**Question 121** capital structure, leverage, financial distress, interest tax shield

Fill in the missing words in the following sentence:

All things remaining equal, as a firm's amount of debt funding falls, benefits of interest tax shields __________ and the costs of financial distress __________.

**Question 397** financial distress, leverage, capital structure, NPV

A levered firm has a market value of assets of $**10**m. Its debt is all comprised of zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of $**9.9**m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of **10**% pa.

Therefore the current market capitalisation of debt ##(D_0)## is $**9**m and equity ##(E_0)## is $**1**m.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $**2**m and will provide a:

- $
**6.6**m cash flow with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, and a **-**$**4.4**m (notice the negative sign) cash flow with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world.

The project can be funded using the company's excess cash, no debt or equity raisings are required.

What would be the new market capitalisation of equity ##(E_\text{0, with project})## if shareholders vote to proceed with the project, and therefore should shareholders proceed with the project?

**Question 398** financial distress, capital raising, leverage, capital structure, NPV

A levered firm has zero-coupon bonds which mature in one year and have a combined face value of $**9.9**m.

Investors are risk-neutral and therefore all debt and equity holders demand the same required return of **10**% pa.

In one year the firm's assets will be worth:

- $
**13.2**m with probability 0.5 in the good state of the world, or - $
**6.6**m with probability 0.5 in the bad state of the world.

A new project presents itself which requires an investment of $**2**m and will provide a certain cash flow of $**3.3**m in one year.

The firm doesn't have any excess cash to make the initial $2m investment, but the funds can be raised from shareholders through a fairly priced rights issue. Ignore all transaction costs.

Should shareholders vote to proceed with the project and equity raising? What will be the gain in shareholder **wealth** if they decide to proceed?

**Question 1003** Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing, log-normal distribution, return distribution, hedge fund, risk, financial distress

A hedge fund issued zero coupon bonds with a combined $**1** billion **face** value due to be paid in **3** years. The promised yield to maturity is currently **6**% pa given as a continuously compounded return (or log gross discrete return, ##LGDR=\ln[P_T/P_0] \div T##).

The hedge fund owns stock assets worth $**1.1** billion now which are expected to have a **10**% pa arithmetic average log gross discrete return ##(\text{AALGDR} = \sum\limits_{t=1}^T{\left( \ln[P_t/P_{t-1}] \right)} \div T)## and **30**pp pa standard deviation (SDLGDR) in the future.

Analyse the hedge fund using the Merton model of corporate equity as an option on the firm's assets.

The risk free government bond yield to maturity is currently **5**% pa given as a continuously compounded return or LGDR.

Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct? All figures are rounded to the sixth decimal place.