# Fight Finance

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A firm's WACC before tax would decrease due to:

The security market line (SML) shows the relationship between beta and expected return.

Investment projects that plot on the SML would have:

On 27/09/13, three month Swiss government bills traded at a yield of -0.2%, given as a simple annual yield. That is, interest rates were negative.

If the face value of one of these 90 day bills is CHF1,000,000 (CHF represents Swiss Francs, the Swiss currency), what is the price of one of these bills?

Which firms tend to have high forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios?

You're thinking of starting a new cafe business, but you're not sure if it will be profitable.

You have to decide what type of cups, mugs and glasses you wish to buy. You can pay to have your cafe's name printed on them, or just buy the plain un-marked ones. For marketing reasons it's better to have the cafe name printed. But the plain un-marked cups, mugs and glasses maximise your:

 Project Data Project life 1 year Initial investment in equipment $6m Depreciation of equipment per year$6m Expected sale price of equipment at end of project 0 Unit sales per year 9m Sale price per unit $8 Variable cost per unit$6 Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year $1m Interest expense in first year (at t=1)$0.53m Tax rate 30% Government treasury bond yield 5% Bank loan debt yield 6% Market portfolio return 10% Covariance of levered equity returns with market 0.08 Variance of market portfolio returns 0.16 Firm's and project's debt-to-assets ratio 50%

Notes

1. Due to the project, current assets will increase by $5m now (t=0) and fall by$5m at the end (t=1). Current liabilities will not be affected.

Assumptions

• The debt-to-assets ratio will be kept constant throughout the life of the project. The amount of interest expense at the end of each period has been correctly calculated to maintain this constant debt-to-equity ratio.
• Millions are represented by 'm'.
• All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
• All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 2% pa.
• All rates are given as effective annual rates.
• The 50% capital gains tax discount is not available since the project is undertaken by a firm, not an individual.

What is the net present value (NPV) of the project?

A firm pays out all of its earnings as dividends. Because of this, the firm has no real growth in earnings, dividends or stock price since there is no re-investment back into the firm to buy new assets and make higher earnings. The dividend discount model is suitable to value this company.

The firm's revenues and costs are expected to increase by inflation in the foreseeable future. The firm has no debt. It operates in the services industry and has few physical assets so there is negligible depreciation expense and negligible net working capital required.

Which of the following statements about this firm's PE ratio is NOT correct? The PE ratio should:

Note: The inverse of x is 1/x.

The Australian central bank implements monetary policy by directly controlling which interest rate?

It’s often thought that the ideal currency or exchange rate regime would:

1. Be fixed against the USD;

2. Be convertible to and from USD for traders and investors so there are open goods, services and capital markets, and;

3. Allow independent monetary policy set by the country’s central bank, independent of the US central bank. So the country can set its own interest rate independent of the US Federal Reserve’s USD interest rate.

However, not all of these characteristics can be achieved. One must be sacrificed. This is the 'impossible trinity'.

Which of the following exchange rate regimes sacrifices convertibility?

Below is a table of the 'Risk-weights for residential mortgages' as shown in APRA Basel 3 Prudential Standard APS 112 Capital Adequacy: Standardised Approach to Credit Risk January 2013.

 LVR (%) Standard eligible mortgages Non-standard eligible mortgages Risk-weight (no mortgage insurance) % Risk-weight (with at least 40% of the mortgage insured by an acceptable LMI) % Risk-weight (no mortgage insurance) % Risk-weight (with at least 40% of the mortgage insured by an acceptable LMI) % 0 – 60 35 35 50 35 60.01 – 80 35 35 75 50 80.01 – 90 50 35 100 75 90.01 – 100 75 50 100 75 > 100.01 100 75 100 100

A bank is considering granting a home loan to a man to buy a house worth \$1.25 million using his own funds and the loan. The loan would be standard with no lenders mortgage insurance (LMI) and an LVR of 80%.

What is the minimum regulatory capital that the bank requires to grant the home loan under the Basel 3 Accord? Ignore the capital conservation buffer.