Katya offers to pay you $10 at the end of every year for the next 5 years (t=1,2,3,4,5) if you pay her $50 now (t=0). You can borrow and lend from the bank at an interest rate of 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Ignore credit risk.

Your friend wants to borrow $1,000 and offers to pay you back $100 in 6 months, with more $100 payments at the end of every month for another 11 months. So there will be twelve $100 payments in total. She says that 12 payments of $100 equals $1,200 so she's being generous.

If interest rates are 12% pa, given as an APR compounding monthly, what is the Net Present Value (NPV) of your friend's deal?

**Question 58** NPV, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, Annuity

A project to build a toll bridge will take two years to complete, costing three payments of $100 million at the start of each year for the next three years, that is at t=0, 1 and 2.

After completion, the toll bridge will yield a constant $50 million at the end of each year for the next 10 years. So the first payment will be at t=3 and the last at t=12. After the last payment at t=12, the bridge will be given to the government.

The required return of the project is 21% pa given as an effective annual **nominal** rate.

All cash flows are **real** and the expected inflation rate is 10% pa given as an effective annual rate. Ignore taxes.

The Net Present Value is:

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $60, with the first payment in 3 years from now (first payment at t=3).
- 1 payment of $400 in 5 years and 6 months (t=5.5) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 3 years from now (first payment at t=3).
- 1 payment of $600 in 5 years and 6 months (t=5.5) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

On his 20th birthday, a man makes a resolution. He will deposit $**30** into a bank account at the **end** of every month starting from now, which is the start of the month. So the first payment will be in one month. He will write in his will that when he dies the money in the account should be given to charity.

The bank account pays interest at **6**% pa compounding **monthly**, which is not expected to change.

If the man lives for another **60** years, how much money will be in the bank account if he dies just after making his last (720th) payment?

There are many ways to write the ordinary annuity formula.

Which of the following is **NOT** equal to the ordinary annuity formula?

Your friend overheard that you need some cash and asks if you would like to borrow some money. She can lend you $**5,000** now (t=0), and in return she wants you to pay her back $1,000 in two years (t=2) and every year after that for the next 5 years, so there will be **6** payments of $**1,000** from t=**2** to t=**7** inclusive.

What is the net present value (NPV) of borrowing from your friend?

Assume that banks loan funds at interest rates of **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

This annuity formula ##\dfrac{C_1}{r}\left(1-\dfrac{1}{(1+r)^3} \right)## is equivalent to which of the following formulas? Note the **3**.

In the below formulas, ##C_t## is a cash flow at time t. All of the cash flows are equal, but paid at different times.

**Question 498** NPV, Annuity, perpetuity with growth, multi stage growth model

A business project is expected to cost $100 now (t=0), then pay $10 at the end of the third (t=3), fourth, fifth and sixth years, and then grow by 5% pa every year forever. So the cash flow will be $10.5 at the end of the seventh year (t=7), then $11.025 at the end of the eighth year (t=8) and so on perpetually. The total required return is 10℅ pa.

Which of the following formulas will **NOT** give the correct net present value of the project?

Some countries' interest rates are so low that they're zero.

If interest rates are **0**% pa and are expected to stay at that level for the foreseeable future, what is the most that you would be prepared to pay a bank now if it offered to pay you $**10** at the end of every year for the next **5** years?

In other words, what is the present value of five $10 payments at time 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 if interest rates are 0% pa?

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 6.5 years from now (first payment at t=6.5).
- A single payment of $500 in 4 years and 3 months (t=4.25) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

You are promised **20** payments of $**100**, where the first payment is immediate (t=**0**) and the last is at the end of the 19th year (t=**19**). The effective annual discount rate is ##r##.

Which of the following equations does **NOT** give the correct present value of these 20 payments?

Telsa Motors advertises that its Model S electric car saves $**570** per month in fuel costs. Assume that Tesla cars last for **10** years, fuel and electricity costs remain the same, and savings are made at the end of each month with the first saving of $570 in one month from now.

The effective annual interest rate is **15.8**%, and the effective monthly interest rate is **1.23**%. What is the present value of the savings?