Your friend just bought a house for $400,000. He financed it using a $320,000 mortgage loan and a deposit of $80,000.

In the context of residential housing and mortgages, the 'equity' tied up in the value of a person's house is the value of the house less the value of the mortgage. So the initial equity your friend has in his house is $80,000. Let this amount be E, let the value of the mortgage be D and the value of the house be V. So ##V=D+E##.

If house prices suddenly fall by **10**%, what would be your friend's percentage change in equity (E)? Assume that the value of the mortgage is unchanged and that no income (rent) was received from the house during the short time over which house prices fell.

Remember:

### r_{0\rightarrow1}=\frac{p_1-p_0+c_1}{p_0} ###

where ##r_{0-1}## is the return (percentage change) of an asset with price ##p_0## initially, ##p_1## one period later, and paying a cash flow of ##c_1## at time ##t=1##.

Two risky stocks A and B comprise an equal-weighted portfolio. The correlation between the stocks' returns is 70%.

If the variance of stock A **increases** but the:

- Prices and expected returns of each stock stays the same,
- Variance of stock B's returns stays the same,
- Correlation of returns between the stocks stays the same.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

All things remaining equal, the higher the correlation of returns between two stocks:

One and a half years ago Frank bought a house for $**600,000**. Now it's worth only $**500,000**, based on recent similar sales in the area.

The expected total return on Frank's residential property is **7**% pa.

He rents his house out for $**1,600** per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $**18,617.27**.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year in the future is $**19,920.48**.

What is the expected annual **rental** yield of the property? Ignore the costs of renting such as maintenance, real estate agent fees and so on.

**Question 525** income and capital returns, real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation

Which of the following statements about cash in the form of notes and coins is **NOT** correct? Assume that inflation is positive.

Notes and coins:

**Question 526** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, no explanation

How can a **nominal** cash flow be precisely converted into a **real** cash flow?

**Question 575** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

You expect a **nominal** payment of $100 in 5 years. The **real** discount rate is 10% pa and the inflation rate is 3% pa. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 732** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, income and capital returns

An investor bought a bond for $**100** (at t=0) and one year later it paid its annual coupon of $**1** (at t=1). Just after the coupon was paid, the bond price was $**100.50** (at t=1). Inflation over the past year (from t=0 to t=1) was **3**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct? The bond investment produced a:

You're considering making an investment in a particular company. They have preference shares, ordinary shares, senior debt and junior debt.

Which is the safest investment? Which will give the highest returns?

**Question 531** bankruptcy or insolvency, capital structure, risk, limited liability

Who is most in danger of being **personally** bankrupt? Assume that all of their businesses' assets are highly liquid and can therefore be sold immediately.

Which of the following statements about book and market equity is **NOT** correct?

A newly floated farming company is financed with senior bonds, junior bonds, cumulative non-voting preferred stock and common stock. The new company has no retained profits and due to floods it was unable to record any revenues this year, leading to a loss. The firm is not bankrupt yet since it still has substantial contributed equity (same as paid-up capital).

On which securities must it pay interest or dividend payments in this terrible financial year?

**Question 452** limited liability, expected and historical returns

What is the lowest and highest expected share price and expected return from owning shares in a **company** over a finite period of time?

Let the current share price be ##p_0##, the expected future share price be ##p_1##, the expected future dividend be ##d_1## and the expected return be ##r##. Define the expected return as:

##r=\dfrac{p_1-p_0+d_1}{p_0} ##

The answer choices are stated using inequalities. As an example, the first answer choice "(a) ##0≤p<∞## and ##0≤r< 1##", states that the share price must be larger than or equal to zero and less than positive infinity, and that the return must be larger than or equal to zero and less than one.

**Question 524** risk, expected and historical returns, bankruptcy or insolvency, capital structure, corporate financial decision theory, limited liability

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 727** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

The Australian Federal Government lends money to domestic students to pay for their university education. This is known as the Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS). The nominal interest rate on the HECS loan is set equal to the consumer price index (CPI) inflation rate. The interest is capitalised every year, which means that the interest is added to the principal. The interest and principal does not need to be repaid by students until they finish study and begin working.

Which of the following statements about HECS loans is **NOT** correct?

The following is the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) used to price stocks:

###P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}###

If the assumptions of the DDM hold, which one of the following statements is **NOT** correct? The long term expected:

**Question 497** income and capital returns, DDM, ex dividend date

A stock will pay you a dividend of $**10** **tonight** if you buy it **today**. Thereafter the annual dividend is expected to grow by **5**% pa, so the next dividend after the $10 one tonight will be $10.50 in one year, then in two years it will be $11.025 and so on. The stock's required return is **10**% pa.

What is the stock price today and what do you expect the stock price to be tomorrow, approximately?

The following equation is called the Dividend Discount Model (DDM), Gordon Growth Model or the perpetuity with growth formula: ### P_0 = \frac{ C_1 }{ r - g } ###

What is ##g##? The value ##g## is the long term expected:

**Question 50** DDM, stock pricing, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Most listed Australian companies pay dividends twice per year, the 'interim' and 'final' dividends, which are roughly 6 months apart.

You are an equities analyst trying to value the company BHP. You decide to use the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) as a starting point, so you study BHP's dividend history and you find that BHP tends to pay the same interim and final dividend each year, and that both grow by the same rate.

You expect BHP will pay a $0.55 interim dividend in six months and a $0.55 final dividend in one year. You expect each to grow by 4% next year and forever, so the interim and final dividends next year will be $0.572 each, and so on in perpetuity.

Assume BHP's cost of equity is 8% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective rates. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is 2.5% pa.

What is the current price of a BHP share?

**Question 535** DDM, real and nominal returns and cash flows, stock pricing

You are an equities analyst trying to value the equity of the Australian telecoms company Telstra, with ticker TLS. In Australia, listed companies like Telstra tend to pay dividends every **6** months. The payment around August is called the final dividend and the payment around February is called the interim dividend. Both occur annually.

- Today is mid-
**March 2015**. - TLS's last interim dividend of $
**0.15**was one month ago in mid-**February 2015**. - TLS's last final dividend of $
**0.15**was seven months ago in mid-**August 2014**.

Judging by TLS's dividend history and prospects, you estimate that the nominal dividend growth rate will be **1**% pa. Assume that TLS's total nominal cost of equity is **6**% pa. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is **2.5**% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective annual rates. Assume that each month is exactly one twelfth (1/12) of a year, so you can ignore the number of days in each month.

Calculate the current TLS share price.

**Question 488** income and capital returns, payout policy, payout ratio, DDM

Two companies BigDiv and ZeroDiv are exactly the same except for their dividend payouts.

BigDiv pays large dividends and ZeroDiv doesn't pay any dividends.

Currently the two firms have the same earnings, assets, number of shares, share price, expected total return and risk.

Assume a perfect world with no taxes, no transaction costs, no asymmetric information and that all assets including business projects are fairly priced and therefore zero-NPV.

All things remaining equal, which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

A stock is expected to pay a dividend of $15 in one year (t=1), then $25 for 9 years after that (payments at t=2 ,3,...10), and on the 11th year (t=11) the dividend will be 2% less than at t=10, and will continue to shrink at the same rate every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10%. All rates are effective annual rates.

What is the price of the stock now?

Carlos and Edwin are brothers and they both love Holden Commodore cars.

Carlos likes to buy the latest Holden Commodore car for **$40,000** every **4** years as soon as the new model is released. As soon as he buys the new car, he sells the old one on the second hand car market for **$20,000**. Carlos never has to bother with paying for repairs since his cars are brand new.

Edwin also likes Commodores, but prefers to buy 4-year old cars for **$20,000** and keep them for **11** years until the end of their life (new ones last for 15 years in total but the 4-year old ones only last for another 11 years). Then he sells the old car for **$2,000** and buys another 4-year old second hand car, and so on.

Every time Edwin buys a second hand 4 year old car he **immediately** has to spend **$1,000** on repairs, and then $1,000 every year after that for the next 10 years. So there are **11** payments in total from when the second hand car is bought at t=0 to the last payment at t=10. One year later (t=11) the old car is at the end of its total 15 year life and can be scrapped for $2,000.

Assuming that Carlos and Edwin maintain their love of Commodores and keep up their habits of buying new ones and second hand ones respectively, how much **larger** is Carlos' **equivalent annual cost** of car ownership compared with Edwin's?

The real discount rate is **10%** pa. All cash flows are real and are expected to remain constant. Inflation is forecast to be **3**% pa. All rates are effective annual. Ignore capital gains tax and tax savings from depreciation since cars are tax-exempt for individuals.

You own a nice suit which you wear once per week on nights out. You bought it one year ago for $600. In your experience, suits used once per week last for 6 years. So you expect yours to last for another 5 years.

Your younger brother said that retro is back in style so he wants to wants to borrow your suit once a week when he goes out. With the increased use, your suit will only last for another 4 years rather than 5.

What is the present value of the cost of letting your brother use your current suit for the next 4 years?

Assume: that bank interest rates are 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate; you will buy a new suit when your current one wears out and your brother will not use the new one; your brother will only use your current suit so he will only use it for the next four years; and the price of a new suit never changes.

Which of the below statements about effective rates and annualised percentage rates (APR's) is **NOT** correct?

On his 20th birthday, a man makes a resolution. He will deposit $**30** into a bank account at the **end** of every month starting from now, which is the start of the month. So the first payment will be in one month. He will write in his will that when he dies the money in the account should be given to charity.

The bank account pays interest at **6**% pa compounding **monthly**, which is not expected to change.

If the man lives for another **60** years, how much money will be in the bank account if he dies just after making his last (720th) payment?

You want to buy an apartment priced at $300,000. You have saved a deposit of $30,000. The bank has agreed to lend you the $270,000 as an **interest only** loan with a term of 25 years. The interest rate is 12% pa and is not expected to change.

What will be your monthly payments? Remember that mortgage payments are paid in arrears (at the end of the month).

You just borrowed $400,000 in the form of a 25 year **interest-only** mortgage with monthly payments of $3,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

You actually plan to pay more than the required interest payment. You plan to pay $3,300 in mortgage payments every month, which your mortgage lender allows. These extra payments will reduce the principal and the minimum interest payment required each month.

At the maturity of the mortgage, what will be the principal? That is, after the last (300th) interest payment of $3,300 in 25 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage?

**Question 239** income and capital returns, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, interest only loan

A bank grants a borrower an **interest-only** residential mortgage loan with a very large 50% deposit and a **nominal** interest rate of **6%** that is not expected to change. Assume that inflation is expected to be a **constant 2%** pa over the life of the loan. Ignore credit risk.

From the bank's point of view, what is the long term expected **nominal capital** return of the loan asset?

The theory of fixed interest bond pricing is an application of the theory of Net Present Value (NPV). Also, a 'fairly priced' asset is not over- or under-priced. Buying or selling a fairly priced asset has an NPV of zero.

Considering this, which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

In these tough economic times, central banks around the world have cut interest rates so low that they are practically zero. In some countries, government bond yields are also very close to zero.

A three year government bond with a face value of $100 and a coupon rate of 2% pa paid semi-annually was just issued at a yield of 0%. What is the price of the bond?

**Question 96** bond pricing, zero coupon bond, term structure of interest rates, forward interest rate

An Australian company just issued two bonds:

- A 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and
- A 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the forward rate on the company's debt from years 1 to 2? Give your answer as an APR compounding every **6** months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

You're trying to save enough money to buy your first car which costs $2,500. You can save $100 at the end of each month starting from now. You currently have no money at all. You just opened a bank account with an interest rate of 6% pa payable monthly.

How many months will it take to save enough money to buy the car? Assume that the price of the car will stay the same over time.

**Question 728** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, income and capital returns, no explanation

Which of the following statements about gold is **NOT** correct? Assume that the gold price increases by inflation. Gold:

**Question 730** DDM, income and capital returns, no explanation

A stock’s current price is $**1**. Its expected total return is **10**% pa and its long term expected capital return is **4**% pa. It pays an annual dividend and the next one will be paid in **one year**. All rates are given as effective annual rates. The dividend discount model is thought to be a suitable model for the stock. Ignore taxes. Which of the following statements about the stock is **NOT** correct?

A share’s current price is $**60**. It’s expected to pay a dividend of $**1.50** in one year. The growth rate of the dividend is **0.5**% pa and the stock’s required total return is **3**% pa. The stock’s price can be modeled using the dividend discount model (DDM):

##P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}##

Which of the following methods is **NOT** equal to the stock’s expected price in one year and six months (t=**1.5** years)? Note that the symbolic formulas shown in each line below do equal the formulas with numbers. The formula is just repeated with symbols and then numbers in case it helps you to identify the incorrect statement more quickly.

A share currently worth $**100** is expected to pay a constant dividend of $**4** for the next **5** years with the first dividend in one year (t=1) and the last in 5 years (t=5).

The total required return is **10**% pa.

What do you expected the share price to be in **5** years, just **after** the dividend at that time has been paid?

**Question 35** bond pricing, zero coupon bond, term structure of interest rates, forward interest rate

A European company just issued two bonds, a

- 1 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 8% pa, and a
- 2 year zero coupon bond at a yield of 10% pa.

What is the company's forward rate over the second year (from t=1 to t=2)? Give your answer as an effective annual rate, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

**Question 143** bond pricing, zero coupon bond, term structure of interest rates, forward interest rate

An Australian company just issued two bonds:

- A 6-month zero coupon bond at a yield of 6% pa, and
- A 12 month zero coupon bond at a yield of 7% pa.

What is the company's forward rate from 6 to 12 months? Give your answer as an APR compounding every 6 months, which is how the above bond yields are quoted.

**Question 213** income and capital returns, bond pricing, premium par and discount bonds

The coupon rate of a fixed annual-coupon bond is constant (always the same).

What can you say about the income return (##r_\text{income}##) of a fixed annual coupon bond? Remember that:

###r_\text{total} = r_\text{income} + r_\text{capital}###

###r_\text{total, 0 to 1} = \frac{c_1}{p_0} + \frac{p_1-p_0}{p_0}###

Assume that there is no change in the bond's total annual yield to maturity from when it is issued to when it matures.

Select the most correct statement.

From its date of issue until maturity, the **income return** of a fixed annual coupon:

You bought a house, primarily funded using a home loan from a bank. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 738** financial statement, balance sheet, income statement

Where can a private firm's market value of equity be found? It can be sourced from the company's:

**Question 740** real and nominal returns and cash flows, DDM, inflation

Taking inflation into account when using the DDM can be hard. Which of the following formulas will **NOT** give a company's current stock price ##(P_0)##? Assume that the annual dividend was just paid ##(C_0)##, and the next dividend will be paid in one year ##(C_1)##.

A real estate agent says that the price of a house in Sydney Australia is approximately equal to the gross weekly rent times 1000.

What type of valuation method is the real estate agent using?

Itau Unibanco is a major listed bank in Brazil with a market capitalisation of equity equal to BRL **85.744** billion, EPS of **BRL 3.96** and **2.97** billion shares on issue.

Banco Bradesco is another major bank with total earnings of BRL **8.77** billion and **2.52** billion shares on issue.

Estimate Banco Bradesco's current share price using a price-earnings multiples approach assuming that Itau Unibanco is a comparable firm.

Note that BRL is the Brazilian Real, their currency. Figures sourced from Google Finance on the market close of the BVMF on 24/7/15.

**Question 758** time calculation, fully amortising loan, no explanation

**Two** years ago you entered into a **fully amortising** home loan with a principal of $**1,000,000**, an interest rate of **6**% pa compounding monthly with a term of **25** years.

Then interest rates suddenly fall to **4.5**% pa (t=0), but you continue to pay the same monthly home loan payments as you did before. How long will it now take to pay off your home loan? Measure the time taken to pay off the home loan from the current time which is 2 years after the home loan was first entered into.

Assume that the lower interest rate was given to you immediately after the loan repayment at the end of year 2, which was the 24th payment since the loan was granted. Also assume that rates were and are expected to remain constant.

Value the following business project to manufacture a new product.

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 yrs | |

Initial investment in equipment | $6m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year | $3m | |

Expected sale price of equipment at end of project | $0.6m | |

Unit sales per year | 4m | |

Sale price per unit | $8 | |

Variable cost per unit | $5 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $1m | |

Interest expense per year | 0 | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Weighted average cost of capital after tax per annum | 10% | |

**Notes**

- The firm's current assets and current liabilities are $3m and $2m respectively right now. This net working capital will not be used in this project, it will be used in other unrelated projects.

Due to the project, current assets (mostly inventory) will grow by $2m initially (at t = 0), and then by $0.2m at the end of the first year (t=1).

Current liabilities (mostly trade creditors) will increase by $0.1m at the end of the first year (t=1).

At the end of the project, the net working capital accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that it was bought. - The project cost $0.5m to research which was incurred one year ago.

**Assumptions**

- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa.
- All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The business considering the project is run as a 'sole tradership' (run by an individual without a company) and is therefore eligible for a 50% capital gains tax discount when the equipment is sold, as permitted by the Australian Tax Office.

What is the expected net present value (NPV) of the project?

**Question 760** time calculation, interest only loan, no explanation

**Five** years ago (##t=-5## years) you entered into an **interest-only** home loan with a principal of $**500,000**, an interest rate of **4.5**% pa compounding monthly with a term of **25** years.

Then interest rates suddenly fall to **3**% pa (##t=0##), but you continue to pay the same monthly home loan payments as you did before. Will your home loan be paid off by the end of its remaining term? If so, in how many years from now? Measure the time taken to pay off the home loan from the current time which is 5 years after the home loan was first entered into.

Assume that the lower interest rate was given to you immediately after the loan repayment at the end of year 5, which was the 60th payment since the loan was granted. Also assume that rates were and are expected to remain constant.

The phone company Optus have 2 mobile service plans on offer which both have the same amount of phone call, text message and internet data credit. Both plans have a contract length of **24** months and the monthly cost is payable in **advance**. The only difference between the two plans is that one is a:

- 'Bring Your Own' (BYO) mobile service plan, costing $
**80**per month. There is no phone included in this plan. The other plan is a: - 'Bundled' mobile service plan that comes with the latest smart phone, costing $
**100**per month. This plan includes the latest smart phone.

Neither plan has any additional payments at the start or end. Assume that the discount rate is **1**% per month given as an effective monthly rate.

The only difference between the plans is the phone, so what is the implied cost of the phone as a present value? Given that the latest smart phone actually costs $**600** to purchase outright from another retailer, should you commit to the BYO plan or the bundled plan?

The required return of a project is 10%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that the cash flows shown in the table are paid all at once at the given point in time.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of the project?

Project Cash Flows | |

Time (yrs) | Cash flow ($) |

0 | -100 |

1 | 11 |

2 | 121 |

A project's NPV is positive. Select the most correct statement:

You're considering a business project which costs $**11**m now and is expected to pay a single cash flow of $**11**m in one year. So you pay $11m now, then one year later you receive $11m.

Assume that the initial $**11**m cost is funded using the your firm's **existing cash** so no new equity or debt will be raised. The cost of capital is **10**% pa.

Which of the following statements about the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period is **NOT** correct?

**Question 370** capital budgeting, NPV, interest tax shield, WACC, CFFA

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 yrs | |

Initial investment in equipment | $600k | |

Depreciation of equipment per year | $250k | |

Expected sale price of equipment at end of project | $200k | |

Revenue per job | $12k | |

Variable cost per job | $4k | |

Quantity of jobs per year | 120 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $100k | |

Interest expense in first year (at t=1) | $16.091k | |

Interest expense in second year (at t=2) | $9.711k | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Government treasury bond yield | 5% | |

Bank loan debt yield | 6% | |

Levered cost of equity | 12.5% | |

Market portfolio return | 10% | |

Beta of assets | 1.24 | |

Beta of levered equity | 1.5 | |

Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio |
25% | |

**Notes**

- The project will require an immediate purchase of $
**50**k of inventory, which will all be sold at cost when the project ends. Current liabilities are negligible so they can be ignored.

**Assumptions**

- The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio. Note that interest expense is different in each year.
- Thousands are represented by 'k' (kilo).
- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are nominal. The inflation rate is 2% pa.
- All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

A company issues a large amount of bonds to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. The net present value (NPV) of the new projects is positive but small. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is **NOT** correct?

One method for calculating a firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is to ignore interest expense. That is, pretend that interest expense ##(IntExp)## is zero:

###\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp \\ &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - 0)(1-t_c) + Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC - 0\\ \end{aligned}###

**Question 99** capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged.

Assume that:

- The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates.
- The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium.
- There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs.
- Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered.

According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct?

What is the covariance of a variable X with itself?

The cov(X, X) or ##\sigma_{X,X}## equals:

Assets A, B, M and ##r_f## are shown on the graphs above. Asset M is the market portfolio and ##r_f## is the risk free yield on government bonds. Assume that investors can borrow and lend at the risk free rate. Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct?

A stock has a beta of **1.5**. The market's expected total return is **10**% pa and the risk free rate is **5**% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

In the last 5 minutes, bad economic news was released showing a higher chance of recession. Over this time the share market **fell** by **1**%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the last 5 minutes, given as an effective 5 minute rate?

A stock has a beta of **1.5**. The market's expected total return is **10**% pa and the risk free rate is **5**% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

Over the last year, bad economic news was released showing a higher chance of recession. Over this time the share market **fell** by **1**%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the **last year**, given as an effective annual rate?

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of equity and using the funds to repay debt. Its assets are unchanged. Ignore interest tax shields.

According to the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which statement is correct?

The CAPM can be used to find a business's expected opportunity cost of capital:

###r_i=r_f+β_i (r_m-r_f)###

What should be used as the risk free rate ##r_f##?

**Question 418** capital budgeting, NPV, interest tax shield, WACC, CFFA, CAPM

Project Data | ||

Project life | 1 year | |

Initial investment in equipment | $8m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year | $8m | |

Expected sale price of equipment at end of project | 0 | |

Unit sales per year | 4m | |

Sale price per unit | $10 | |

Variable cost per unit | $5 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $2m | |

Interest expense in first year (at t=1) | $0.562m | |

Corporate tax rate | 30% | |

Government treasury bond yield | 5% | |

Bank loan debt yield | 9% | |

Market portfolio return | 10% | |

Covariance of levered equity returns with market | 0.32 | |

Variance of market portfolio returns | 0.16 | |

Firm's and project's debt-to-equity ratio |
50% | |

**Notes**

- Due to the project, current assets will increase by $
**6**m now (t=0) and fall by $**6**m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected.

**Assumptions**

- The debt-to-equity ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio.
- Millions are represented by 'm'.
- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa. All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

**Question 771** debt terminology, interest expense, interest tax shield, credit risk, no explanation

You deposit money into a bank account. Which of the following statements about this deposit is **NOT** correct?

**Question 776** market efficiency, systematic and idiosyncratic risk, beta, income and capital returns

Which of the following statements about returns is **NOT** correct? A stock's:

**Question 778** CML, systematic and idiosyncratic risk, portfolio risk, CAPM, no explanation

The capital market line (CML) is shown in the graph below. The total standard deviation is denoted by σ and the expected return is μ. Assume that markets are efficient so all assets are fairly priced.

Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 779** mean and median returns, return distribution, arithmetic and geometric averages, continuously compounding rate

Fred owns some BHP shares. He has calculated BHP’s monthly returns for each month in the past 30 years using this formula:

###r_\text{t monthly}=\ln \left( \dfrac{P_t}{P_{t-1}} \right)###He then took the arithmetic average and found it to be **0.8**% per month using this formula:

He also found the standard deviation of these monthly returns which was **15**% per month:

Assume that the past historical average return is the true population average of future expected returns and the stock's returns calculated above ##(r_\text{t monthly})## are normally distributed. Which of the below statements about Fred’s BHP shares is **NOT** correct?

**Question 780** mispriced asset, NPV, DDM, market efficiency, no explanation

A company advertises an investment costing $**1,000** which they say is under priced. They say that it has an expected total return of **15**% pa, but a required return of only **10**% pa. Of the **15**% pa total expected return, the dividend yield is expected to be **4**% pa and the capital yield **11**% pa. Assume that the company's statements are correct.

What is the NPV of buying the investment if the 15% total return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to 10% after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever?

In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant, the dividends can only be re-invested at 10% pa and all returns are given as effective annual rates. The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever):

A company advertises an investment costing $**1,000** which they say is underpriced. They say that it has an expected total return of **15**% pa, but a required return of only **10**% pa. Of the **15**% pa total expected return, the dividend yield is expected to always be **7**% pa and rest is the capital yield.

Assuming that the company's statements are correct, what is the NPV of buying the investment if the **15**% total return lasts for the next 100 years (t=0 to 100), then reverts to **10**% after that time? Also, what is the NPV of the investment if the 15% return lasts forever?

In both cases, assume that the required return of 10% remains constant, the dividends can only be re-invested at **10**% pa and all returns are given as effective annual rates.

The answer choices below are given in the same order (15% for 100 years, and 15% forever):

The total return of any asset can be broken down in different ways. One possible way is to use the dividend discount model (or Gordon growth model):

###p_0 = \frac{c_1}{r_\text{total}-r_\text{capital}}###

Which, since ##c_1/p_0## is the income return (##r_\text{income}##), can be expressed as:

###r_\text{total}=r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}###

So the total return of an asset is the income component plus the capital or price growth component.

Another way to break up total return is to use the Capital Asset Pricing Model:

###r_\text{total}=r_\text{f}+β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})###

###r_\text{total}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}###

So the risk free rate is the time value of money and the term ##β(r_\text{m}- r_\text{f})## is the compensation for taking on systematic risk.

Using the above theory and your general knowledge, which of the below equations, if any, are correct?

(I) ##r_\text{income}=r_\text{time value}##

(II) ##r_\text{income}=r_\text{risk premium}##

(III) ##r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}##

(IV) ##r_\text{capital}=r_\text{risk premium}##

(V) ##r_\text{income}+r_\text{capital}=r_\text{time value}+r_\text{risk premium}##

Which of the equations are correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Note that a fair gamble is a bet that has an expected value of zero, such as paying $0.50 to win $1 in a coin flip with heads or nothing if it lands tails. Fairly priced insurance is when the expected present value of the insurance premiums is equal to the expected loss from the disaster that the insurance protects against, such as the cost of rebuilding a home after a catastrophic fire.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is **NOT** correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is **NOT** correct?

**Question 700** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose $50. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 702** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose $50. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Which of the following is **NOT** a valid method for estimating the beta of a company's stock? Assume that markets are efficient, a long history of past data is available, the stock possesses idiosyncratic and market risk. The variances and standard deviations below denote total risks.

An economy has only two investable assets: stocks and cash.

Stocks had a historical nominal average total return of negative two percent per annum (-2% pa) over the last 20 years. Stocks are liquid and actively traded. Stock returns are variable, they have risk.

Cash is riskless and has a nominal constant return of zero percent per annum (0% pa), which it had in the past and will have in the future. Cash can be kept safely at zero cost. Cash can be converted into shares and vice versa at zero cost.

The nominal total return of the shares over the **next** year is **expected** to be:

A person is thinking about borrowing $100 from the bank at 7% pa and investing it in shares with an expected return of 10% pa. One year later the person will sell the shares and pay back the loan in full. Both the loan and the shares are fairly priced.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of this one year investment? Note that you are asked to find the present value (##V_0##), not the value in one year (##V_1##).

A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is **2**% of the **start**-of-year amount, but it is paid at the **end** of every year.

This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money.

The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of **10**% pa before fees.

You are thinking of investing $**100,000** in the fund and keeping it there for **40** years when you plan to retire.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of investing your money in the fund? Note that the question is **not** asking how much money you will have in 40 years, it is asking: what is the **NPV** of investing in the fund? Assume that:

- The fund has no private information.
- Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient.
- The fund's transaction costs are negligible.
- The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible.

**Question 416** real estate, market efficiency, income and capital returns, DDM, CAPM

A residential real estate investor believes that house prices will grow at a rate of **5**% pa and that rents will grow by **2**% pa forever.

All rates are given as nominal effective annual returns. Assume that:

- His forecast is true.
- Real estate is and always will be fairly priced and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is true.
- Ignore all costs such as taxes, agent fees, maintenance and so on.
- All rental income cash flow is paid out to the owner, so there is no re-investment and therefore no additions or improvements made to the property.
- The non-monetary benefits of owning real estate and renting remain constant.

Which one of the following statements is **NOT** correct? Over time:

Fundamentalists who analyse company financial reports and news announcements (but who don't have inside information) will make positive abnormal returns if:

**Question 339** bond pricing, inflation, market efficiency, income and capital returns

Economic statistics released this morning were a surprise: they show a strong chance of consumer price inflation (CPI) reaching 5% pa over the next 2 years.

This is much higher than the previous forecast of 3% pa.

A vanilla fixed-coupon 2-year risk-free government bond was issued at **par** this morning, just **before** the economic news was released.

What is the expected change in bond price after the economic news this morning, and in the next 2 years? Assume that:

- Inflation remains at 5% over the next 2 years.
- Investors demand a constant real bond yield.
- The bond price falls by the (after-tax) value of the coupon the night before the ex-coupon date, as in real life.

**Question 338** market efficiency, CAPM, opportunity cost, technical analysis

A man inherits $**500,000** worth of shares.

He believes that by learning the secrets of trading, keeping up with the financial news and doing complex trend analysis with charts that he can quit his job and become a self-employed day trader in the equities markets.

What is the expected gain from doing this over the first year? Measure the net gain in wealth received at the end of this first year due to the decision to become a day trader. Assume the following:

- He earns $
**60,000**pa in his current job, paid in a lump sum at the end of each year. - He enjoys examining share price graphs and day trading just as much as he enjoys his current job.
- Stock markets are weak form and semi-strong form efficient.
- He has no inside information.
- He makes
**1**trade every day and there are**250**trading days in the year. Trading costs are $**20**per trade. His broker invoices him for the trading costs at the end of the year. - The shares that he currently owns and the shares that he intends to trade have the same level of systematic risk as the market portfolio.
- The market portfolio's expected return is
**10**% pa.

Measure the **net gain** over the **first** year as an expected wealth increase at the **end** of the year.

In late 2003 the listed bank ANZ announced a 2-for-11 rights issue to fund the takeover of New Zealand bank NBNZ. Below is the chronology of events:

- 23/10/2003. Share price closes at $18.30.
- 24/10/2003. 2-for-11 rights issue announced at a subscription price of $13. The proceeds of the rights issue will be used to acquire New Zealand bank NBNZ. Trading halt announced in morning before market opens.
- 28/10/2003. Trading halt lifted. Last (and only) day that shares trade cum-rights. Share price opens at $18.00 and closes at $18.14.
- 29/10/2003. Shares trade ex-rights.

All things remaining equal, what would you expect ANZ's stock price to open at on the first day that it trades ex-rights (29/10/2003)? Ignore the time value of money since time is negligibly short. Also ignore taxes.

A company announces that it will pay a dividend, as the market expected. The company's shares trade on the stock exchange which is open from 10am in the morning to 4pm in the afternoon each weekday. When would the share price be expected to fall by the amount of the dividend? Ignore taxes.

The share price is expected to fall during the:

Currently, a mining company has a share price of $6 and pays constant annual dividends of $0.50. The next dividend will be paid in 1 year. Suddenly and unexpectedly the mining company announces that due to higher than expected profits, all of these windfall profits will be paid as a special dividend of $0.30 in 1 year.

If investors believe that the windfall profits and dividend is a one-off event, what will be the new share price? If investors believe that the additional dividend is actually permanent and will continue to be paid, what will be the new share price? Assume that the required return on equity is unchanged. Choose from the following, where the first share price includes the one-off increase in earnings and dividends for the first year only ##(P_\text{0 one-off})## , and the second assumes that the increase is permanent ##(P_\text{0 permanent})##:

Note: When a firm makes excess profits they sometimes pay them out as special dividends. Special dividends are just like ordinary dividends but they are one-off and investors do not expect them to continue, unlike ordinary dividends which are expected to persist.