In Australia, domestic university students are allowed to buy concession tickets for the bus, train and ferry which sell at a discount of **50**% to full-price tickets.

The Australian Government do not allow international university students to buy concession tickets, they have to pay the full price.

Some international students see this as unfair and they are willing to pay for fake university identification cards which have the concession sticker.

What is the most that an international student would be willing to pay for a fake identification card?

Assume that international students:

- consider buying their fake card on the morning of the first day of university from their neighbour, just before they leave to take the train into university.
- buy their weekly train tickets on the morning of the first day of each week.
- ride the train to university and back home again every day seven days per week until summer holidays
**40**weeks from now. The concession card only lasts for those 40 weeks. Assume that there are**52**weeks in the year for the purpose of interest rate conversion. - a single full-priced one-way train ride costs $
**5**. - have a discount rate of
**11**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Approach this question from a purely financial view point, ignoring the illegality, embarrassment and the morality of committing fraud.

You just signed up for a 30 year **fully amortising** mortgage loan with monthly payments of $2,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

How much did you borrow? After 5 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage? The interest rate is still 9% and is not expected to change.

**Question 244** CAPM, SML, NPV, risk

Examine the following graph which shows stocks' betas ##(\beta)## and expected returns ##(\mu)##:

Assume that the CAPM holds and that future expectations of stocks' returns and betas are correctly measured. Which statement is **NOT** correct?

**Question 323** foreign exchange rate, monetary policy, American and European terms

The market expects the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to increase the policy rate by 25 basis points at their next meeting.

As expected, the RBA increases the policy rate by 25 basis points.

What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar will:

**Question 732** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, income and capital returns

An investor bought a bond for $**100** (at t=0) and one year later it paid its annual coupon of $**1** (at t=1). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was $**100.50** (at t=1). Inflation over the past year (from t=0 to t=1) was **3**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct? The bond investment produced a:

Use the below information to value a levered company with constant annual perpetual cash flows from assets. The next cash flow will be generated in one year from now, so a perpetuity can be used to value this firm. Both the cash flow from assets including and excluding interest tax shields are constant (but not equal to each other).

Data on a Levered Firm with Perpetual Cash Flows | ||

Item abbreviation | Value | Item full name |

##\text{CFFA}_\text{U}## | $100m | Cash flow from assets excluding interest tax shields (unlevered) |

##\text{CFFA}_\text{L}## | $112m | Cash flow from assets including interest tax shields (levered) |

##g## | 0% pa | Growth rate of cash flow from assets, levered and unlevered |

##\text{WACC}_\text{BeforeTax}## | 7% pa | Weighted average cost of capital before tax |

##\text{WACC}_\text{AfterTax}## | 6.25% pa | Weighted average cost of capital after tax |

##r_\text{D}## | 5% pa | Cost of debt |

##r_\text{EL}## | 9% pa | Cost of levered equity |

##D/V_L## | 50% pa | Debt to assets ratio, where the asset value includes tax shields |

##t_c## | 30% | Corporate tax rate |

What is the value of the levered firm including interest tax shields?

**Question 834** option, delta, theta, gamma, standard deviation, Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing

Which of the following statements about an option (either a call or put) and its underlying stock is **NOT** correct?

European Call Option |
||

on a non-dividend paying stock | ||

Description |
Symbol |
Quantity |

Spot price ($) | ##S_0## | 20 |

Strike price ($) | ##K_T## | 18 |

Risk free cont. comp. rate (pa) | ##r## | 0.05 |

Standard deviation of the stock's cont. comp. returns (pa) | ##\sigma## | 0.3 |

Option maturity (years) | ##T## | 1 |

Call option price ($) | ##c_0## | 3.939488 |

Delta | ##\Delta = N[d_1]## | 0.747891 |

##N[d_2]## | ##N[d_2]## | 0.643514 |

Gamma | ##\Gamma## | 0.053199 |

Theta ($/year) | ##\Theta = \partial c / \partial T## | 1.566433 |

**Question 861** open interest, closing out future contract, no explanation

Alice, Bob, Chris and Delta are traders in the futures market. The following trades occur over a single day in a newly-opened equity index future that matures in one year which the exchange just made available.

1. Alice buys 2 future from Bob.

2. Chris buys 5 futures from Delta.

3. Chris buys 9 futures from Bob.

These were the only trades made in this equity index future.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 875** omitted variable bias, systematic and idiosyncratic risk, CAPM, single factor model, two factor model

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Single Index Model (SIM) are single factor models whose only risk factor is the market portfolio’s return. Say a Solar electricity generator company and a Beach bathing chair renting company are influenced by two factors, the market portfolio return and cloud cover in the sky. When it's sunny and not cloudy, both the Solar and Beach companies’ stock prices do well. When there’s dense cloud cover and no sun, both do poorly. Assume that cloud coverage risk is a systematic risk that cannot be diversified and that cloud cover has zero correlation with the market portfolio’s returns.

Which of the following statements about these two stocks is **NOT** correct?

The CAPM and SIM:

**Question 905** market capitalisation of equity, PE ratio, payout ratio

The below graph shows the computer software company Microsoft's stock price (MSFT) at the market close on the NASDAQ on Friday 1 June 2018.

Based on the screenshot above, which of the following statements about MSFT is **NOT** correct? MSFT's: