Stock A and B's returns have a correlation of 0.3. Which statement is **NOT** correct?

A stock's correlation with the market portfolio increases while its total risk is unchanged. What will happen to the stock's expected return and systematic risk?

All things remaining equal, the variance of a portfolio of two positively-weighted stocks **rises** as:

Diversification in a portfolio of two assets works best when the correlation between their returns is:

Three important classes of investable risky assets are:

- Corporate debt which has low total risk,
- Real estate which has medium total risk,
- Equity which has high total risk.

Assume that the correlation between total returns on:

- Corporate debt and real estate is 0.1,
- Corporate debt and equity is 0.1,
- Real estate and equity is 0.5.

You are considering investing all of your wealth in one or more of these asset classes. Which portfolio will give the lowest total risk? You are restricted from shorting any of these assets. Disregard returns and the risk-return trade-off, pretend that you are only concerned with minimising risk.

The following table shows a sample of historical total returns of shares in two different companies A and B.

Stock Returns | ||

Total effective annual returns | ||

Year | ##r_A## | ##r_B## |

2007 | 0.2 | 0.4 |

2008 | 0.04 | -0.2 |

2009 | -0.1 | -0.3 |

2010 | 0.18 | 0.5 |

What is the historical sample covariance (##\hat{\sigma}_{A,B}##) and correlation (##\rho_{A,B}##) of stock A and B's total effective annual returns?

All things remaining equal, the higher the correlation of returns between two stocks:

**Question 559** variance, standard deviation, covariance, correlation

Which of the following statements about standard statistical mathematics notation is **NOT** correct?

The covariance and correlation of two stocks X and Y's annual returns are calculated over a number of years. The units of the returns are in percent per annum ##(\% pa)##.

What are the units of the covariance ##(\sigma_{X,Y})## and correlation ##(\rho_{X,Y})## of returns respectively?

**Hint**: Visit Wikipedia to understand the difference between percentage points ##(\text{pp})## and percent ##(\%)##.

What is the correlation of a variable X with itself?

The corr(X, X) or ##\rho_{X,X}## equals:

What is the correlation of a variable X with a constant C?

The corr(X, C) or ##\rho_{X,C}## equals: