**Question 99** capital structure, interest tax shield, Miller and Modigliani, trade off theory of capital structure

A firm changes its capital structure by issuing a large amount of debt and using the funds to repurchase shares. Its assets are unchanged.

Assume that:

- The firm and individual investors can borrow at the same rate and have the same tax rates.
- The firm's debt and shares are fairly priced and the shares are repurchased at the market price, not at a premium.
- There are no market frictions relating to debt such as asymmetric information or transaction costs.
- Shareholders wealth is measured in terms of utiliity. Shareholders are wealth-maximising and risk-averse. They have a preferred level of overall leverage. Before the firm's capital restructure all shareholders were optimally levered.

According to Miller and Modigliani's theory, which statement is correct?

**Question 312** foreign exchange rate, American and European terms

If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the American terms quote of the AUD against the USD?

A pharmaceutical firm has just discovered a valuable new drug. So far the news has been kept a secret.

The net present value of making and commercialising the drug is $**200** million, but $**600** million of bonds will need to be issued to fund the project and buy the necessary plant and equipment.

The firm will release the news of the discovery and bond raising to shareholders simultaneously in the same announcement. The bonds will be issued shortly after.

Once the announcement is made and the bonds are issued, what is the expected increase in the value of the firm's assets (ΔV), market capitalisation of debt (ΔD) and market cap of equity (ΔE)?

The triangle symbol is the Greek letter capital delta which means change or increase in mathematics.

Ignore the benefit of interest tax shields from having more debt.

Remember: ##ΔV = ΔD+ΔE##

What is the covariance of a variable X with a constant C?

The cov(X, C) or ##\sigma_{X,C}## equals:

A **4.5**% fixed coupon Australian Government bond was issued at **par** in mid-**April 2009**. Coupons are paid **semi-annually** in arrears in mid-April and mid-October each year. The face value is $**1,000**. The bond will mature in mid-**April 2020**, so the bond had an original tenor of **11** years.

Today is mid-**September 2015** and similar bonds now yield **1.9**% pa.

What is the bond's new price? Note: there are 10 semi-annual coupon payments remaining from now (mid-September 2015) until maturity (mid-April 2020); both yields are given as APR's compounding semi-annually; assume that the yield curve was flat before the change in yields, and remained flat afterwards as well.

The market's expected total return is **10**% pa and the risk free rate is **5**% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

A stock has a beta of **0.5**.

In the last 5 minutes, the federal government unexpectedly raised taxes. Over this time the share market fell by **3**%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the last 5 minutes, given as an effective 5 minute rate?

Which of the following terms about options are **NOT** synonyms?

**Question 825** future, hedging, tailing the hedge, speculation, no explanation

An equity index fund manager controls a USD**500** million diversified equity portfolio with a beta of **0.9**. The equity manager expects a significant rally in equity prices next year. The market does not think that this will happen. If the fund manager wishes to increase his portfolio beta to **1.5**, how many S&P500 futures should he buy?

The US market equity index is the S&P500. One year CME futures on the S&P500 currently trade at **2,155** points and the spot price is **2,180** points. Each point is worth $**250**.

The number of one year S&P500 futures contracts that the fund manager should buy is:

**Question 941** negative gearing, leverage, capital structure, interest tax shield, real estate

Last year, two friends Lev and Nolev each bought similar investment properties for $**1 million**. Both earned net rents of $**30,000** pa over the past year. They funded their purchases in different ways:

- Lev used $200,000 of his own money and borrowed $
**800,000**from the bank in the form of an interest-only loan with an interest rate of**5**% pa. - Nolev used $1,000,000 of his own money, he has no mortgage loan on his property.

Both Lev and Nolev also work in high-paying jobs and are subject personal marginal tax rates of **45**%.

Which of the below statements about the past year is **NOT** correct?