The equations for Net Income (NI, also known as Earnings or Net Profit After Tax) and Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA, also known as Free Cash Flow to the Firm) per year are:

###NI=(Rev-COGS-FC-Depr-IntExp).(1-t_c)###

###CFFA=NI+Depr-CapEx - \varDelta NWC+IntExp###

For a firm with debt, what is the amount of the interest tax shield per year?

Diversification is achieved by investing in a large amount of stocks. What type of risk is reduced by diversification?

**Question 398** financial distress, capital raising, leverage, capital structure, NPV

A levered firm has zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of $**9.9**m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of **10**% pa.

In one year the firm's assets will be worth:

- $
**13.2**m with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, or - $
**6.6**m with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $**2**m and will provide a certain cash flow of $**3.3**m in one year.

The firm doesn't have any excess cash to make the initial $2m investment, but the funds can be raised from shareholders through a fairly priced rights issue. Ignore all transaction costs.

Should shareholders vote to proceed with the project and equity raising? What will be the gain in shareholder **wealth** if they decide to proceed?

**Question 455** income and capital returns, payout policy, DDM, market efficiency

A fairly priced **unlevered** firm plans to pay a dividend of $**1** next year (t=1) which is expected to grow by **3**% pa every year after that. The firm's required return on equity is **8**% pa.

The firm is thinking about reducing its future dividend payments by **10**% so that it can use the extra cash to invest in more projects which are expected to return **8**% pa, and have the same risk as the existing projects. Therefore, next year's dividend will be $**0.90**.

What will be the stock's new annual **capital** return (proportional increase in price per year) if the change in payout policy goes ahead?

Assume that payout policy is irrelevant to firm value and that all rates are effective annual rates.

**Question 604** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Apples and oranges currently cost $**1** each. Inflation is **5**% pa, and apples and oranges are equally affected by this inflation rate. Note that when payments are not specified as real, as in this question, they're conventionally assumed to be nominal.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 667** forward foreign exchange rate, foreign exchange rate, cross currency interest rate parity, no explanation

The Australian cash rate is expected to be **2**% pa over the next one year, while the US cash rate is expected to be **0**% pa, both given as nominal effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is **0.73** USD per AUD.

What is the implied 1 year USD per AUD forward foreign exchange rate?

**Question 699** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose $50. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Which of the following interest rate quotes is **NOT** equivalent to a **10**% effective annual rate of return? Assume that each year has 12 months, each month has 30 days, each day has 24 hours, each hour has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds. APR stands for Annualised Percentage Rate.

**Question 801** negative gearing, leverage, capital structure, no explanation

The following steps set out the process of ‘negative gearing’ an investment property in Australia. Which of these steps or statements is **NOT** correct? To successfully achieve negative gearing on an investment property: