**Question 241** Miller and Modigliani, leverage, payout policy, diversification, NPV

One of Miller and Modigliani's (M&M's) important insights is that a firm's managers should not try to achieve a particular level of leverage or interest tax shields under certain assumptions. So the firm's capital structure is irrelevant. This is because investors can make their own *personal* leverage and interest tax shields, so there's no need for managers to try to make *corporate* leverage and interest tax shields. This is true under the assumptions of equal tax rates, interest rates and debt availability for the person and the corporation, no transaction costs and symmetric information.

This principal of 'home-made' or 'do-it-yourself' leverage can also be applied to other topics. Read the following statements to decide which are true:

(I) Payout policy: a firm's managers should not try to achieve a particular pattern of equity payout.

(II) Agency costs: a firm's managers should not try to minimise agency costs.

(III) Diversification: a firm's managers should not try to diversify across industries.

(IV) Shareholder wealth: a firm's managers should not try to maximise shareholders' wealth.

Which of the above statement(s) are true?

**Question 312** foreign exchange rate, American and European terms

If the current AUD exchange rate is USD 0.9686 = AUD 1, what is the American terms quote of the AUD against the USD?

**Question 320** foreign exchange rate, monetary policy, American and European terms

Investors expect the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) to decrease the overnight cash rate at their next meeting.

Then unexpectedly, the RBA announce that they will keep the policy rate unchanged.

What do you expect to happen to Australia's exchange rate in the short term? The Australian dollar is likely to:

A firm has **1** million shares which trade at a price of $**30** each. The firm is expected to announce earnings of $**3** million at the end of the year and pay an annual dividend of $**1.50** per share.

What is the firm's (forward looking) price/earnings (PE) ratio?

A young lady is trying to decide if she should attend university or not.

The young lady's parents say that she must attend university because otherwise all of her hard work studying and attending school during her childhood was a waste.

What's the correct way to classify this item from a capital budgeting perspective when trying to decide whether to attend university?

The hard work studying at school in her childhood should be classified as:

Which of the below formulas gives the payoff at maturity ##(f_T)## from being **short** a future? Let the underlying asset price at maturity be ##S_T## and the locked-in futures price be ##K_T##.

Which of the following interest rate quotes is **NOT** equivalent to a **10**% effective annual rate of return? Assume that each year has 12 months, each month has 30 days, each day has 24 hours, each hour has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds. APR stands for Annualised Percentage Rate.

**Question 891** foreign exchange rate, monetary policy, no explanation

Suppose the market expects the Bank of Japan (BoJ) to **decrease** their short term interest rate by 15 basis points at their next meeting. The current short term interest rate is -0.1% pa and the exchange rate is 100 JPY per USD.

Then unexpectedly, the BoJ announce that they will leave the short term interest rate **unchanged**.

What do you expect to happen to Japan’s exchange rate on the day when the surprise announcement is made? The Japanese Yen (JPY) is likely to suddenly:

A stock has a beta of **1.2**. Its next dividend is expected to be $**20**, paid one year from now.

Dividends are expected to be paid annually and grow by **1.5**% pa forever.

Treasury bonds yield **3**% pa and the market portfolio's expected return is **7**% pa. All returns are effective annual rates.

What is the price of the stock now?