PPE Cost 150 140 Accumul. depr. 60 40 Carrying amount 90 100 Total assets 210 180 Liabilities Current liabilities 75 65 Non-current liabilities 75 55 Owners' equity Retained earnings 10 10 Contributed equity 50 50 Total L and OE 210 180

Note: all figures are given in millions of dollars ($m). A new company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below. To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula: $$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$ Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value?  Project Data Project life 2 yrs Initial investment in equipment$600k Depreciation of equipment per year $250k Expected sale price of equipment at end of project$200k Revenue per job $12k Variable cost per job$4k Quantity of jobs per year 120 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $100k Interest expense in first year (at t=1)$16.091k Interest expense in second year (at t=2) $9.711k Tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 6% Levered cost of equity 12.5% Market portfolio return 10% Beta of assets 1.24 Beta of levered equity 1.5 Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio 25% Notes 1. The project will require an immediate purchase of$50k of inventory, which will all be sold at cost when the project ends. Current liabilities are negligible so they can be ignored.

Assumptions

• The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. Note that interest expense is different in each year.
• Thousands are represented by 'k' (kilo).
• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are nominal. The inflation rate is 2% pa.
• All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

A levered firm has a market value of assets of $10m. Its debt is all comprised of zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of$9.9m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of 10% pa.

Therefore the current market capitalisation of debt $(D_0)$ is $9m and equity $(E_0)$ is$1m.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $2m and will provide a: •$6.6m cash flow with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, and a
• -$4.4m (notice the negative sign) cash flow with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world. The project can be funded using the company's excess cash, no debt or equity raisings are required. What would be the new market capitalisation of equity $(E_\text{0, with project})$ if shareholders vote to proceed with the project, and therefore should shareholders proceed with the project? In Germany, nominal yields on semi-annual coupon paying Government Bonds with 2 years until maturity are currently 0.04% pa. The inflation rate is currently 1.4% pa, given as an APR compounding per quarter. The inflation rate is not expected to change over the next 2 years. What is the real yield on these bonds, given as an APR compounding every 6 months? Alice, Bob, Chris and Delta are traders in the futures market. The following trades occur over a single day in a newly-opened equity index future that matures in one year which the exchange just made available. 1. Alice buys a future from Bob. 2. Chris buys a future from Delta. 3. Delta buys a future from Bob. These were the only trades made in this equity index future. What was the trading volume and what is the open interest? A European put option will mature in $T$ years with a strike price of $K$ dollars. The underlying asset has a price of $S$ dollars. What is an expression for the payoff at maturity $(f_T)$ in dollars from owning (being long) the put option? Which of the following statements about Australian franking credits is NOT correct? Franking credits: A company conducts a 2 for 3 rights issue at a subscription price of$8 when the pre-announcement stock price was $9. Assume that all investors use their rights to buy those extra shares. What is the percentage increase in the stock price and the number of shares outstanding? The answers are given in the same order. Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Each person has$500 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $500. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive$500. If they flip tails then they will lose \$500. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?