Estimate Microsoft's (MSFT) share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only:

- Apple, Google and Microsoft are comparable companies,
- Apple's (AAPL) share price is $526.24 and historical EPS is $40.32.
- Google's (GOOG) share price is $1,215.65 and historical EPS is $36.23.
- Micrsoft's (MSFT) historical earnings per share (EPS) is $2.71.

Source: Google Finance 28 Feb 2014.

Which of the following investable assets are **NOT** suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques?

Estimate the US bank JP Morgan's share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only:

- The major US banks JP Morgan Chase (JPM), Citi Group (C) and Wells Fargo (WFC) are comparable companies;
- JP Morgan Chase's historical earnings per share (EPS) is $
**4.37**; - Citi Group's share price is $
**50.05**and historical EPS is $**4.26**; - Wells Fargo's share price is $
**48.98**and historical EPS is $**3.89**.

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 24 March 2014.

Which firms tend to have **low** forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios?

Only consider firms with positive earnings, disregard firms with negative earnings and therefore negative PE ratios.

Which of the following investable assets are **NOT** suitable for valuation using PE multiples techniques?

Estimate the Chinese bank ICBC's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that the renminbi (RMB) is the Chinese currency, also known as the yuan (CNY).

- The 4 major Chinese banks ICBC, China Construction Bank (CCB), Bank of China (BOC) and Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) are comparable companies;
- ICBC 's historical earnings per share (EPS) is RMB
**0.74**; - CCB's backward-looking PE ratio is
**4.59**; - BOC 's backward-looking PE ratio is
**4.78**; - ABC's backward-looking PE ratio is also
**4.78**;

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 25 March 2014. Share prices are from the Shanghai stock exchange.

Which firms tend to have **high** forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios?

Which firms tend to have **low** forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Only consider firms with positive PE ratios.

Private equity firms are known to buy medium sized private companies operating in the same industry, merge them together into a larger company, and then sell it off in a public float (initial public offering, IPO).

If medium-sized private companies trade at PE ratios of **5** and larger listed companies trade at PE ratios of **15**, what return can be achieved from this strategy?

Assume that:

- The medium-sized companies can be bought, merged and sold in an IPO instantaneously.
- There are no costs of finding, valuing, merging and restructuring the medium sized companies. Also, there is no competition to buy the medium-sized companies from other private equity firms.
- The large merged firm's earnings are the sum of the medium firms' earnings.
- The only reason for the difference in medium and large firm's PE ratios is due to the illiquidity of the medium firms' shares.
- Return is defined as: ##r_{0→1} = (p_1-p_0+c_1)/p_0## , where time zero is just before the merger and time one is just after.

Estimate the French bank Societe Generale's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that EUR is the euro, the European monetary union's currency.

- The 4 major European banks Credit Agricole (ACA), Deutsche Bank AG (DBK), UniCredit (UCG) and Banco Santander (SAN) are comparable companies to Societe Generale (GLE);
- Societe Generale's (GLE's) historical earnings per share (EPS) is EUR 2.92;
- ACA's backward-looking PE ratio is 16.29 and historical EPS is EUR 0.84;
- DBK's backward-looking PE ratio is 25.01 and historical EPS is EUR 1.26;
- SAN's backward-looking PE ratio is 14.71 and historical EPS is EUR 0.47;
- UCG's backward-looking PE ratio is 15.78 and historical EPS is EUR 0.40;

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 27 March 2015.

**Question 547** PE ratio, Multiples valuation, DDM, income and capital returns, no explanation

A firm pays out all of its earnings as dividends. Because of this, the firm has no real growth in earnings, dividends or stock price since there is no re-investment back into the firm to buy new assets and make higher earnings. The dividend discount model is suitable to value this company.

The firm's revenues and costs are expected to increase by inflation in the foreseeable future. The firm has no debt. It operates in the services industry and has few physical assets so there is negligible depreciation expense and negligible net working capital required.

Which of the following statements about this firm's PE ratio is **NOT** correct? The PE ratio should:

Note: The inverse of x is 1/x.

A real estate agent says that the price of a house in Sydney Australia is approximately equal to the gross weekly rent times 1000.

What type of valuation method is the real estate agent using?

Itau Unibanco is a major listed bank in Brazil with a market capitalisation of equity equal to BRL **85.744** billion, EPS of **BRL 3.96** and **2.97** billion shares on issue.

Banco Bradesco is another major bank with total earnings of BRL **8.77** billion and **2.52** billion shares on issue.

Estimate Banco Bradesco's current share price using a price-earnings multiples approach assuming that Itau Unibanco is a comparable firm.

Note that BRL is the Brazilian Real, their currency. Figures sourced from Google Finance on the market close of the BVMF on 24/7/15.

A firm has 20 million shares, earnings (or net income) of $100 million per annum and a 60% debt-to-**equity** ratio where both the debt and asset values are market values rather than book values. Similar firms have a PE ratio of 12.

Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct based on a PE multiples valuation?

**Question 990** Multiples valuation, EV to EBITDA ratio, no explanation

A firm has 2 million shares, expected EBITDA at the end of this year of $200 million per annum, $100 million in cash (not included in EV) and its market debt-to-assets ratio is 1/3. (market assets = EV + cash). Next year’s expected dividend yield is 4% pa, the expected dividend growth rate is 2% pa, next year’s expected payout ratio is 40% and the corporate tax rate is 30%. Dividends are paid annually.

Similar firms have an EV/EBITDA ratio of 10.

The stock can be valued using the EV/EBITDA multiple, dividend discount model, Gordon growth model or PE multiple.

Which of the below statements is **NOT** correct based on an EV/EBITDA multiple valuation?