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Question 80  CAPM, risk, diversification

Diversification is achieved by investing in a large amount of stocks. What type of risk is reduced by diversification?

Question 171  DDM, income and capital returns

The following is the Dividend Discount Model used to price stocks:

### p_0=\frac{d_1}{r-g} ###

Which of the following statements about the Dividend Discount Model is NOT correct?

Question 288  Annuity

There are many ways to write the ordinary annuity formula.

Which of the following is NOT equal to the ordinary annuity formula?

Question 430  option, no explanation

A European call option will mature in ##T## years with a strike price of ##K## dollars. The underlying asset has a price of ##S## dollars.

What is an expression for the payoff at maturity ##(f_T)## in dollars from having written (being short) the call option?

Question 470  accounting ratio, no explanation

Which of the following statements is NOT correct?

Question 554  inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

On his 20th birthday, a man makes a resolution. He will put $30 cash under his bed at the end of every month starting from today. His birthday today is the first day of the month. So the first addition to his cash stash will be in one month. He will write in his will that when he dies the cash under the bed should be given to charity.

If the man lives for another 60 years, how much money will be under his bed if he dies just after making his last (720th) addition?

Also, what will be the real value of that cash in today's prices if inflation is expected to 2.5% pa? Assume that the inflation rate is an effective annual rate and is not expected to change.

The answers are given in the same order, the amount of money under his bed in 60 years, and the real value of that money in today's prices.

Question 613  debt terminology

You own a debt asset. Are you a or a ?

Question 668  buy and hold, market efficiency, idiom

A quote from the famous investor Warren Buffet: "Much success can be attributed to inactivity. Most investors cannot resist the temptation to constantly buy and sell."

Buffet is referring to the buy-and-hold strategy which is to buy and never sell shares. Which of the following is a disadvantage of a buy-and-hold strategy? Assume that share markets are semi-strong form efficient. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of the strict buy-and-hold strategy? A disadvantage of the buy-and-hold strategy is that it reduces:

Question 714  return distribution, no explanation

Which of the following quantities is commonly assumed to be normally distributed?

Question 956  option, Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing, delta hedging, hedging

A bank sells a European call option on a non-dividend paying stock and delta hedges on a daily basis. Below is the result of their hedging, with columns representing consecutive days. Assume that there are 365 days per year and interest is paid daily in arrears.

Delta Hedging a Short Call using Stocks and Debt
Description Symbol Days to maturity (T in days)
    60 59 58 57 56 55
Spot price ($) S 10000 10125 9800 9675 10000 10000
Strike price ($) K 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000
Risk free cont. comp. rate (pa) r 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Standard deviation of the stock's cont. comp. returns (pa) σ 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Option maturity (years) T 0.164384 0.161644 0.158904 0.156164 0.153425 0.150685
Delta N[d1] = dc/dS 0.552416 0.582351 0.501138 0.467885 0.550649 0.550197
Probability that S > K at maturity in risk neutral world N[d2] 0.487871 0.51878 0.437781 0.405685 0.488282 0.488387
Call option price ($) c 685.391158 750.26411 567.990995 501.487157 660.982878 ?
Stock investment value ($) N[d1]*S 5524.164129 5896.301781 4911.152036 4526.788065 5506.488143 ?
Borrowing which partly funds stock investment ($) N[d2]*K/e^(r*T) 4838.772971 5146.037671 4343.161041 4025.300909 4845.505265 ?
Interest expense from borrowing paid in arrears ($) r*N[d2]*K/e^(r*T) 0.662891 0.704985 0.594994 0.551449 ?
Gain on stock ($) N[d1]*(SNew - SOld) 69.052052 -189.264008 -62.642245 152.062648 ?
Gain on short call option ($) -1*(cNew - cOld) -64.872952 182.273114 66.503839 -159.495721 ?
Net gain ($) Gains - InterestExpense 3.516209 -7.695878 3.266599 -7.984522 ?
Gamma Γ = d^2c/dS^2 0.000244 0.00024 0.000255 0.00026 0.000253 0.000255
Theta θ = dc/dT 2196.873429 2227.881353 2182.174706 2151.539751 2266.589184 2285.1895


In the last column when there are 55 days left to maturity there are missing values. Which of the following statements about those missing values is NOT correct?