Diversification is achieved by investing in a large amount of stocks. What type of risk is reduced by diversification?

**Question 157** bill pricing, simple interest rate, no explanation

A 90-day Bank Accepted Bill has a face value of $1,000,000. The interest rate is 6% pa and there are 365 days in the year. What is its price?

A project's NPV is positive. Select the most correct statement:

**Question 312** foreign exchange rate, American and European terms

If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the American terms quote of the AUD against the USD?

Which of the below formulas gives the profit ##(\pi)## from being **long** a **call** option? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be ##S_T##, the exercise price be ##X_T## and the option price be ##f_{LC,0}##. Note that ##S_T##, ##X_T## and ##f_{LC,0}## are all positive numbers.

A trader **sells** one crude oil European style **put** option contract on the CME expiring in one year with an exercise price of $44 per barrel for a price of $6.64. The crude oil spot price is $40.33. If the trader doesn’t close out her contract before maturity, then at maturity she will have the:

Which of the following interest rate quotes is **NOT** equivalent to a **10**% effective annual rate of return? Assume that each year has 12 months, each month has 30 days, each day has 24 hours, each hour has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds. APR stands for Annualised Percentage Rate.

A stock is expected to pay its first dividend of $**20** in **3** years (t=3), which it will continue to pay for the next nine years, so there will be **ten** $20 payments altogether with the last payment in year 12 (t=12).

From the thirteenth year onward, the dividend is expected to be **4**% more than the previous year, forever. So the dividend in the thirteenth year (t=13) will be $20.80, then $21.632 in year 14, and so on forever. The required return of the stock is **10**% pa. All rates are effective annual rates. Calculate the current (t=0) stock price.

A **one** year European-style **call** option has a strike price of $**4**.

The option's underlying stock currently trades at $**5**, pays no dividends and its standard deviation of continuously compounded returns is **47**% pa.

The risk-free interest rate is **10**% pa continuously compounded.

Use the Black-Scholes-Merton formula to calculate the option price. The call option price now is:

**Question 990** Multiples valuation, EV to EBITDA ratio, no explanation

A firm has 2 million shares, expected EBITDA at the end of this year of $200 million per annum, $100 million in cash (not included in EV) and its market debt-to-assets ratio is 1/3. (market assets = EV + cash). Next year’s expected dividend yield is 4% pa, the expected dividend growth rate is 2% pa, next year’s expected payout ratio is 40% and the corporate tax rate is 30%. Dividends are paid annually.

Similar firms have an EV/EBITDA ratio of 10.

The stock can be valued using the EV/EBITDA multiple, dividend discount model, Gordon growth model or PE multiple.

Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct based on an EV/EBITDA multiple valuation?