A stock **just paid** its annual dividend of $9. The share price is $60. The required return of the stock is 10% pa as an effective annual rate.

What is the implied growth rate of the dividend per year?

A stock is expected to pay a dividend of $15 in one year (t=1), then $25 for 9 years after that (payments at t=2 ,3,...10), and on the 11th year (t=11) the dividend will be 2% less than at t=10, and will continue to shrink at the same rate every year after that forever. The required return of the stock is 10%. All rates are effective annual rates.

What is the price of the stock now?

**Question 246** foreign exchange rate, forward foreign exchange rate, cross currency interest rate parity

Suppose the Australian cash rate is expected to be **8.15**% pa and the US federal funds rate is expected to be **3.00**% pa over the next **2** years, both given as nominal effective annual rates. The current exchange rate is at parity, so **1** USD = **1** AUD.

What is the implied **2** year forward foreign exchange rate?

You have $100,000 in the bank. The bank pays interest at 10% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

You wish to consume an equal amount now (t=0) and in one year (t=1) and have nothing left in the bank at the end (t=1).

How much can you consume at each time?

A share just paid its semi-annual dividend of $5. The dividend is expected to grow at 1% every 6 months forever. This 1% growth rate is an effective **6 month** rate.

Therefore the next dividend will be $5.05 in six months. The required return of the stock 8% pa, given as an effective **annual** rate.

What is the price of the share now?

Value the following business project to manufacture a new product.

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 yrs | |

Initial investment in equipment | $6m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year | $3m | |

Expected sale price of equipment at end of project | $0.6m | |

Unit sales per year | 4m | |

Sale price per unit | $8 | |

Variable cost per unit | $5 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $1m | |

Interest expense per year | 0 | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Weighted average cost of capital after tax per annum | 10% | |

**Notes**

- The firm's current assets and current liabilities are $3m and $2m respectively right now. This net working capital will not be used in this project, it will be used in other unrelated projects.

Due to the project, current assets (mostly inventory) will grow by $2m initially (at t = 0), and then by $0.2m at the end of the first year (t=1).

Current liabilities (mostly trade creditors) will increase by $0.1m at the end of the first year (t=1).

At the end of the project, the net working capital accumulated due to the project can be sold for the same price that it was bought. - The project cost $0.5m to research which was incurred one year ago.

**Assumptions**

- All cash flows occur at the start or end of the year as appropriate, not in the middle or throughout the year.
- All rates and cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% pa.
- All rates are given as effective annual rates.
- The business considering the project is run as a 'sole tradership' (run by an individual without a company) and is therefore eligible for a 50% capital gains tax discount when the equipment is sold, as permitted by the Australian Tax Office.

What is the expected net present value (NPV) of the project?

The following table shows a sample of historical total returns of shares in two different companies A and B.

Stock Returns | ||

Total effective annual returns | ||

Year | ##r_A## | ##r_B## |

2007 | 0.2 | 0.4 |

2008 | 0.04 | -0.2 |

2009 | -0.1 | -0.3 |

2010 | 0.18 | 0.5 |

What is the historical sample covariance (##\hat{\sigma}_{A,B}##) and correlation (##\rho_{A,B}##) of stock A and B's total effective annual returns?

A **30** year Japanese government bond was just issued at **par** with a yield of **1.7**% pa. The fixed coupon payments are **semi-annual**. The bond has a face value of $**100**.

**Six months** later, just **after** the first coupon is paid, the yield of the bond increases to **2**% pa. What is the bond's **new** price?

Find the sample standard deviation of returns using the data in the table:

Stock Returns | |

Year | Return pa |

2008 | 0.3 |

2009 | 0.02 |

2010 | -0.2 |

2011 | 0.4 |

The returns above and standard deviations below are given in decimal form.

All things remaining equal, the higher the correlation of returns between two stocks:

Which of the following statements about the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is **NOT** correct?

A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is **2**% of the **start**-of-year amount, but it is paid at the **end** of every year.

This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money.

The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of **10**% pa before fees.

You are thinking of investing $**100,000** in the fund and keeping it there for **40** years when you plan to retire.

What is the Net Present Value (NPV) of investing your money in the fund? Note that the question is **not** asking how much money you will have in 40 years, it is asking: what is the **NPV** of investing in the fund? Assume that:

- The fund has no private information.
- Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient.
- The fund's transaction costs are negligible.
- The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible.

Estimate Microsoft's (MSFT) share price using a price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only:

- Apple, Google and Microsoft are comparable companies,
- Apple's (AAPL) share price is $526.24 and historical EPS is $40.32.
- Google's (GOOG) share price is $1,215.65 and historical EPS is $36.23.
- Micrsoft's (MSFT) historical earnings per share (EPS) is $2.71.

Source: Google Finance 28 Feb 2014.

Your poor friend asks to borrow some money from you. He would like $1,000 now (t=0) and every year for the next 5 years, so there will be 6 payments of $**1,000** from t=0 to t=5 inclusive. In return he will pay you $**10,000** in seven years from now (t=7).

What is the net present value (NPV) of lending to your friend?

Assume that your friend will definitely pay you back so the loan is risk-free, and that the yield on risk-free government debt is **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Stocks in the United States usually pay **quarterly** dividends. For example, the retailer Wal-Mart Stores paid a $0.47 dividend every quarter over the 2013 calendar year and plans to pay a $0.48 dividend every quarter over the 2014 calendar year.

Using the dividend discount model and net present value techniques, calculate the stock price of Wal-Mart Stores assuming that:

- The time now is the beginning of January 2014. The next dividend of $
**0.48**will be received in**3**months (end of March 2014), with another 3 quarterly payments of $0.48 after this (end of June, September and December 2014). - The quarterly dividend will increase by
**2**% every year, but each quarterly dividend over the year will be equal. So each quarterly dividend paid in 2015 will be $0.4896 (##=0.48×(1+0.02)^1##), with the first at the end of March 2015 and the last at the end of December 2015. In 2016 each quarterly dividend will be $0.499392 (##=0.48×(1+0.02)^2##), with the first at the end of March 2016 and the last at the end of December 2016, and so on**forever**. - The total required return on equity is
**6**% pa. - The required return and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.
- All cash flows and rates are
**nominal**. Inflation is**3**% pa. - Dividend payment dates and ex-dividend dates are at the same time.
- Remember that there are 4 quarters in a year and 3 months in a quarter.

What is the current stock price?

Your friend overheard that you need some cash and asks if you would like to borrow some money. She can lend you $**5,000** now (t=0), and in return she wants you to pay her back $1,000 in two years (t=2) and every year after that for the next 5 years, so there will be **6** payments of $**1,000** from t=**2** to t=**7** inclusive.

What is the net present value (NPV) of borrowing from your friend?

Assume that banks loan funds at interest rates of **10**% pa, given as an effective annual rate.

Three years ago Frederika bought a house for $**400,000**.

Now it's worth $**600,000**, based on recent similar sales in the area.

Frederika's residential property has an expected **total** return of **7**% pa.

She rents her house out for $**2,500** per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months she plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $**29,089.48**.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year ahead is $**31,125.74**.

What is the expected annual **capital** yield of the property?

Stocks in the United States usually pay **quarterly** dividends. For example, the software giant Microsoft paid a $0.23 dividend every quarter over the 2013 financial year and plans to pay a $0.28 dividend every quarter over the 2014 financial year.

Using the dividend discount model and net present value techniques, calculate the stock price of Microsoft assuming that:

- The time now is the beginning of July 2014. The next dividend of $
**0.28**will be received in**3**months (end of September 2014), with another 3 quarterly payments of $0.28 after this (end of December 2014, March 2015 and June 2015). - The quarterly dividend will increase by
**2.5**% every year, but each quarterly dividend over the year will be equal. So each quarterly dividend paid in the financial year beginning in September 2015 will be $ 0.287 ##(=0.28×(1+0.025)^1)##, with the last at the end of June 2016. In the next financial year beginning in September 2016 each quarterly dividend will be $0.294175 ##(=0.28×(1+0.025)^2)##, with the last at the end of June 2017, and so on forever. - The total required return on equity is
**6**% pa. - The required return and growth rate are given as effective annual rates.
- Dividend payment dates and ex-dividend dates are at the same time.
- Remember that there are 4 quarters in a year and 3 months in a quarter.

What is the current stock price?

One and a half years ago Frank bought a house for $**600,000**. Now it's worth only $**500,000**, based on recent similar sales in the area.

The expected total return on Frank's residential property is **7**% pa.

He rents his house out for $**1,600** per month, paid in advance. Every 12 months he plans to increase the rental payments.

The present value of 12 months of rental payments is $**18,617.27**.

The future value of 12 months of rental payments one year in the future is $**19,920.48**.

What is the expected annual **rental** yield of the property? Ignore the costs of renting such as maintenance, real estate agent fees and so on.

A large proportion of a levered firm's assets is cash held at the bank. The firm is financed with half equity and half debt.

Which of the following statements about this firm's enterprise value (EV) and total asset value (V) is **NOT** correct?

**Question 772** interest tax shield, capital structure, leverage

A firm issues debt and uses the funds to buy back equity. Assume that there are no costs of financial distress or transactions costs. Which of the following statements about interest tax shields is **NOT** correct?

One year ago you bought a $**1,000,000** house partly funded using a mortgage loan. The loan size was $**800,000** and the other $**200,000** was your wealth or 'equity' in the house asset.

The interest rate on the home loan was **4**% pa.

Over the year, the house produced a net rental yield of **2**% pa and a capital gain of **2.5**% pa.

Assuming that all cash flows (interest payments and net rental payments) were paid and received at the end of the year, and all rates are given as effective annual rates, what was the **total** return on your **wealth** over the past year?

Hint: Remember that wealth in this context is your equity (E) in the house asset (V = D+E) which is funded by the loan (D) and your deposit or equity (E).

**Question 776** market efficiency, systematic and idiosyncratic risk, beta, income and capital returns

Which of the following statements about returns is **NOT** correct? A stock's:

The market's expected total return is **10**% pa and the risk free rate is **5**% pa, both given as effective annual rates.

A stock has a beta of **0.5**.

In the last 5 minutes, the federal government unexpectedly raised taxes. Over this time the share market fell by **3**%. The risk free rate was unchanged.

What do you think was the stock's historical return over the last 5 minutes, given as an effective 5 minute rate?

**Question 779** mean and median returns, return distribution, arithmetic and geometric averages, continuously compounding rate

Fred owns some BHP shares. He has calculated BHP’s monthly returns for each month in the past 30 years using this formula:

###r_\text{t monthly}=\ln \left( \dfrac{P_t}{P_{t-1}} \right)###He then took the arithmetic average and found it to be **0.8**% per month using this formula:

He also found the standard deviation of these monthly returns which was **15**% per month:

Assume that the past historical average return is the true population average of future expected returns and the stock's returns calculated above ##(r_\text{t monthly})## are normally distributed. Which of the below statements about Fred’s BHP shares is **NOT** correct?

Which firms tend to have **low** forward-looking price-earnings (PE) ratios? Only consider firms with positive PE ratios.

In Australia in the 1980's, inflation was around 8% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 14%.

In 2013, inflation was around 2.5% pa, and residential mortgage loan interest rates were around 4.5%.

If a person can afford constant mortgage loan payments of $**2,000** per month, how much more can they borrow when interest rates are **4.5**% pa compared with **14.0**% pa?

Give your answer as a proportional increase over the amount you could borrow when interest rates were high ##(V_\text{high rates})##, so:

###\text{Proportional increase} = \dfrac{V_\text{low rates}-V_\text{high rates}}{V_\text{high rates}} ###

Assume that:

- Interest rates are expected to be constant over the life of the loan.
- Loans are
**interest-only**and have a life of**30**years. - Mortgage loan payments are made every month in arrears and all interest rates are given as annualised percentage rates (
**APR**'s) compounding per**month**.

**Question 497** income and capital returns, DDM, ex dividend date

A stock will pay you a dividend of $**10** **tonight** if you buy it **today**. Thereafter the annual dividend is expected to grow by **5**% pa, so the next dividend after the $10 one tonight will be $10.50 in one year, then in two years it will be $11.025 and so on. The stock's required return is **10**% pa.

What is the stock price today and what do you expect the stock price to be tomorrow, approximately?

Some countries' interest rates are so low that they're zero.

If interest rates are **0**% pa and are expected to stay at that level for the foreseeable future, what is the most that you would be prepared to pay a bank now if it offered to pay you $**10** at the end of every year for the next **5** years?

In other words, what is the present value of five $10 payments at time 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 if interest rates are 0% pa?

Which of the following equations is **NOT** equal to the total return of an asset?

Let ##p_0## be the current price, ##p_1## the expected price in one year and ##c_1## the expected income in one year.

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

One Year Mining Project Data | ||

Project life | 1 year | |

Initial investment in building mine and equipment | $9m | |

Depreciation of mine and equipment over the year | $8m | |

Kilograms of gold mined at end of year | 1,000 | |

Sale price per kilogram | $0.05m | |

Variable cost per kilogram | $0.03m | |

Before-tax cost of closing mine at end of year | $4m | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Note 1: Due to the project, the firm also anticipates finding some rare diamonds which will give before-tax revenues of $1m at the end of the year.

Note 2: The land that will be mined actually has thermal springs and a family of koalas that could be sold to an eco-tourist resort for an after-tax amount of $3m right now. However, if the mine goes ahead then this natural beauty will be destroyed.

Note 3: The mining equipment will have a book value of $1m at the end of the year for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $2.5m when it is sold.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero and one. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m), with the first cash flow at time zero, and the second at time one.

Find the cash flow from assets (CFFA) of the following project.

Project Data | ||

Project life | 2 years | |

Initial investment in equipment | $6m | |

Depreciation of equipment per year for tax purposes | $1m | |

Unit sales per year | 4m | |

Sale price per unit | $8 | |

Variable cost per unit | $3 | |

Fixed costs per year, paid at the end of each year | $1.5m | |

Tax rate | 30% | |

Note 1: The equipment will have a book value of $4m at the end of the project for tax purposes. However, the equipment is expected to fetch $0.9 million when it is sold at t=2.

Note 2: Due to the project, the firm will have to purchase $0.8m of inventory initially, which it will sell at t=1. The firm will buy another $0.8m at t=1 and sell it all again at t=2 with zero inventory left. The project will have no effect on the firm's current liabilities.

Find the project's CFFA at time zero, one and two. Answers are given in millions of dollars ($m).

A stock is expected to pay its **next** dividend of $1 in one year. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. So the first dividend of $1 will be in one year, the year after that $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1), and a year later $1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2) and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

A stock **just paid** a dividend of $1. Future annual dividends are expected to grow by 2% pa. The next dividend of $1.02 (=1*(1+0.02)^1) will be in one year, and the year after that the dividend will be $1.0404 (=1*(1+0.02)^2), and so on forever.

Its required total return is 10% pa. The total required return and growth rate of dividends are given as effective annual rates.

Calculate the current stock price.

The following cash flows are expected:

- Constant perpetual yearly payments of $70, with the first payment in 2.5 years from now (first payment at t=2.5).
- A single payment of $600 in 3 years and 9 months (t=3.75) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

The following cash flows are expected:

- 10 yearly payments of $80, with the first payment in 6.5 years from now (first payment at t=6.5).
- A single payment of $500 in 4 years and 3 months (t=4.25) from now.

What is the NPV of the cash flows if the discount rate is 10% given as an effective annual rate?

**Question 522** income and capital returns, real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, real estate

A residential investment property has an expected nominal total return of **6**% pa and nominal capital return of **2.5**% pa. Inflation is expected to be **2.5**% pa.

All of the above are effective **nominal** rates and investors believe that they will stay the same in perpetuity.

What are the property's expected **real** total, capital and income returns?

The answer choices below are given in the same order.

**Question 535** DDM, real and nominal returns and cash flows, stock pricing

You are an equities analyst trying to value the equity of the Australian telecoms company Telstra, with ticker TLS. In Australia, listed companies like Telstra tend to pay dividends every **6** months. The payment around August is called the final dividend and the payment around February is called the interim dividend. Both occur annually.

- Today is mid-
**March 2015**. - TLS's last interim dividend of $
**0.15**was one month ago in mid-**February 2015**. - TLS's last final dividend of $
**0.15**was seven months ago in mid-**August 2014**.

Judging by TLS's dividend history and prospects, you estimate that the nominal dividend growth rate will be **1**% pa. Assume that TLS's total nominal cost of equity is **6**% pa. The dividends are nominal cash flows and the inflation rate is **2.5**% pa. All rates are quoted as nominal effective annual rates. Assume that each month is exactly one twelfth (1/12) of a year, so you can ignore the number of days in each month.

Calculate the current TLS share price.

**Question 536** idiom, bond pricing, capital structure, leverage

The expression 'my word is my bond' is often used in everyday language to make a serious promise.

Why do you think this expression uses the metaphor of a bond rather than a share?

Estimate the French bank Societe Generale's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that EUR is the euro, the European monetary union's currency.

- The 4 major European banks Credit Agricole (ACA), Deutsche Bank AG (DBK), UniCredit (UCG) and Banco Santander (SAN) are comparable companies to Societe Generale (GLE);
- Societe Generale's (GLE's) historical earnings per share (EPS) is EUR 2.92;
- ACA's backward-looking PE ratio is 16.29 and historical EPS is EUR 0.84;
- DBK's backward-looking PE ratio is 25.01 and historical EPS is EUR 1.26;
- SAN's backward-looking PE ratio is 14.71 and historical EPS is EUR 0.47;
- UCG's backward-looking PE ratio is 15.78 and historical EPS is EUR 0.40;

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 27 March 2015.

**Question 100** market efficiency, technical analysis, joint hypothesis problem

A company selling charting and technical analysis software claims that independent academic studies have shown that its software makes significantly positive abnormal returns. Assuming the claim is true, which statement(s) are correct?

(I) Weak form market efficiency is broken.

(II) Semi-strong form market efficiency is broken.

(III) Strong form market efficiency is broken.

(IV) The asset pricing model used to measure the abnormal returns (such as the CAPM) had mis-specification error so the returns may not be abnormal but rather fair for the level of risk.

Select the most correct response:

A managed fund charges fees based on the amount of money that you keep with them. The fee is **2**% of the **end**-of-year amount, paid at the **end** of every year.

This fee is charged regardless of whether the fund makes gains or losses on your money.

The fund offers to invest your money in shares which have an expected return of **10%** pa before fees.

You are thinking of investing $**100,000** in the fund and keeping it there for **40** years when you plan to retire.

How much money do you expect to have in the fund in 40 years? Also, what is the future value of the fees that the fund expects to earn from you? Give both amounts as future values in 40 years. Assume that:

- The fund has no private information.
- Markets are weak and semi-strong form efficient.
- The fund's transaction costs are negligible.
- The cost and trouble of investing your money in shares by yourself, without the managed fund, is negligible.
- The fund invests its fees in the same companies as it invests your funds in, but with no fees.

The below answer choices list your expected wealth in 40 years and then the fund's expected wealth in 40 years.

**Question 559** variance, standard deviation, covariance, correlation

Which of the following statements about standard statistical mathematics notation is **NOT** correct?

What is the correlation of a variable X with a constant C?

The corr(X, C) or ##\rho_{X,C}## equals:

**Question 657** systematic and idiosyncratic risk, CAPM, no explanation

A stock's **required** total return will **decrease** when its:

According to the theory of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), total risk can be broken into two components, systematic risk and idiosyncratic risk. Which of the following events would be considered a systematic, undiversifiable event according to the theory of the CAPM?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is **NOT** correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions. Which of the statements about the 3 utility functions is **NOT** correct?

**Question 700** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose $50. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 701** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose $50. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 702** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $50 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $50. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $50. If they flip tails then they will lose $50. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 703** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $500 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $500. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $500. If they flip tails then they will lose $500. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

**Question 704** utility, risk aversion, utility function, gamble

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Each person has $256 of initial wealth. A coin toss game is offered to each person at a casino where the player can win or lose $256. Each player can flip a coin and if they flip heads, they receive $256. If they flip tails then they will lose $256. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Mr Blue, Miss Red and Mrs Green are people with different utility functions.

Note that a fair gamble is a bet that has an expected value of zero, such as paying $0.50 to win $1 in a coin flip with heads or nothing if it lands tails. Fairly priced insurance is when the expected present value of the insurance premiums is equal to the expected loss from the disaster that the insurance protects against, such as the cost of rebuilding a home after a catastrophic fire.

Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

Which of the following interest rate quotes is **NOT** equivalent to a **10**% effective annual rate of return? Assume that each year has 12 months, each month has 30 days, each day has 24 hours, each hour has 60 minutes and each minute has 60 seconds. APR stands for Annualised Percentage Rate.

An effective **monthly** return of 1% ##(r_\text{eff monthly})## is equivalent to an effective **annual** return ##(r_\text{eff annual})## of:

The symbol ##\text{GDR}_{0\rightarrow 1}## represents a stock's gross discrete return per annum over the first year. ##\text{GDR}_{0\rightarrow 1} = P_1/P_0##. The subscript indicates the time period that the return is mentioned over. So for example, ##\text{AAGDR}_{1 \rightarrow 3}## is the arithmetic average GDR measured over the two year period from years 1 to 3, but it is expressed as a per annum rate.

Which of the below statements about the arithmetic and geometric average GDR is **NOT** correct?

**Question 721** mean and median returns, return distribution, arithmetic and geometric averages, continuously compounding rate

Fred owns some Commonwealth Bank (CBA) shares. He has calculated CBA’s monthly returns for each month in the past 20 years using this formula:

###r_\text{t monthly}=\ln \left( \dfrac{P_t}{P_{t-1}} \right)###He then took the arithmetic average and found it to be **1**% per month using this formula:

He also found the standard deviation of these monthly returns which was **5**% per month:

Which of the below statements about Fred’s CBA shares is **NOT** correct? Assume that the past historical average return is the true population average of future expected returns.

**Question 707** continuously compounding rate, continuously compounding rate conversion

Convert a **10**% effective annual rate ##(r_\text{eff annual})## into a continuously compounded annual rate ##(r_\text{cc annual})##. The equivalent continuously compounded annual rate is:

A company issues a large amount of bonds to raise money for new projects of similar risk to the company's existing projects. The net present value (NPV) of the new projects is positive but small. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is **NOT** correct?

A firm is considering a new project of similar risk to the current risk of the firm. This project will expand its existing business. The cash flows of the project have been calculated assuming that there is no interest expense. In other words, the cash flows assume that the project is all-equity financed.

In fact the firm has a target debt-to-equity ratio of 1, so the project will be financed with 50% debt and 50% equity. To find the levered value of the firm's assets, what discount rate should be applied to the project's unlevered cash flows? Assume a classical tax system.

A firm has a debt-to-assets ratio of 50%. The firm then issues a large amount of equity to raise money for new projects of similar systematic risk to the company's existing projects. Assume a classical tax system. Which statement is correct?

An investor bought a **10** year **2.5**% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at **par**. The face value is $**100**. Coupons are paid **semi-annually** and the next one is in 6 months.

**Six months later**, just **after** the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly fell to **2**% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually.

What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate?

What is the covariance of a variable X with itself?

The cov(X, X) or ##\sigma_{X,X}## equals:

The current gold price is $**700**, gold storage costs are **2**% pa and the risk free rate is **10**% pa, both with **continuous compounding**.

What should be the **3** year gold futures price?

**Question 625** dividend re-investment plan, capital raising

Which of the following statements about dividend re-investment plans (DRP's) is **NOT** correct?

Which of the below statements about utility is **NOT** generally accepted by economists? Most people are thought to:

An effective **semi-annual** return of 5% ##(r_\text{eff 6mth})## is equivalent to an effective **annual** return ##(r_\text{eff annual})## of:

**Question 728** inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows, income and capital returns, no explanation

Which of the following statements about gold is **NOT** correct? Assume that the gold price increases by inflation. Gold:

You deposit money into a bank. Which of the following statements is **NOT** correct? You:

**Question 742** price gains and returns over time, no explanation

For an asset's price to quintuple every **5** years, what must be its effective annual capital return? Note that a stock's price quintuples when it increases from say $1 to $5.

**Question 745** real and nominal returns and cash flows, inflation, income and capital returns

If the nominal gold price is expected to increase at the same rate as inflation which is 3% pa, which of the following statements is **NOT** correct?

You just borrowed $400,000 in the form of a 25 year **interest-only** mortgage with monthly payments of $3,000 per month. The interest rate is 9% pa which is not expected to change.

You actually plan to pay more than the required interest payment. You plan to pay $3,300 in mortgage payments every month, which your mortgage lender allows. These extra payments will reduce the principal and the minimum interest payment required each month.

At the maturity of the mortgage, what will be the principal? That is, after the last (300th) interest payment of $3,300 in 25 years, how much will be owing on the mortgage?

Due to floods overseas, there is a cut in the supply of the mineral iron ore and its price increases dramatically. An Australian iron ore mining company therefore expects a large but temporary increase in its profit and cash flows. The mining company does not have any positive NPV projects to begin, so what should it do? Select the most correct answer.

An established mining firm announces that it expects large losses over the following year due to flooding which has temporarily stalled production at its mines. Which statement(s) are correct?

(i) If the firm adheres to a full dividend payout policy it will not pay any dividends over the following year.

(ii) If the firm wants to signal that the loss is temporary it will maintain the same level of dividends. It can do this so long as it has enough retained profits.

(iii) By law, the firm will be unable to pay a dividend over the following year because it cannot pay a dividend when it makes a loss.

Select the most correct response:

A zero coupon bond that matures in **6 months** has a face value of $1,000.

The firm that issued this bond is trying to forecast its income statement for the **year**. It needs to calculate the interest expense of the bond this year.

The bond is highly illiquid and hasn't traded on the market. But the finance department have assessed the bond's fair value to be $950 and this is its book value right now at the start of the year.

Assume that:

- the firm uses the 'effective interest method' to calculate interest expense.
- the market value of the bond is the same as the book value.
- the firm is only interested in this bond's interest expense. Do not include the interest expense for a new bond issued to refinance the current one, as would normally happen.

What will be the interest expense of the bond this year for the purpose of forecasting the income statement?

**Question 180** equivalent annual cash flow, inflation, real and nominal returns and cash flows

Details of two different types of light bulbs are given below:

- Low-energy light bulbs cost $3.50, have a life of nine years, and use about $1.60 of electricity a year, paid at the end of each year.
- Conventional light bulbs cost only $0.50, but last only about a year and use about $6.60 of energy a year, paid at the end of each year.

The real discount rate is 5%, given as an effective annual rate. Assume that all cash flows are real. The inflation rate is 3% given as an effective annual rate.

Find the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC) of the low-energy and conventional light bulbs. The below choices are listed in that order.

A company's shares just paid their annual dividend of $2 each.

The stock price is now $40 (just after the dividend payment). The annual dividend is expected to grow by 3% every year forever. The assumptions of the dividend discount model are valid for this company.

What do you expect the effective annual **dividend yield** to be in 3 years (dividend yield from t=3 to t=4)?

A student won $**1**m in a lottery. Currently the money is in a bank account which pays interest at **6**% pa, given as an APR compounding per month.

She plans to spend $**20,000** at the **beginning** of every month from now on (so the first withdrawal will be at t=0). After each withdrawal, she will check how much money is left in the account. When there is less than $**500,000** left, she will donate that remaining amount to charity.

In how many months will she make her last withdrawal and donate the remainder to charity?

An old company's Firm Free Cash Flow (FFCF, same as CFFA) is forecast in the graph below.

To value the firm's assets, the terminal value needs to be calculated using the perpetuity with growth formula:

###V_{\text{terminal, }t-1} = \dfrac{FFCF_{\text{terminal, }t}}{r-g}###

Which point corresponds to the best time to calculate the terminal value?

Estimate the Chinese bank ICBC's share price using a backward-looking price earnings (PE) multiples approach with the following assumptions and figures only. Note that the renminbi (RMB) is the Chinese currency, also known as the yuan (CNY).

- The 4 major Chinese banks ICBC, China Construction Bank (CCB), Bank of China (BOC) and Agricultural Bank of China (ABC) are comparable companies;
- ICBC 's historical earnings per share (EPS) is RMB
**0.74**; - CCB's backward-looking PE ratio is
**4.59**; - BOC 's backward-looking PE ratio is
**4.78**; - ABC's backward-looking PE ratio is also
**4.78**;

Note: Figures sourced from Google Finance on 25 March 2014. Share prices are from the Shanghai stock exchange.

A method commonly seen in textbooks for calculating a levered firm's free cash flow (FFCF, or CFFA) is the following:

###\begin{aligned} FFCF &= (Rev - COGS - Depr - FC - IntExp)(1-t_c) + \\ &\space\space\space+ Depr - CapEx -\Delta NWC + IntExp(1-t_c) \\ \end{aligned}###

A firm has **2**m shares and a market capitalisation of equity of $**30**m. The firm just announced earnings of $**5**m and paid an annual dividend of $**0.75** per share.

What is the firm's (backward looking) price/earnings (PE) ratio?

An investor bought a **20** year **5**% pa fixed coupon government bond priced at **par**. The face value is $100. Coupons are paid semi-annually and the next one is in 6 months.

Six months later, just after the coupon at that time was paid, yields suddenly and unexpectedly rose to **5.5**% pa. Note that all yields above are given as APR's compounding semi-annually.

What was the bond investors' historical total return over that first 6 month period, given as an effective semi-annual rate?

**Question 730** DDM, income and capital returns, no explanation

A stock’s current price is $**1**. Its expected total return is **10**% pa and its long term expected capital return is **4**% pa. It pays an annual dividend and the next one will be paid in **one year**. All rates are given as effective annual rates. The dividend discount model is thought to be a suitable model for the stock. Ignore taxes. Which of the following statements about the stock is **NOT** correct?

A share’s current price is $**60**. It’s expected to pay a dividend of $**1.50** in one year. The growth rate of the dividend is **0.5**% pa and the stock’s required total return is **3**% pa. The stock’s price can be modeled using the dividend discount model (DDM):

##P_0=\dfrac{C_1}{r-g}##

Which of the following methods is **NOT** equal to the stock’s expected price in one year and six months (t=**1.5** years)? Note that the symbolic formulas shown in each line below do equal the formulas with numbers. The formula is just repeated with symbols and then numbers in case it helps you to identify the incorrect statement more quickly.

**Question 740** real and nominal returns and cash flows, DDM, inflation

Taking inflation into account when using the DDM can be hard. Which of the following formulas will **NOT** give a company's current stock price ##(P_0)##? Assume that the annual dividend was just paid ##(C_0)##, and the next dividend will be paid in one year ##(C_1)##.

A stock is expected to pay its first dividend of $**20** in **3** years (t=3), which it will continue to pay for the next nine years, so there will be **ten** $20 payments altogether with the last payment in year 12 (t=12).

From the thirteenth year onward, the dividend is expected to be **4**% more than the previous year, forever. So the dividend in the thirteenth year (t=13) will be $20.80, then $21.632 in year 14, and so on forever. The required return of the stock is **10**% pa. All rates are effective annual rates. Calculate the current (t=0) stock price.