# Fight Finance

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Stock A has a beta of 0.5 and stock B has a beta of 1. Which statement is NOT correct?

 Portfolio Details Stock Expected return Standard deviation Covariance $(\sigma_{A,B})$ Beta Dollars invested A 0.2 0.4 0.12 0.5 40 B 0.3 0.8 1.5 80

What is the standard deviation (not variance) of the above portfolio? Note that the stocks' covariance is given, not correlation.

A company has:

• 50 million shares outstanding.
• The market price of one share is currently $6. • The risk-free rate is 5% and the market return is 10%. • Market analysts believe that the company's ordinary shares have a beta of 2. • The company has 1 million preferred stock which have a face (or par) value of$100 and pay a constant dividend of 10% of par. They currently trade for $80 each. • The company's debentures are publicly traded and their market price is equal to 90% of their face value. • The debentures have a total face value of$60,000,000 and the current yield to maturity of corporate debentures is 10% per annum. The corporate tax rate is 30%.

What is the company's after-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC)? Assume a classical tax system.

Which statement is the most correct?

An Australian company just issued two bonds paying semi-annual coupons:

• 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a
• 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the forward rate on the company's debt from years 1 to 2? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

Question 99  capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged.

Assume that:

• The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates.
• The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium.
• There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs.
• Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered.

According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct?

Assume that there exists a perfect world with no transaction costs, no asymmetric information, no taxes, no agency costs, equal borrowing rates for corporations and individual investors, the ability to short the risk free asset, semi-strong form efficient markets, the CAPM holds, investors are rational and risk-averse and there are no other market frictions.

For a firm operating in this perfect world, which statement(s) are correct?

(i) When a firm changes its capital structure and/or payout policy, share holders' wealth is unaffected.

(ii) When the idiosyncratic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns.

(iii) When the systematic risk of a firm's assets increases, share holders do not expect higher returns.

Select the most correct response:

A person is thinking about borrowing $100 from the bank at 7% pa and investing it in shares with an expected return of 10% pa. One year later the person will sell the shares and pay back the loan in full. Both the loan and the shares are fairly priced. What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of this one year investment? Note that you are asked to find the present value ($V_0$), not the value in one year ($V_1$). An Australian company just issued two bonds: • A 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa, and • A 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa. What is the forward rate on the company's debt from years 1 to 2? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted. Question 109 credit rating, credit risk Bonds with lower (worse) credit ratings tend to have: A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of equity and using the funds to repay debt. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields. According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct? Fill in the missing words in the following sentence: All things remaining equal, as a firm's amount of debt funding falls, benefits of interest tax shields __________ and the costs of financial distress __________. A zero coupon bond that matures in 6 months has a face value of$1,000.

The firm that issued this bond is trying to forecast its income statement for the year. It needs to calculate the interest expense of the bond this year.

The bond is highly illiquid and hasn't traded on the market. But the finance department have assessed the bond's fair value to be $950 and this is its book value right now at the start of the year. Assume that: • the firm uses the 'effective interest method' to calculate interest expense. • the market value of the bond is the same as the book value. • the firm is only interested in this bond's interest expense. Do not include the interest expense for a new bond issued to refinance the current one, as would normally happen. What will be the interest expense of the bond this year for the purpose of forecasting the income statement? A stock was bought for$8 and paid a dividend of $0.50 one year later (at t=1 year). Just after the dividend was paid, the stock price was$7 (at t=1 year).

What were the total, capital and dividend returns given as effective annual rates? The choices are given in the same order:

$r_\text{total}$, $r_\text{capital}$, $r_\text{dividend}$.

A project has an internal rate of return (IRR) which is greater than its required return. Select the most correct statement.

When using the dividend discount model to price a stock:

$$p_{0} = \frac{d_1}{r - g}$$

The growth rate of dividends (g):

A text book publisher is thinking of asking some teachers to write a new textbook at a cost of $100,000, payable now. The book would be written, printed and ready to sell to students in 2 years. It will be ready just before semester begins. A cash flow of$100 would be made from each book sold, after all costs such as printing and delivery. There are 600 students per semester. Assume that every student buys a new text book. Remember that there are 2 semesters per year and students buy text books at the beginning of the semester.

Assume that text book publishers will sell the books at the same price forever and that the number of students is constant.

If the discount rate is 8% pa, given as an effective annual rate, what is the NPV of the project?

The following equation is the Dividend Discount Model, also known as the 'Gordon Growth Model' or the 'Perpetuity with growth' equation.

$$p_0 = \frac{d_1}{r - g}$$

Which expression is NOT equal to the expected dividend yield?

A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of $10. The dividend is expected to grow at 2% every 6 months forever. This 2% growth rate is an effective 6 month rate. Therefore the next dividend will be$10.20 in six months. The required return of the stock is 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

What is the price of the share now?

A project's net present value (NPV) is negative. Select the most correct statement.

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 8 8 8 20 8 ... After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What is the current price of the stock? A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:  Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 2 2 2 10 3 ...

After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 4% pa. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates.

What is the current price of the stock?

The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks:

$$p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g}$$

All rates are effective annual rates and the cash flows ($d_1$) are received every year. Note that the r and g terms in the above DDM could also be labelled as below: $$r = r_{\text{total, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ $$g = r_{\text{capital, 0}\rightarrow\text{1yr, eff 1yr}}$$ Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

A highly leveraged risky firm is trying to raise more debt. The types of debt being considered, in no particular order, are senior bonds, junior bonds, bank accepted bills, promissory notes and bank loans.

Which of these forms of debt is the safest from the perspective of the debt investors who are thinking of investing in the firm's new debt?

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0 6 12 18 20 ... After year 4, the dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa. The required return of the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What will be the price of the stock in 7 years (t = 7), just after the dividend at that time has been paid? There are a number of ways that assets can be depreciated. Generally the government's tax office stipulates a certain method. But if it didn't, what would be the ideal way to depreciate an asset from the perspective of a businesses owner? Currently, a mining company has a share price of$6 and pays constant annual dividends of $0.50. The next dividend will be paid in 1 year. Suddenly and unexpectedly the mining company announces that due to higher than expected profits, all of these windfall profits will be paid as a special dividend of$0.30 in 1 year.

If investors believe that the windfall profits and dividend is a one-off event, what will be the new share price? If investors believe that the additional dividend is actually permanent and will continue to be paid, what will be the new share price? Assume that the required return on equity is unchanged. Choose from the following, where the first share price includes the one-off increase in earnings and dividends for the first year only $(P_\text{0 one-off})$ , and the second assumes that the increase is permanent $(P_\text{0 permanent})$:

Note: When a firm makes excess profits they sometimes pay them out as special dividends. Special dividends are just like ordinary dividends but they are one-off and investors do not expect them to continue, unlike ordinary dividends which are expected to persist.

The coupon rate of a fixed annual-coupon bond is constant (always the same).

What can you say about the income return ($r_\text{income}$) of a fixed annual coupon bond? Remember that:

$$r_\text{total} = r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital}$$

$$r_\text{total, 0 to 1} = \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0}$$

Assume that there is no change in the bond's total annual yield to maturity from when it is issued to when it matures.

Select the most correct statement.

From its date of issue until maturity, the income return of a fixed annual coupon:

Question 218  NPV, IRR, profitability index, average accounting return

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which one of the following will increase the Cash Flow From Assets in this year for a tax-paying firm, all else remaining constant?

The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return.

Investment projects that plot on the SML would have:

Which of the following discount rates should be the highest for a levered company? Ignore the costs of financial distress.

A student won $1m in a lottery. Currently the money is in a bank account which pays interest at 6% pa, given as an APR compounding per month. She plans to spend$20,000 at the beginning of every month from now on (so the first withdrawal will be at t=0). After each withdrawal, she will check how much money is left in the account. When there is less than $500,000 left, she will donate that remaining amount to charity. In how many months will she make her last withdrawal and donate the remainder to charity? All things remaining equal, according to the capital asset pricing model, if the systematic variance of an asset increases, its required return will increase and its price will decrease. If the idiosyncratic variance of an asset increases, its price will be unchanged. What is the relationship between the price of a call or put option and the total, systematic and idiosyncratic variance of the underlying asset that the option is based on? Select the most correct answer. Call and put option prices increase when the: A stock's standard deviation of returns is expected to be: • 0.09 per month for the first 5 months; • 0.14 per month for the next 7 months. What is the expected standard deviation of the stock per year $(\sigma_\text{annual})$? Assume that returns are independently and identically distributed (iid) and therefore have zero auto-correlation. If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the American terms quote of the AUD against the USD? A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is 2% of the start-of-year amount, but it is paid at the end of every year. This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money. The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of 10% pa before fees. You are thinking of investing$100,000 in the fund and keeping it there for 40 years when you plan to retire.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of investing your money in the fund? Note that the question is not asking how much money you will have in 40 years, it is asking: what is the NPV of investing in the fund? Assume that:

• The fund has no private information.
• Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient.
• The fund's transaction costs are negligible.
• The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible.

A new company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below.

To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula:

$$V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}$$

Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value?

A method commonly seen in textbooks for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is the following:

\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + \\ &\space\space\space+ Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp(1-t_c) \\ \end{aligned}
Does this annual FFCF or the annual interest tax shield?

A levered company's required return on debt is always less than its required return on equity. or ?

Question 472  quick ratio, accounting ratio

A firm has current assets totaling $1.5b of which cash is$0.25b and inventories is $0.5b. Current liabilities total$2b of which accounts payable is $1b. What is the firm's quick ratio, also known as the acid test ratio? A firm is considering a business project which costs$10m now and is expected to pay a single cash flow of $12.1m in two years. Assume that the initial$10m cost is funded using the firm's existing cash so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is 10% pa.

Which of the following statements about net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is NOT correct?

Question 513  stock split, reverse stock split, stock dividend, bonus issue, rights issue

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Which of the following statements about cash in the form of notes and coins is NOT correct? Assume that inflation is positive.

Notes and coins:

If housing rents are constrained from growing more than the maximum target inflation rate, and houses can be priced as a perpetuity of growing net rental cash flows, then what is the implication for house prices, all things remaining equal? Select the most correct answer.

Background: Since 1990, many central banks across the world have become 'inflation targeters'. They have adopted a policy of trying to keep inflation in a predictable narrow range, with the hope of encouraging long-term lending to fund more investment and maintain higher GDP growth.

Australia's central bank, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), has specifically stated their inflation target range is between 2 and 3% pa.

Some Australian residential property market commentators suggest that because rental costs comprise a large part of the Australian consumer price index (CPI), rent costs across the nation cannot significantly exceed the maximum inflation target range of 3% pa without the prices of other goods growing by less than the target range for long periods, which is unlikely.

A company's share price fell by 20% and its number of shares rose by 25%. Assume that there are no taxes, no signalling effects and no transaction costs.

Which one of the following corporate events may have happened?

In the below term structure of interest rates equation, all rates are effective annual yields and the numbers in subscript represent the years that the yields are measured over:

$$(1+r_{0-3})^3 = (1+r_{0-1})(1+r_{1-2})(1+r_{2-3})$$

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

You expect a nominal payment of $100 in 5 years. The real discount rate is 10% pa and the inflation rate is 3% pa. Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Which of the following statements about inflation is NOT correct? Apples and oranges currently cost$1 each. Inflation is 5% pa, and apples and oranges are equally affected by this inflation rate. Note that when payments are not specified as real, as in this question, they're conventionally assumed to be nominal.

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

You deposit cash into your bank account. Have you or debt?

Assets A, B, M and $r_f$ are shown on the graphs above. Asset M is the market portfolio and $r_f$ is the risk free yield on government bonds. Assume that investors can borrow and lend at the risk free rate. Which of the below statements is NOT correct?

The 'time value of money' is most closely related to which of the following concepts?

Which of the following statements is NOT correct? Lenders:

A company conducts a 10 for 3 stock split. What is the percentage increase in the stock price and the number of shares outstanding? The answers are given in the same order.

A stock has a beta of 1.5. The market's expected total return is 10% pa and the risk free rate is 5% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

In the last 5 minutes, bad economic news was released showing a higher chance of recession. Over this time the share market fell by 1%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the last 5 minutes, given as an effective 5 minute rate?

An equity index stands at 100 points and the one year equity futures price is 102.

The equity index is expected to have a dividend yield of 4% pa. Assume that investors are risk-neutral so their total required return on the shares is the same as the risk free Treasury bond yield which is 10% pa. Both are given as discrete effective annual rates.

Assuming that the equity index is fairly priced, an arbitrageur would recognise that the equity futures are:

An equity index stands at 100 points and the one year equity futures price is 107.

The equity index is expected to have a dividend yield of 3% pa. Assume that investors are risk-neutral so their total required return on the shares is the same as the risk free Treasury bond yield which is 10% pa. Both are given as discrete effective annual rates.

Assuming that the equity index is fairly priced, an arbitrageur would recognise that the equity futures are:

An equities analyst is using the dividend discount model to price a company's shares. The company operates domestically and has no plans to expand overseas. It is part of a mature industry with stable positive growth prospects.

The analyst has estimated the real required return (r) of the stock and the value of the dividend that the stock just paid a moment before $(C_\text{0 before})$.

What is the highest perpetual real growth rate of dividends (g) that can be justified? Select the most correct statement from the following choices. The highest perpetual real expected growth rate of dividends that can be justified is the country's expected:

Where can a private firm's market value of equity be found? It can be sourced from the company's:

Question 749  Multiples valuation, PE ratio, price to revenue ratio, price to book ratio, NPV

A real estate agent says that the price of a house in Sydney Australia is approximately equal to the gross weekly rent times 1000.

What type of valuation method is the real estate agent using?

Which of the following statements about returns is NOT correct? A stock's:

The capital market line (CML) is shown in the graph below. The total standard deviation is denoted by σ and the expected return is μ. Assume that markets are efficient so all assets are fairly priced.

Which of the below statements is NOT correct?

A company advertises an investment costing $1,000 which they say is under priced. They say that it has an expected total return of 15% pa, but a required return of only 10% pa. Of the 15% pa total expected return, the dividend yield is expected to be 4% pa and the capital yield 11% pa. Assume that the company's statements are correct. What is the NPV of buying the investment if the 15% total return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to 10% after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever? In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant, the dividends can only be re-invested at 10% pa and all returns are given as effective annual rates. The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever): The following quotes are most closely related to which financial concept? • “Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work” -Thomas Edison • “The only place where success comes before work is in the dictionary” -Vidal Sassoon • “The safest way to double your money is to fold it over and put it in your pocket” - Kin Hubbard A graph of assets’ expected returns $(\mu)$ versus standard deviations $(\sigma)$ is given in the graph below. The CML is the capital market line. Which of the following statements about this graph, Markowitz portfolio theory and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) theory is NOT correct? The Australian central bank implements monetary policy by directly controlling which interest rate? Question 844 gross domestic product deflator, consumer price index, inflation, no explanation An Australian-owned company produces milk in New Zealand and exports all of it to China. If the price of the milk increases, which of the following would increase? You just spent$1,000 on your credit card. The interest rate is 24% pa compounding monthly. Assume that your credit card account has no fees and no minimum monthly repayment.

If you can't make any interest or principal payments on your credit card debt over the next year, how much will you owe one year from now?

Question 852  gross domestic product growth, inflation, employment, no explanation

When the economy is booming (in an upswing), you tend to see:

The below diagram shows a firm’s cash cycle.

Which of the following statements about companies’ cash cycle is NOT correct?

Over-priced assets should NOT:

Which of the following statements about an asset’s standard deviation of returns is NOT correct? All other things remaining equal, the higher the asset’s standard deviation of returns:

You're thinking of buying an investment property that costs $1,000,000. The property's rent revenue over the next year is expected to be$50,000 pa and rent expenses are $20,000 pa, so net rent cash flow is$30,000. Assume that net rent is paid annually in arrears, so this next expected net rent cash flow of $30,000 is paid one year from now. The year after, net rent is expected to fall by 2% pa. So net rent at year 2 is expected to be$29,400 (=30,000*(1-0.02)^1).

The year after that, net rent is expected to rise by 1% pa. So net rent at year 3 is expected to be $29,694 (=30,000*(1-0.02)^1*(1+0.01)^1). From year 3 onwards, net rent is expected to rise at 2.5% pa forever. So net rent at year 4 is expected to be$30,436.35 (=30,000*(1-0.02)^1*(1+0.01)^1*(1+0.025)^1).

Assume that the total required return on your investment property is 6% pa. Ignore taxes. All returns are given as effective annual rates.

What is the net present value (NPV) of buying the investment property?

You work for XYZ company and you’ve been asked to evaluate a new project which has double the systematic risk of the company’s other projects.

You use the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) formula and input the treasury yield $(r_f )$, market risk premium $(r_m-r_f )$ and the company’s asset beta risk factor $(\beta_{XYZ} )$ into the CAPM formula which outputs a return.

This return that you’ve just found is:

To receive the dividend you must own the stock when the market closes on which date?

A 3-for-2 stock split is equivalent to a 1-for-2 bonus issue or a 200% stock dividend. or ?

Suppose the current Australian exchange rate is 0.8 USD per AUD.

If you think that the AUD will appreciate against the USD, contrary to the rest of the market, how could you profit? Right now you should:

A stock is expected to pay the following dividends:

 Cash Flows of a Stock Time (yrs) 0 1 2 3 4 ... Dividend ($) 0.00 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 ... After year 4, the annual dividend will grow in perpetuity at 5% pa, so; • the dividend at t=5 will be$1.15(1+0.05),
• the dividend at t=6 will be $1.15(1+0.05)^2, and so on. The required return on the stock is 10% pa. Both the growth rate and required return are given as effective annual rates. What will be the price of the stock in three and a half years (t = 3.5)? A project to build a toll road will take 3 years to complete, costing three payments of$50 million, paid at the start of each year (at times 0, 1, and 2).

After completion, the toll road will yield a constant \$10 million at the end of each year forever with no costs. So the first payment will be at t=4.

The required return of the project is 10% pa given as an effective nominal rate. All cash flows are nominal.

What is the payback period?

Question 65  annuity with growth, needs refinement

Which of the below formulas gives the present value of an annuity with growth?

Hint: The equation of a perpetuity without growth is: $$V_\text{0, perp without growth} = \frac{C_\text{1}}{r}$$

The formula for the present value of an annuity without growth is derived from the formula for a perpetuity without growth.

The idea is than an annuity with T payments from t=1 to T inclusive is equivalent to a perpetuity starting at t=1 with fixed positive cash flows, plus a perpetuity starting T periods later (t=T+1) with fixed negative cash flows. The positive and negative cash flows after time period T cancel each other out, leaving the positive cash flows between t=1 to T, which is the annuity.

\begin{aligned} V_\text{0, annuity} &= V_\text{0, perp without growth from t=1} - V_\text{0, perp without growth from t=T+1} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} - \dfrac{ \left( \dfrac{C_\text{T+1}}{r} \right) }{(1+r)^T} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} - \dfrac{ \left( \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r} \right) }{(1+r)^T} \\ &= \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r}\left(1 - \dfrac{1}{(1+r)^T}\right) \\ \end{aligned}

The equation of a perpetuity with growth is:

$$V_\text{0, perp with growth} = \dfrac{C_\text{1}}{r-g}$$